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In this work we present a new simple index to estimate water stress
(WS) for different types of surfaces, from remotely sensed data. We
derive a WS index, named WSIEw,
modifying the Water Deficit Index (WDI) proposed by Moran et al. by using the wet environment evapotranspiration (Ew) instead of the potential
concept. Jiang and Islam model was used to simulate actual evapotranspiration
(ET) and Priestley and Taylor equation to estimate Ew. The WSIEw results were compared to ground observations of ET, precipitation (PP), soil temperature (Tsoil) and soil moisture (SM)
in the Southern Great Plains-EEUU. Preliminary
results suggest the method is sensitive to the water status of different
surfaces. However, the WSIEw would range from 0 to 0.7, having
a value of 0.4 for a dry surface with 5% of SM. The
methodology is operationally
Conventional methods of plant breeding and
agronomic practices remained a successful tool to maintain the pace of food
production for centuries but due to changing climatic conditions and the
challenges of 21st century like population growth, pollution,
declining biodiversity and food security have shaken the previous policies.
This situation compelled the agriculturist towards the judicious management of
natural resources to combat the poverty, disasters and increased food demands.
The present study was initiated to check wheat varieties in two water provision
conditions. The results revealed that environmental stresses played negative
role by minimizing the yield and yield contributing traits. However the
severity of water stress was depleted by some promising genotypes by showing
minimum hazard effects and by having capability to contribute to conserving biodiversity, ensuring sustainability, combating food
insecurity and increasing economic benefits. The minimum effect of moisture stress on
grain yield was shown by genotypes C-518 (12.97%) while the genotype Shakar, Pari-73
and Uqab-2000 showed maximum decline percentage. The global warming and population explosion will
further induce commodity shortage and law and order situation in the world. The
prevailing International tension can be cooled down by the provision of marshal
aids by the developed countries to the effected or threatened countries.
The accumulation of trehalose (α-D-glucopyranosyl-[1,1]-α-D-glucopyranoside), a sugar with osmoprotectant properties, is very common in microorganisms, invertebrates and in resurrection plants. However, in the majority of higher plants, it is found in trace amounts. Trehalose is synthesized from the UDP-glucose and glucose-6-phosphate in a two-step process with two enzymes, trehalose-6-phosphate synthase or TPS (EC 18.104.22.168 and EC 22.214.171.124) and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase or TPP (EC 126.96.36.199). The trehalose-6-phosphate synthase and its product of the trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) are probable signaling molecules in the carbohydrate metabolism, contributing to enhancing the plants tolerance to water stress. Water scarcity is one of the most important factors that influence productivity in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and it activates a cascade of metabolic events and necessary morphologic changes for the survival of the plant under stress. Here we show the in silico expression study of TPS in different libraries from the SUCEST project. Our results showed that the TPS genes are present in all tissues and that they are divided into two subfamilies (class I and II). It is shown that STPS1 belongs to the class I, therefore, it does not have an active phosphatase (TPP) domain, whereas, the STPS2 has an active TPP domain (class II) determined by the presence of phosphatase boxes. Expression analyses based on the semi-quantitative method of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) show that the STPS1 gene is up-regulated in the tolerant cultivar under stress and down-regulated in susceptible plants. The STPS2 gene does not show considerable variations in the expression levels under the same treatments. The discovery of active genes such as STPS1 and STPS2 in plants under water stress, contributes for the concerning about the cascade of responses in plants under water deficit and points out to target genes for plant breeding.