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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6005 matches for " yield "
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Evaluation Forage Clipping Stages and Different Levels of Nitrogen on Grain and Forage Yields of TRITICALE (× TRITICOSECALE WITTMACK)  [PDF]
Mohsen Niazkhani, Abdolmajid Khorshid, Alireza Eivazi
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.515233

In order to reach suitable forage clipping and estimate nitrogen fertilizer to most economical proficiency, an experiment was carried out at Saatlo Station in 2008-2009 seasons. A factorial experiment was done based on the randomized complete blocks design with 4 replications. The first factor was three levels of clipping stages including non-clipping, clipping at tillering and booting stages. Different levels of nitrogen fertilizer including 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg/ha were arranged at the second factor. Results showed that non-clipping and clipping at booting stage with 610.5 and 203.1 g/m2 had the most and the lowest grain yield, respectively. The highest economical proficiency (3743.06 $/ha) resulted with using 80 kg/ha nitrogen fertilizer and non-clipping. With considering both forage and grain yield, it is necessary that the clipping should be done at tillering stage with using of 120 kg/ha nitrogen fertilizer (3336.56 $/ha). At regression of economical proficiency traits of grain yield, straw and total dry matter remained at the final model. Economical proficiency had the significant positive correlation with spike per square meter (0.87**), grain yield (0.64

QTL Analysis of Yield Components in Rice Using a Cheongcheong/Nagdong Doubled Haploid Genetic Map  [PDF]
Gyu Hwan Park, Jin-Hee Kim, Kyung-Min Kim
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.59130

In this study, only two of 12 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting yield and yield components were identified in a single year, indicating that individual QTLs are probably sensitive to the environment. A rice growth survey of “Cheongcheong” and “Nag dong” in a doubled haploid population in 2012 revealed that yield capacity was influenced by climate change. Analysis of yield and yield components indicated that five average traits are high in “Cheongcheong”. Frequency distribution tables indicated that panicles per plant (PPP), spike lets per panicle (SPP), and 1000-grain weight (TGW) were normally distributed. The strongest relationship was identified between SPP and seed set percentage (SSP) among phenotypic correlations related to yield and yield components found on chromosomes 2, 3, 6, 8 in 2012. SPP and SSP was a very relevant requisite about quantity. Analysis of QTL about quantity was total 9. In the present study, a doubled haploid population was used to analyze the epistatic effects on yield and yield components in rice. Although other epistatic QTLs were not included in any of the main-effect QTLs, they significantly influenced the traits. These results indicated that epistatic interaction plays an important role in controlling the expression of complex traits. Thus, the utilization of marker-assisted selection in rice breeding programs should take epistatic effects into consideration. Hence, the QTLs responsible for major effects are more suitable for marker-assisted selection programs to improve yield and related traits across different environments.

Comparison of Wheat Yield Simulated Using Three N Cycling Options in the SWAT Model  [PDF]
Elizabeth Brooke Haney, Richard Lee Haney, Michael James White, Jeffrey George Arnold
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2018.88016
Abstract: The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model has been successfully used to predict alterations in streamflow, evapotranspiration and soil water; however, it is not clear how effective or accurate SWAT is at predicting crop growth. Previous research suggests that while the hydrologic balance in each watershed is accurately simulated with SWAT, the SWAT model over or under predicts crop yield relative to fertilizer inputs. The SWAT model now has three alternative N simulation options: 1) SWAT model with an added flush of N (SWAT-flush); 2) N routines derived from the CENTURY model (SWAT-C); and 3) a one-pool C and N model (SWAT-One). The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of SWAT-flush, SWAT-C, and SWAT-One as they affect wheat yield prediction. Simulated yields were compared to wheat yields in a 28-year fertilizer/wheat yield study in Lahoma, OK. Simulated yields were correlated with actual 28-year mean yield; however, none of the available N cycling models predicted yearly yields. SWAT-C simulated average yields were closer than other N sub-models to average actual yield. Annually there was a stronger correlation between SWAT-flush and actual yields than the other submodels. However, none of the N-cycling routines were able to accurately predict annual variability in yield at any fertilizer rate. We found that SWAT-C or SWAT-flush are the most viable choices for accurately simulating long-term average wheat yields although annual variations in yield prediction should be taken into consideration. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of SWAT-C and SWAT-flush in determining average and annual yield in various farming regions and with numerous agronomic crops.
Juice, Ethanol, and Grain Yield Potential of Five Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) Cultivars  [PDF]
Laban K. Rutto, Yixiang Xu, Michael Brandt, Shuxin Ren, Maru K. Kering
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems (JSBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2013.32016

Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) accumulates fermentable sugars in the stem and is increasingly being studied as a potential source of feedstock for bioethanol production. The objective of this study was to evaluate biomass and grain yield in five sweet sorghum cultivars (Dale, M81E, Sugar Drip, Della and Keller) and to determine quality of extractable juice and grain. Randomized complete block experiments were performed in the summer of 2009, 2010, and 2011. Leaf dry weight varied with year and cultivar and averaged 6177 kg·ha-1. Fresh stem weight ranged from 21 to 54 Mg·ha-1 with a mean across years and cultivars of 32.9 Mg·ha-1. Variations in stem weight were correlated with extractable juice volumes that ranged from 10 to 24 m3·ha-1. Juice Brix values fell within a narrow range (14% - 19%) across years and cultivars with an average of 15.6%. In all production years, theoretical sugar and ethanol yield were always numerically higher for Keller and M81E. Grain yield was lowest in Keller (90 kg·ha-1), but ranged from 400 to 1300 kg·ha-1 in other cultivars with a mean of 584 kg·ha-1 across years. However, Keller had the highest starch content with a lower proportion of resistant starch in the grain. Except for Keller, the cultivars tested are potential sources of both fermentable sugars and grain.

Innovation of the New Superior Quality Foxtail Millet [Setaria italica (L.) P.Beauv] Variety-Jigu32 with Characteristics of Stress Resistance, Stable and High Yield and Its Physiological Mechanism  [PDF]
Suying Li, Shengjun An, Zhengli Liu, Ruhong Cheng, Zhijun Wang
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.54033

In main foxtail millet growing regions of China, natural disasters happen frequently, causing losses in production and finance. Therefore, it is urgently needed to breed new superior quality foxtail millet varieties with stress resistance, stable and high production, and, so as to stabilize millet production and promote millet industry development. Jigu32, a new foxtail millet variety with stable, high-yield and superior qualities, was developed using Target Character Gene Bank breeding method, and its physiological mechanism was studied as well. Results showed that the prominent characteristics of Jigu32 were as follows: 1) strong stress resistance and stable yielding; 2) high yielding; 3) rich calcium content and superior qualities; 4) excellent comprehensive characteristics. In 2010 National Foxtail Millet Regional Trials, the weather was tough. Severe drought occurred in some experimental stations while in some others, continuous rain, low temperature and little sunlight appeared. However, with the outstanding stress resistance, Jigu32 achieved the highest yields, and the yields were very stable under different conditions. Per unit yield of Jigu32 reached to5133.3 kg/hm

Effect of 1-MCP on Cotton Plants under Abiotic Stress Caused by Ethephon  [PDF]
Yuan Chen, J. T. Cothren, Dehua Chen, Amir M. H. Ibrahim, Leonardo Lombardini
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.520317

Many environmental stress factors have been identified to increase square and boll abscission and thus result in reduced cotton yield. Under stress conditions, ethylene is elicited. Ethylene peaks before abscission to promote the formation of the abscission layer and plays a major role in early season square and boll abortion in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). In addition, ethylene stimulates the leaf senescence process. Thus, it is desirable to protect plants from ethylene-induced fruit loss and premature leaf senescence under stress conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) to protect cotton plants against abiotic stress caused by ethephon (ethylene promoting effect). Field studies using a randomized complete block design with four replications were conducted in 2010 and 2011 at Texas A&M AgriLIFE Research Farm in Burleson County, TX. Eight treatments that consisted of two 1-MCP rates (0 and 10 g a.i. ha-1) in combination with four ethephon rates (0, 146, 292, 438 mL·ha-1) were imposed at the first flower (FF) stage of the development. 1-MCP increased plant height and number of main stem nodes in both years. In addition, 1-MCP-treated plants exhibited greater membrane integrity and increased photosystem II quantum efficiency and thus delayed senescence in both years. These potentials for yield increase were realized in 2011 with 1-MCP treatment exhibiting a higher lint yield. In 2012, although 1-MCP treatment increased number of open fruit and open fruit weight per plant significantly, no significant lint yield increase was detected.

