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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 18301 matches for " water "
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Book Review of Green Materials for Sustainable Water Remediation and Treatment  [PDF]
Nour-Eddine Es-Safi
Green and Sustainable Chemistry (GSC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/gsc.2014.43022
Abstract:
Water is one of the most important substances on earth. Safe drinking water is essential to humans and other life forms. All plants and animals must have water to survive. If there was no water, there would be no life on earth. Apart from drinking it to survive, people have many other uses for water. This natural resource is becoming scarcer and its demand exceeds supply in some region rendering its availability a major social and economic concern. Apart of this scarcity is water pollution which is increasing day by day in many parts of the world. Sources of fresh water on land are getting more and more polluted than ever before. As a result, contaminated water became unsuitable for use. Poor water quality is deadly since contaminated water causes hazards to public health through poisoning or the spread of disease. In order to address these issues, the practice of water remediation has been developed.
Water Cure
Subash Philip
Hygeia : Journal for Drugs and Medicines , 2012,
Abstract: Water is the most important and abundant inorganic compound in all living organisms and is considered as the elixir of life. An examination of the composition of the human body reveals that it is composed of nearly 65% of water. Even bones considered to be the driest organ have 22% water. The ability of water to form solutions, and hence its role as solvent is essential to health and survival. Taking 8 glasses of water a day or less leaves the body in a perennial state of dehydration. This results in lowering the water threshold level when body can no longer satisfy its own need either from reabsorption from kidney or from the internal water. The recommended water intake for males in the age group of 19-75 is 3.7 L/day and for females is 2.7 L/day which is roughly 15 glasses for males and 10 glasses of water for females. Most often communicable diseases can be prevented by increasing awareness about drinking water in sufficient quantity. We are starving our bodies of the most vital ingredient, namely water and rely on drugs to restore our health. Water therapy1 is the use of water externally as sponges, baths, etc to cure ailments while water cure is simply providing body with the required amount of water either through diet or by drinking water itself. The term hydropathy2 was derived from the ‘use of hot or cold water as therapy at home’ which was relatively cheap and easy and eventually lent to its popularity. Water cure is consuming water when with an awareness of the bodily needs in order to keep the body healthy and functioning normally.
Water management, Middle East peace and a role for the World bank
Hossein Askari,Catherine Brown
PSL Quarterly Review , 2001,
Abstract: The region comprising North Africa and the Middle East is the driest in the world. Thus conflicts over water have been a part of the landscape. These conflicts overwater are invariably seen as a zero sum game; such a view does not incorporate the notion that water is an economic good and is therefore scarce. Given the limitation of competitive markets, optimal water allocation could only but help. However, even if one country allocates water efficiently within its own territory, its allocation could be sub-optimal if water interdependencies with other countries are not incorporated in a regional optimization model. The World Bank is in the best position to adopt a regional optimization model and thus ameliorate water conditions in the Middle Eastand in other regions around the world.
Gestione delle acque, pace nel Medio Oriente e un ruolo per la Banca Mondiale (Water Management, Middle East Peace and a Role for the World Bank)
Hossein Askari,Catherine Brown
Moneta e Credito , 2001,
Abstract: The region comprising North Africa and the Middle East is the driest in the world. Thus conflicts over water have been a part of the landscape. These conflicts over water are invariably seen as a zero sum game; such a view does not incorporate the notion that water is an economic good and is therefore scarce. Given the limitation of competitive markets, optimal water allocation could only but help. However, even if one country allocates water efficiently within its own territory, its allocation could be sub-optimal if water interdependencies with other countries are not incorporated in a regional optimization model. The World Bank is in the best position to adopt a regional optimization model and thus ameliorate water conditions in the Middle East and in other regions around the world.
Virtual Water on the Southern High Plains of Texas: The Case of a Nonrenewable Blue Water Resource  [PDF]
Ryan Blake Williams, Rashid Al-Hmoud
Natural Resources (NR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2015.61004
Abstract: This paper utilizes the virtual water concept to evaluate water usage of agricultural production in West Texas. This work evaluates the measure of virtual water, as it relates to informing water policy in a semi-arid, agriculture-intensive region, which relies upon a minimally renewable groundwater resource. The results suggest that production in the region reflects a collective effort to capture the highest value from the water resource, consistent with the virtual water philosophy, even in the absence of specific water policy toward that goal. Additionally, this work takes advantage of high resolution data to reinforce the need to calibrate virtual water calculations to account for regional differences.
Agricultural Water Foot Print and Virtual Water Budget in Iran Related to the Consumption of Crop Products by Conserving Irrigation Efficiency  [PDF]
Azam Arabi, Amin Alizadeh, Yaser Vahab Rajaee, Kazem Jam, Naser Niknia
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.45035
Abstract: In this study we estimate agricultural water footprint and its components from consumption perspective in arid and semi-arid region like Iran. This study is based on blue water consumption in irrigated land. Iran has imported net virtual water about 11.64 billion cubic meters (bcm) as international crop trade in 2005-2006. Therefore, Iran has depended on virtual water imports. By conserving about 60% irrigation efficiency, the total water requirement to produce imported crops in Iran is nearly 20.78 billion cubic meters. It is nearly 9 percent of renewable water resources and 12.65% agricultural appropriated water which has added to internal water resources. Agricultural virtual water budget is about 112.78 Gm3/yr. Agricultural water footprint is 110.2 Gm3/yr. About 12.83% of agricultural water footprint of Iran is related to external water resources on the country boundaries. It means external water footprint. Water dependency, water self-sufficiency and water scarcity indexes in agricultural sector of Iran, are estimated 10.1%, 89.9% and 70.8%, respectively.
