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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 22435 matches for " water access "
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Access and Resilience: Analyzing the Construction of Social Resilience to the Threat of Water Scarcity
Ruth Langridge,Juliet Christian-Smith,Kathleen A. Lohse
Ecology and Society , 2006,
Abstract: Resilience is a vital attribute that characterizes a system’s capacity to cope with stress. Researchers have examined the measurement of resilience in ecosystems and in social–ecological systems, and the comparative vulnerability of social groups. Our paper refocuses attention on the processes and relations that create social resilience. Our central proposition is that the creation of social resilience is linked to a community’s ability to access critical resources. We explore this proposition through an analysis of how community resilience to the stress of water scarcity is influenced by historically contingent mechanisms to gain, control, and maintain access to water. Access is defined broadly as the ability of a community to actually benefit from a resource, and includes a wider range of relations than those derived from property rights alone. We provide a framework for assessing the construction of social resilience and use it to examine, first, the different processes and relations that enabled four communities in northern California to acquire access to water, and second, how access contributed to their differential levels of resilience to potential water scarcity. Legal water rights are extremely difficult to alter, and given the variety of mechanisms that can generate access, our study suggests that strengthening and diversifying a range of structural and relational mechanisms to access water can enhance a community’s resilience to water scarcity.
X-Raying Rainfall Pattern and Variability in Northeastern Nigeria: Impacts on Access to Water Supply  [PDF]
H. T. Ishaku, M. Rafee Majid
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.211113
Abstract: This paper is premised on the hypothesis that the amount of rainfall in Nigeria decreases with increasing distance from the coastal areas to the north semi arid lands. This belief widely held in some circles does not really follow this pattern due to other climatic factors. This paper examined rainfall pattern and its variability in northeastern Nigeria and its impacts on access to water supply. Data on the mean monthly rainfall over a period of 33 years (1970-2002) were collected from the Nigeria Meteorological Agency (NIMET) in Abuja, Nigeria. The result of the analysis indicates that the mean annual rainfall in the study area is not dependent on distance but some other climatic factors such as relief, solar radiation, temperature, winds, and nature of soil among others. Thus, the amount of rainfall received in Taraba and Borno states which are located in the southern most and extreme end of the study area respectively were higher than that of Gombe state which lies in between them.
Procesos recientes del acceso al agua potable en el México urbano: el caso de la Zona Conurbada de Mérida, Yucatán
Domínguez Aguilar, Mauricio C.;
Investigaciones geográficas , 2009,
Abstract: this paper reviews the recent socioeconomic and politic processes that influence the access to the drinking water in the conurbation zone of mérida, yucatán, in mexico. the paper analyzes how the current patterns of marginalization and social segregation in the region, in combination with the politic and economic interests related to the allocated processes of drinking water and the privatization of the urban land, have resulted in the current inequality access to drinking water. these inequalities reinforce the marginalization of the poor population.
Influence of access to potable water and sewer services about the attentions for acute diarrheal disease in centers of Ministry of Health: ecological study. Peru January-December 2007
Willy Ramos,William Valdez,Jorge Miranda,Juan Carlos Tovar
Revista Peruana de Epidemiologia , 2010,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of access to potable water and sewer services about the attention for acute diarrheal disease (ADD) in centers of Ministry of Health. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ecological study. The geographical unit of analysis was constituted by each of 25 regions of Peru. Information was obtained of the number of attentions reported of ADD in centers of Ministry of Health of each region for 2007. The information of population and the access to potable water and sewer services was obtained of 2007 population census. The attention rate by ADD was calculated in centers of Ministry of Health being registered in a multiple linear regression model with variables of access to potable water and sewer services.RESULTS: In the total population, the percentage of housing that do not have access to potable water (p=0,000), the percentage of housing that have potable water less than 6 hours/day (p=0,000), the percentage of housing that have potable water 6-12 hours/day (p=0,000) and the percentage of housing that do not have sewer services (p=0,000) constituted predictors of attentions for ADD (R2=0.408). In population under 5 years old, the percentage of housing that do not have access to potable water (p=0,000), the percentage of housing that have potable water less than 6 hours/day (p=0,000), the percentage of housing that have potable water 6-12 hours/day (p=0,000) and the percentage of housing that do not have sewer services (p=0,000) also constituted predictors of attentions for ADD (R2=0,251). CONCLUSIONS: The access to potable water and sewer services explain the 40,8% and 25,1% of attentions for ADD in centers of Ministry of Health for the total population and the population under 5 years old respectively.
