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Search Results: 1 - 6 of 6 matches for " woodlice "
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Occurrence and assemblage composition of millipedes (Myriapoda, Diplopoda) and terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in urban areas of Switzerland
Ferenc Vilisics,Dávid Bogyó,Thomas Sattler,Marco Moretti
ZooKeys , 2012, DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.176.2153
Abstract: Terrestrial isopods and millipedes, members of the invertebrate macro-decomposer guild, were collected through pitfall traps in three Swiss cities (Zurich, Lucerne, Lugano). A total of 7,198 individuals of 17 isopod species (7093 ind.), and 10 millipede species (105 ind.) were captured. Besides the Alpine endemic isopod (Trichoniscus alemannicus) and millipede (Cylindroiulus verhoeffi), urban assemblages were mainly composed of widespread, native European and even cosmopolitan species, which are frequent in anthropogenic areas. Overall species richness (isopods and millipedes combined) was similar in Zurich (17 species) and Lucerne (16), while only 13 species were sampled in Lugano. According to the S rensen index of similarity, species composition of Zurich and Lucerne were more alike, while the one of Lugano was more distinct from the other two cities.This result can be explained by the spatial proximity of Zurich and Lucerne in the north of the Alps compared to Lugano, which is located more distantly and in the south of the Alps. Dominant isopods and millipedes in Zurich and Lucerne were found to be widespread synanthropic species in temperate Europe (Porcellio scaber, Trachelipus rathkii and Ophyiulus pilosus) while the dominant isopod in Lugano (Trachelipus razzautii) is a species with a north-eastern Mediterranean distribution. Our study reveals that the urban millipede and isopod fauna in Swiss cities mainly consists of widespread species, but species of narrower distribution (e.g. T. alemannicus, C. verhoeffi ) may also find suitable habitats in cities. Despite some signs of biotic homogenization, our study also found compositional differences of millipede and isopod assemblages between northern and southern cities that suggest geographical effects of the regional species pool.
Cartographic analysis of woodlice fauna of the former USSR
Valentina Kuznetsova,Konstanin Gongalsky
ZooKeys , 2012, DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.176.2372
Abstract: An inventory of the woodlice fauna of the former USSR yielded 190 species, 64 of them were recorded from the territory of Russia. According to the cartographic analysis, the limits of distribution of epigean terrestrial isopods over the area, excluding mountains, is explained by temperature. No woodlice records were found outside the isocline of 120 days a year with the mean daily air temperature >10°C. The highest species diversity was found between the isoclines of 180 and 210 days. These areas correspond to forest-steppe and steppe zones.
Assemblages of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea) in a fragmented forest landscape in Central Europe
Karel Tajovsky,Jan Hosek,Jenyk Hofmeister,Jolanta Wytwer
ZooKeys , 2012, DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.176.2296
Abstract: Terrestrial isopods were collected in 13 forest fragments differing in area (within the range of 0.1 and 254.5 ha), shape and composition of forest vegetation (thermophilous oak, mesophilous oak-hornbeam, thermophilous oak-hornbeam, acidophilous oak, basiphilous oak, beech oak-hornbeam, moist mixed deciduous forest, plantations of deciduous and coniferous trees), all situated in the esky kras Protected Landscape Area, Czech Republic, Central Europe. Number of sites sampled in each fragment of forest depended on its size and ranged from 1 to 7. Altogether 30 sites were sampled. Soil samples (5 per site collected twice a year) and pitfall trapping (5 traps per site in continuous operation throughout a year) during 2008–2009 yielded a total of 14 species of terrestrial isopods. The highest densities and highest epigeic activities of terrestrial isopods were recorded in the smallest fragments of woodland. Although a wider range of habitats were sampled in the larger fragments of woodland there was not a greater diversity of species there and the population densities and epigeic activities recorded there were lower. Porcellium collicola was most abundant in small fragments of woodland regardless the vegetation there. Armadillidium vulgare and Protracheoniscus politus were statistically more abundant in the larger fragments of woodland. The results indicate that forest fragmentation does not necessarily result in a decrease in the species richness of the isopod assemblages in such habitats.
