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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6811 matches for " virus "
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Purification of Dengue Virus Particles by One-Step Ceramic Hydroxyapatite Chromatography  [PDF]
Yae Kurosawa, Maiko Saito, Shintaro Kobayashi, Tsuneo Okuyama
World Journal of Vaccines (WJV) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjv.2012.23020
Abstract: Dengue virus type 2 ThNH7/93 retained infectious activity after purification by ceramic hydroxyapatite chromatogra-phy. Dengue virus type 2 culture fluid was loaded onto the ceramic hydroxyapatite column and eluted with a linear gradient of sodium phosphate buffer. Culture fluid and protein contaminants derived from host cells were eluted initially, followed by elutions of dsDNA, and then dengue virus type 2. The recoveries of dengue virus type 2 were 64 ± 14% (n = 11) in the hemagglutination (HA) test and 60% (n = 2) determined by focus assay for viral infectivity. This protocol was highly reproducible, simple, rapid, and appears applicable to other virus species such as influenza virus, Japanese encephalitis virus and adenovirus.
Review on Infections of the Central Nervous System by St. Louis Encephalitis, Rocio and West Nile Flaviviruses in Brazil, 2004-2014  [PDF]
Mario Luis Garcia de Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2014.413106
Abstract: Rocio (ROCV), Saint Louis encephalitis (SLEV) and West Nile (WNV) are Flavivirus (Flaviviridae) probably carried by birds and transmitted by Culex mosquitoes. We show here a review on infections of the central nervous system by St. Louis Encephalitis, Rocio and West Nile Flaviviruses in Brazil, 2004-2014. In the last 10 years, serologic surveys in horses showed high proportions of seropositive animals which point out that SLEV and ROCV have circulated infecting horses in west-central, southeast and other regions of Brazil and that WNV has been introduced into Brazil and circulates mostly in Pantanal region. However humans infected by WNV have not been reported. In the State of Sao Paulo: SLEV was isolated from a case clinically diagnosed as dengue in 2004; in 2006, 6 SLEV patients including 3 cases of menigoencephalitis were reported in the middle of a large epidemic of dengue type 3; and in 2008, 1 patient with acute febrile illness that was IgM-positive for dengue was found infected by SLEV by detection of the virus genome. In 2010, ROCV genome was detected in the cerebrospinal fluids of 2 patients from the northern region with meningoenchephalitis and also AIDS. This was the first report of infections by ROCV in the last 34 years and curiously, it occured more than 2000 km from where the virus was firstly found. It is necessary to improve the surveillance of SLEV, ROCV and WNV in Brazil.
Rethinking cytokine function during hepatitis A and hepatitis C infections  [PDF]
Nora A. Fierro, Flor P. Castro-Garcia, Arturo Panduro
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.47A1003
Abstract: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are both viruses with hepatotropic lifestyles. HAV induces an acute infection that results in the elimination of the virus by the host whereas HCV is typically able to establish a persistent infection that may result in cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms responsible for this difference are unknown. However, given HAV and HCV are both non-cytophatic viruses, the observed symptoms and liver injury during the infections are the result of specific immune responses under the control of cytokines. Thus, the production of cytokines during hepatotropic viral infections may constitute a mechanism leading to different outcomes. Therefore, understanding the differences in the cytokine patterns induced in response to HAV and HCV is likely to provide important insights into the cytokine-mediated mechanisms underlying the long-term persistence of HCV, the broad spectrum of clinical manifestations induced by HAV and the resolution of HAV infection during the acute phase. Herein, we focus on discoveries that hold promise in identifying cytokines as therapeutic targets for the treatment of viral hepatitis.
A Case Report of Pediatric Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) Related Cholestasis from Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait  [PDF]
Fawaz Al-Refaee, Sarah Al-Enezi, Enamul Hoque, Assad Albadrawi
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2015.51005

Infectious mononucleosis is an acute illness due to Epstein Barr virus infection, which occurs commonly in young adults. Liver involvement in acute EBV infection occurs in up to 95% of patients between the 6th and 15th day of illness and is usually mild [1]. Here we report on a 7-year-old girl treated by Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Unit of Al-Adan Hospital pediatric Department, presented with prolonged fever, lymphadenopathy, generalized edema, hyperbilurubi- nemia and elevated liver enzymes secondary to EBV infection. This case represents a rare presentation of common viral infection in pediatric population.