O contexto global e nacional frente aos desafios do acesso adequado à água para consumo humano
Augusto,Lia Giraldo da Silva; Gurgel,Idê Gomes Dantas; Camara Neto,Henrique Fernandes; Melo,Carlos Henrique de; Costa,André Monteiro;
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81232012000600015
Abstract: the scope of this article is to analyze the challenges involved in ensuring access to water for human consumption taking the international and national context into consideration. based on the un declaration that access to safe and clean drinking water is a fundamental human right, vulnerabilities are identified that can consist in restrictions to access to adequate supplies. the distribution of water and the population across the planet, pollution, inadequate policies and management lead to environmental injustice. the iniquity of access to water constitutes the contemporary water crisis. from the 1980s onwards, the transnational water market emerged for private control that occurs at three main levels: surface and underground water sources; bottled water; and public water supply services. the conflicts of the multiple uses of water resources, the market and environmental problems have contributed to rendering the health of the population and ecosystems vulnerable. adequate public policies are essential to ensure the basic human right to access to safe and clean drinking water.
Correlación entre agua y saneamiento e indicadores de salud y desarrollo 2008: Costa Rica en el mundo
Mora Alvarado,Darner Adrián; Portuguez Barquero,Carlos Felipe;
Revista Costarricense de Salud Pública , 2010,
Abstract: objective: this article aims to describe coverage of the diverse types of access to water for human consumption and adequate excreta disposal, as defined in the concepts of improved sources of drinking water and improved sanitation facilities, and their relationship with basic health and development indicators, in order to do this 147 countries of the world. on the other hand, costa rica seeks to place on the global stage in 2008 in these areas method: data were obtained from documents published by the joint monitoring program of world health organization and unicef. then using the different types of access to water identified and considered official by the joint monitoring program, linear correlation analysis was performed with a 95% confidence for this variable and the basic health and development indicators, with the purpose of determining association between the pairs of variables. also, a ranking of the different types of access to improved sources of drinking water and for improved sanitation facilities were established. conclusions: the results show that the variables of access to improved drinking water sources and sanitation facilities total improved better explain the progress of nations in basic health indicators and development.
Impactos na saúde das deficiências de acesso a água
Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe;Günther, Wanda Maria Risso;
Saúde e Sociedade , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-12902008000100003
Abstract: regular water access has caused concern, mainly in developing countries and especially in periurban areas, where socially excluded people live. the aim of this work is to approach water access issues in periurban regions. a bibliographical survey was carried out in the pubmed, medline and scielo databases, as well as in reports from who, paho, ibge and brazilian ministries. a non-existent or precarious water access represents a risk situation that increases the incidence of infectious diseases and the prevalence of chronic diseases that affect susceptible groups. the criteria to establish water access level consider distance and time to reach water sources, collected volume, water demand and the priority level of intervention actions. factors such as handling - the way in which collection, transport, storage and use are carried out -, pathogens determination in water sources and the population's routine practices can interfere in the sanitary quality of water. pathogens determination in water sources is important to highlight health risks, and the etiologic agent identification can indicate contamination origin. daily activity can contribute to disseminate pathogenic microorganisms among people and to spread infectious diseases. the way to change this scenario is to implement integrated public policies in the sectors of urban development, housing, sanitation and health. the main goal is to promote and protect people's health and to face the complexity of factors that disclose their vulnerability.