Evaluation of Breeding Substrates for Cocoa Pollinator, Forcipomyia spp. and Subsequent Implications for Yield in a Tropical Cocoa Production System  [PDF]
Michael Adjaloo, Ben Kwaku Branoh Banful, William Oduro
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.42027
Abstract: A comparative study was carried out to determine the most suitable substrate for breeding of midges (Forcipomyia spp.) and the implications for pollination and yield in a typical cocoa production system in the forest ecological zone of Ghana. For the field experiment, the typically available substrates in cocoa farms which were used as the treatments under cocoa trees were: 1) rotten cocoa leaf litter; 2) rotten cocoa pod husks; and 3) rotten banana pseudostem. The untreated cocoa trees served as control. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design with three replications. For the laboratory experiment, the design was completely randomized design with four replications. The objective was to determine which substrate best supported breeding of the midges. The rotten banana pseudostem substrate recorded the highest population (7680) of Forcipomyia spp. after 56 days of observation. The cocoa pod husk and cocoa leaf litter recorded populations of 5226 and 1920, respectively. Similar observations were recorded in the level of pollination of the cocoa trees treated with rotten banana pseudostem (95.78%), cocoa pod husks (89.05%) and cocoa leaf litter (68.42%). Application of all substrates to the cocoa tree resulted in a 77% mean reduction in flower abortion as compared to the control. Fruit abortion, on the other hand, was significantly greater in trees treated with rotten banana pseudostem (73.7%) and rotten cocoa pod husks (71.3%) than in trees treated with rotten cocoa leaf litter (54.3%). Application of banana substrate explained 88% of the variation in cherelle production (fruit set) whereas cocoa pod husks and cocoa leaf litter accounted for 71% and 94%, respectively, of the variation in cherelle production. The study concluded that although cocoa leaf litter resulted in average increases in midges population and subsequently not too high
Possibility of using the beet dyes as a laser gain medium  [PDF]
Abdelaziz Hagar Abdelrahman, Malik A. Abdelrahman, Mohammed Khaled Elbadawy
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.511144

Nowadays the dye lasers play as an important tool and are used in many applications including spectroscopy, medicine and dermatology. This research was carried out to study the possibility of using the beet dyes as a laser gain medium. The fluorescence quantum yield was determined by the comparative method with rodamine b as an organic dye standard. The value of the fluorescence quantum yield was found about (0.14) and the fluorescence quantum yield was developed until reaching about (0.323). The increasing of fluorescence quantum yield of dye solution as a result of increasing the viscosity of solvent was observed clearly. The study concluded that the beet dyes are so sensitive to fluorescence and it is very suitable to be used as a laser gain medium.

Tolerance of Corn (Zea mays L.) to Early and Late Glyphosate Applications  [PDF]
Kris J. Mahoney, Robert E. Nurse, Wesley J. Everman, Christy L. Sprague, Peter H. Sikkema
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.518291

Fifteen field experiments were conducted from 2009 to 2012 in Ontario, Canada and Michigan, USA to determine the tolerance of corn (Zea mays L.) to early (spike or 1- to 2-leaf stage) or late (8- or 10-leaf stage) applications of 900, 1800, 3600, or 7200 g·ae·ha-1 of glyphosate. Postemergence applications were evaluated for corn injury, cob length and deformity, crop moisture at harvest, and yield in the absence of weed competition. In the early application experiment, no visible injury was detected with applications of up to 3600 g·ae·ha-1; however, 1.4% injury was observed 4 weeks after treatment (WAT) when 7200 g·ae·ha-1 was applied to 1- to 2-leaf stage corn. Yet by harvest, the observed injury was transient as yields were similar to the untreated control regardless of glyphosate dose or timing. In the late application experiment, visible injury tended to increase with glyphosate dose. In addition, for corn treated with 7200 g·ae·ha-1 at the 10-leaf stage, injury increased over time as 6%, 11%, and 12% injury was observed 1, 2, and 4 WAT, respectively. Similar to the visible injury of vegetative tissue, cob deformity and reductions in yield tended to increase with glyphosate dose, but this response varied and the data were pooled into two environment groups. For example, in one environment group, corn treated with 7200 g

Evaluation of Potential Cashew Clones for Utilization in Ghana  [PDF]
Abu Mustapha Dadzie, Paul Kwesi Krah Adu-Gyamfi, Stephen Yaw Opoku, Julius Yeboah, Abraham Akpertey, Kwabena Opoku-Ameyaw, Michael Assuah, Esther Gyedu-Akoto, Wiseborn Bismark Danquah
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2014.44028
Abstract: Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L) is an important cash crop cultivated by about 3 million households in Africa and serves as the livelihood for many African farmers, especially Ghana. Despite the importance of cashew as a commodity crop with increasing cultivation in Northern Ghana, the crop is challenged with problems such as, low and variable nut yields, low kernel out turn percentage and susceptibility to insect pests as a result of establishing cashew farms with unselected seeds. In order to address the challenges, the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana established a clonal evaluation trial in Northern Ghana (dry savanna vegetation) to indentify promising clones for subsequent distribution to cashew farmers as an interim measure. The trials consisted of ten different clones planted in Randomised Completed Block Design (RCBD) with four replicates. Parameters evaluated were yield, yield efficiency, nut weight, percentage out turn and canopy area. Data analysis was performed with Gen Stat version 11.0 and the results revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) in the performance of the clones in all the parameters considered. Such differences allowed the identification of promising clones over other clones tested. A few clones combined two or three traits (parameters) which were significantly different from the rest of the clones evaluated. No single clone was found to be significantly different from the rest in terms of all the parameters considered. However a greater proportion of the clones were found to produce yields far above average yields recorded by unselected cashew trees in farmers’ fields. Clones W266 and W278 seem outstanding for most of the parameters considered, though not exclusive.
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