Feeding rates of Balloniscus sellowii (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea): the effect of leaf litter decomposition and its relation to the phenolic and flavonoid content
Camila Wood,Carolina Casco Duarte Schlindwein,Geraldo Luiz Gon?alves Soares,Paula Beatriz Araujo
ZooKeys , 2012, DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.176.1940
Abstract: The goal of this study was to compare the feeding rates of Balloniscus sellowii on leaves of different decomposition stages according to their phenolic and flavonoid content. Leaves from the visually most abundant plants were offered to isopods collected from the same source site. Schinus terebinthifolius, the plant species consumed at the highest rate, was used to verify feeding rates at different decomposition stages. Green leaves were left to decompose for one, two, or three months, and then were offered to isopods. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined for all decomposition stages. Consumption and egestion rates increased throughout decomposition, were highest for two-month-old leaves, and decreased again in the third month. The assimilation rate was highest for green leaves. The mode time of passage through the gut was two hours for all treatments. Ingestion of leaves occurred after two or three days for green leaves, and on the same day for one-, two- and three-month-old leaves. The speed of passage of leaves with different decomposition stages through the gut does not differ significantly when animals are fed continuously. However, it is possible that the amount retained in the gut during starvation differs depending on food quality. The digestibility value was corrected using a second food source to empty the gut of previously ingested food, so that all of the food from the experiment was egested. The digestibility value was highest for green leaves, whereas it was approximately 20% for all other stages. This was expected given that digestibility declines during decomposition as the metabolite content of the leaves decreases. The phenolic content was highest in the green leaves and lowest in three-month-old leaves. The flavonoid content was highest in green leaves and lowest after two months of decomposition. Animals ingested more phenolics when consumption was highest. The estimated amount of ingested flavonoids followed the same trend as assimilation rate. Flavonoids accounted for a large portion of total phenolics, and the estimated amount of flavonoids consumed was similar for one-, two- and three-month-old leaves. Our results suggest that the high phenolic and flavonoid concentrations in green leaves are feeding deterrents. Isopods may discriminate among concentrations of flavonoids and modify their consumption rates to maintain their intake of flavonoids when ingesting leaves with lower flavonoid content.
Comparison of Terrestrial Isopod (Isopoda, Oniscidea) Assemblages from Two Types of Forests from North Western Romania
Sára Feren?i,Severus-Daniel Covaciu-Marcov
Ecologia Balkanica , 2012,
Abstract: In 2008 we compared the terrestrial isopod assemblages from two different habitats, a beech forest and a mixed beech and spruce forest, from north western Romania (Huta Certeze locality). The samples were taken from April to September using pitfall traps. We identified a total of 7 species: Ligidium germanicum, Trichoniscus sp., Hyloniscus transsilvanicus, Protracheoniscus politus, Porcellium collicola, Trachelipus difficilis and Porcellio scaber. A greater diversity and species richness were noticed in the beech forest. The poverty of species in the mixed forest was a consequence of the forest type, the anthropogenic impact and the dry environment. High surface activity of individuals was noticed in the summer months. Even if the species compositions of the two compared isopod assemblages were not identical, there weren’t statistically significant differences between them.
Partial brood release in woodlice: A bethedging tactic?
S.R. Telford
African Zoology , 2012,
Abstract: ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In many organisms, including woodlice, juvenile mortality is unpredictable, hence female behaviours that result in a temporal spread of reproductive output would be favoured by natural selection. Observations of brood release in several species of woodlice revealed that approximately 7% of females released between two and 10 young up to 24 h in advance of their siblings. Although under laboratory conditions offspring fitness measures between precocious young and their siblings were not significant different, the tactic of partial brood release is considered as a risk avoidance or 'bet-hedging' female behaviour not previously recorded in this specialized group of Crustacea. ******** AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ln baie organismes, inslui tende houtluise, is die mortaliteit onder jong diere baie onvoorspelbaar. As gevolg hiervan, sal wyfies wat hulle reproduktiewe opbrengs temporeel kan versprei, ‘n selektiewe voordeel geniet. Waarnemings op verskeie houtluisspesies het getoon dat ongeveer 7 % van diewyfies tussen twee en 10 van hulle kleintjies vrystel tot soveel as 24 h voor die res van die broeisel. Alhoewel die oorlewingspotensiaal tussen en die vroegvrygestelde klientjies en hul sibbe nie onder laboratoriumtoestande betekenisvol verskril het nie, word gedeeltelike broeiselvrystelling as 'n risikovermydingstakties beskou. Sulke gedrag is nog nie voorheen in hierdie gespesialiseerde goep van die skaaldiere beskryf nie.
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