Evaluation of Domestic Access to Pipe-Borne Water in Calabar Metropolis, Southern Nigeria  [PDF]
Inah Okon, Chukwudi G. Njoku
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103924
Domestic access to pipe-borne water is necessary for the general well-being of residents of every community. This research investigated domestic access to the service, the relationship between socio-economic attributes and pipe-borne water characteristics as well as the contribution of four dimensions of access (availability, geographic, financial and acceptability). A total of 614 questionnaires were administered to residents of Calabar Metropolis using the systematic point sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and spatial techniques. Interpolated maps were used to show variations in pipe-borne water connection, use and expenditure. Results revealed no significant relationship between the number of persons in households sampled and average volume of water used daily by respondents (P = 0.144 > 0.05). There is also no significant relationship between average volume of water used daily and the income of respondents (p = 0.03 < 0.05). Furthermore, the average monthly expenditure on pipe-borne water by respondents in the Metropolis do not significantly relate with income (p = 0.0 < 0.05). The multi-nomial logistic regression analyses revealed that a combined effect of the model of availability, geographic, financial and acceptability significantly contributes to measuring access to pipe-borne water in the Metropolis, χ2(30) = 93.455, p < 0.001, with availability (p = 0.031 < 0.05) and financial (p = 0.001 < 0.05) dimensions faring better. It was recommended that Cross River State Water Board Limited should not only increase the volume of water supplied to residents but also ensure that more households are connected to the service. The frequency of water supply has to be up-surged as well, with the Board distributing the water in a systematic manner, and with consideration to existing spatial variations and measures of access which have proven to be fundamental to guarantee access to water.
Some comments on water rights in South Africa
N Gabru
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad , 2005,
Abstract: Human life, as with all animal and plant life on the planet, is dependent upon fresh water. Water is not only needed to grow food, generate power and run industries, but it is also needed as a basic part of human life. Human dependency upon water is evident through history, which illustrates that human settlements have been closely linked to the availability and supply of fresh water. Access to the limited water resources in South Africa has been historically dominated by those with access to land and economic power, as a result of which the majority of South Africans have struggled to secure the right to water. Apartheid era legislation governing water did not discriminate directly on the grounds of race, but the racial imbalance in ownership of land resulted in the disproportionate denial to black people of the right to water. Beyond racial categorisations, the rural and poor urban populations were traditionally especially vulnerable in terms of the access to the right. The enactment of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa 1996, brought the South African legal system into a new era, by including a bill of fundamental human rights (Bill of Rights). The Bill of Rights makes provision for limited socio-economic rights. Besides making provision for these human rights, the Constitution also makes provision for the establishment of state institutions supporting constitutional democracy. The Constitution has been in operation since May 1996. At this stage, it is important to take stock and measure the success of the implementation of these socio-economic rights. This assessment is important in more ways than one, especially in the light of the fact that many lawyers argued strongly against the inclusion of the second and third generation of human rights in a Bill of Rights. The argument was that these rights are not enforceable in a court of law and that they would create unnecessary expectations of food, shelter, health, water and the like; and that a clear distinction should be made between first generation and other rights, as well as the relationship of these rights to one another.It should be noted that there are many lawyers and non-lawyers who maintained that in order to confront poverty, brought about by the legacy of apartheid, the socio-economic rights should be included in a Bill of Rights. The inclusion of section 27 of the 1996 Constitution has granted each South African the right to have access to sufficient food and water and has resulted in the rare opportunity for South Africa to reform its water laws completely. It has resulted
Water Woes in Zimbabwe’s Urban Areas in the Middist Of Plenty: 2000 -Present
Enock C.Makwara,Baxter Tavuyanago
European Journal of Sustainable Development , 2012,
Abstract: Zimbabwe’s urban areas are choking under the weight of over-crowdedness amidstdilapidated infrastructure that is characterised by constant service failure. The water andsewer systems of the country’s major urban centres are on the verge of collapse, thusputting millions of people in danger of consuming contaminated water, including thatfrom underground sources. Waste management and water supply problems manifestthemselves as challenges bedevilling many an urban area in the country. The quality andquantity of water supplied in Zimbabwe’s urban centres has plummeted in recent yearsand has assumed crisis proportions owing to the difficult economic situation and otherchallenges faced by the country. The situation is desperate and dire, as is evidenced by thepoor quality of delivered water, severe water rationing and the outbreak of water-bornediseases in the urban areas dotted across the country. The situation demands and dictatesthat solutions be proffered as a matter of urgency.The recent outbreak of epidemics hasbeen blamed on lack of access to safe water and poor sanitation, two crucial factors incontrolling the spread of diseases. An overly bureaucratic environment, where decisionsand processes take longer, makes life complicated for poor urban residents. Such ascenario motivated the researchers to examine the problem with a view to suggest waysand means of intervening to mitigate and resolve the problem. It emerged from thefindings that the problem is multifaceted in nature, hence a whole range of measures needto be adopted if a long-term solution is to be provided.
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