Drinking Water Quality Clinics and Outreach in Delaware Focusing on Educating Master Well Owners  [PDF]
Gulnihal Ozbay, Amy Cannon, Amanda Treher, Stephanie Clemens, Albert Essel, Dyremple Marsh, John Austin
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.412A2004
Abstract:

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the authority to regulate the public water systems. The EPA does not have the jurisdiction to regulate private drinking water wells. This leaves approximately fifteen percent of the nation’s population without any regulation being held in place to protect their source of drinking water. With that fifteen percent of the US population having private wells for drinking water, it makes the number of people whose drinking water is unprotected by regulation at a little over 15 million US households. This concern is even more acute in areas with groundwater that is close to the surface. Delaware residents live in a region with low elevation which is very close to the coast with low elevation and the shallow groundwater makes us concern about contaminated well water even more intense. As one of the Water Resources Program partners, we have offered free Drinking Water Quality Clinics to local well owners over the past 4 years in Delaware State University. Since 2009, over 400 Delaware residents have benefited from these clinics. At each clinic, an information session was offered in the evening, with an opportunity to hear from and speak with a drinking water well expert. Participants were given sample bottles and water testing performed the following day included pH, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, alkalinity, fluoride, hardness, iron, lead, cadmium, arsenic, Total Coliform, and E. coli. Over half of the samples returned out of range values for pH, while 72 returned results positive for Total Coliform and Escherichia coli bacterium. Data

News about Tap and Bottled Water: Can This Influence People’s Choices?  [PDF]
Josiane T. M. Queiroz, Mark W. Rosenberg, Léo Heller, Andréa L. M. Zhouri, Sara R. Silva
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.34041
Abstract: The pursuit of alternative safe water has increased dramatically the world trade in bottled water. Events happened in Canada which changed the population’s perception about the quality of tap water, despite all government efforts. Media has an important role to pass on information because there is value judgment in its reports. As a result, this study aims to present recent data from two Canadian newspapers of national circulation, which refer to tap water and bottled water. It used quantitative and qualitative data for this analysis. The study concludes that the media, taken into consideration, provides its readers with important information, but the information can also be ambiguous. Nevertheless, it arouses interest in further research about this subject matter and about protecting water resources.
Water Service Provision in Owerri City, Nigeria  [PDF]
Emmanuella C. Onyenechere, Sabina C. Osuji
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.47058
Abstract: The study investigates water service provision in Owerri-a Nigerian city. For the study both primary and secondary data were obtained and analysed. Secondary data were obtained from Imo State Water Corporation (ISWC) and the Works Department of Owerri Municipal Council. While, primary data were obtained from all the 17 wards that constitute Owerri city, i.e. the municipal area. Key informants were identified and interviewed using a structured interview schedule. The analysis of variance employed showed that there are significant differences in the water service provision pattern in the seventeen wards in Owerri city. The study found that though most residents of Owerri city rely heavily on commercial borehole owners and water tanker drivers/water peddlers for their daily supplies, the government through its SWA is in control, and there is an absence of a popularly acceptable regulatory framework/water policy. It recommends that Water decree 101 from 1993 (water legislation) be reviewed to address growing challenges. In order to enhance regular water supply at less cost, the study recommends that government should collaborate with the private sector and other community based organizations in a tripartite partnership. A new regulatory framework that will carry out government ownership and control of water resources and participatory aspects of water management should be produced by ISWC.
Analysis of Quality Mineral Water of Serbia: Region Arandjelovac  [PDF]
Milo? B. Rajkovi?, Ivana D. Sredovi?, Martin B. Ra?ovi?, Mirjana D. Stojanovi?
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.49090
Abstract: In this paper it is presented the analysis of basic physical and chemical parameters, alkalinity and acidity, the analysis of kations, anions, heavy metals, microbiological analysis and determination of uranium content in waters of Serbia from 10 springs of Arandjelovac region and 2 samples of bottled drinking water. It is done by different methods of analysis according to which conclusion about the content and the quality of these waters can be made. The pH value of analysed waters shows that waters from springs Maiden spring, Je?ovac, Vrelo and Svin?ine are slightly acid, while mineral waters from springs Aleksijevi?, Exploitation and Talpara are slightly basic. The sample from Olga’s spring has slightly lower pH value. According to Regulation on the hygiene of drinking water, conductivity should be less than 1000 μS/cm. This condition is fulfilled by waters from springs Aleksijevi?, Talpara (ordinary), Maiden and Olga’s spring, Svin?ine and water from city supply system. Springs Je?ovac and Vrelo have slightly increased conductivity, while springs Exploitation and Talpara have conductivity significantly above the allowed values (mineral). Analysed natural mineral waters contain only hydrogencarbonates (bicarbonate). According to the content of bicarbonate it was concluded that samples from springs Exploitation, Talpara (mineral), Vrelo and Svin?ine belong to the category of bicarbonate waters, as the content of hydrogencarbonate in these samples is higher than 600 mg/dm3. Analysed mineral waters don’t show acidity towards methyl orange, which means that acidity of analysed waters comes from dissolved carbon acid.
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