Zika Virus Screening in the Kenyan Olympic Team Attending the 2016 Olympic Games in Brazil  [PDF]
John N. Waitumbi, Neha Buddhdev, George Awinda, Lucy Kanyara, Zephania Irura, Victor Ofula, Limbaso Konongoi, Rosemary Sang
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2018.86017
Abstract: The 2016 Olympic Games happened at the time of heightened fears of Zika virus (ZIKV) that was causing microcephaly in newborns in Brazil. To avert or track introduction of ZIKV in Kenya, the Ministry of Health developed a public health response that involved screening of the Kenyan contingent before and after traveling to Brazil. Of the 92 team members that were screened, all but one tested negative for ZIKV IgM and IgG. The sero-positive individual had high IgM serum titers before and after travel to Brazil. When tested for potential antibody cross-reactivity to other flaviviruses that have been reported in Kenya, the sample showed high IgM cross-reactivity to West Nile, Tick-Borne Encephalitis and Yellow Fever Virus. Our data support the low risk predictions of acquiring ZIKV that were made before the Games and will help inform risk assessments for personnel traveling to endemic regions under similar circumstances in the future.
Infecciones por el virus Coxsackie
Revista chilena de pediatría , 1953,
Anti-respiratory passage virus of Chinese herbal medicine  [PDF]
Zhiqiang Wang, Yi Zhu
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.212207
Abstract: Influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus infection of viral respiratory disease has become a major killer of mankind, but there is no effect of vaccines and therapeuticmdrugs. Chinese herbs can inhibit the proliferation and strengthen the human immune virus, and so on to play a very good antiviral activity. Single- flavor compound in accordance with two different drugs and the object of study, the herbal anti-influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus, a comprehensive overview of research and clinical outlook of the Chinese herbs to good use.
Recent advances of miRNA involvement in hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma  [PDF]
Kwang Suk Ko, Hui Peng, Hua Tang, Michele E. Cho, Jian Peng, Maria-Angeles Aller, Heping Yang
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2012.23024
Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are a class of highly evolutionarily conserved non-coding RNAs, modulate gene expression and are regulated by specific genes. Several studies have shown that the expression of miRNAs is deregulated in Hepatitis C virus (HCV) & Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, liver cancer progression, tumor invasion and metastasis. There are a number of high-quality review articles relative to the general role of miRNA alterations in carcinogenesis and specific reviews dealing with the miRNA changes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangio-carcinoma (CCA). Since primary liver cancer is predominantly comprised of HCC and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), in the present review we specifically focus on recent advances of miRNAs related to tumorigenesis, invasion and metastasis of primary liver cancer, with special emphasis on their relationships to their target genes. HCV & HBV are major causes of liver disease, including acute and chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and HCC, while HCV infection is a risk factor for ICC. We also discuss the mi-RNA alterations involved in HCV & HBV infection. We briefly describe advances in molecular signaling of miRNAs in liver cancers and present insights into new therapeutic clues that target liver cancer.
Surveillance Renal Allograft Biopsy on Diagnosis of BK Virus Nephropathy in Chinese Renal Transplant Recipients  [PDF]
Shu-Ming Ji, Zhi-Hong Liu, Di Wu, Ji-Qiu Wen, Ke-Nan Xie, Qi-Quan Sun, Jin-Song Chen
Open Journal of Organ Transplant Surgery (OJOTS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojots.2012.24015
Abstract: Objective: We prospectively investigated 121 renal allograft biopsy specimens performed in our center. Methods: BKVAN was diagnosed by light microscopic examination and a positive immunohistochemistry staining of anti-SV40 large T antibody in a biopsy specimen. Results: Of the 121 patients, nine were diagnosed with BKVAN (7.4%). Nine patients whith BKVN classically presents as allograft dysfunction with an asymptomatic rise in serum creatinine, about 3 to 39 months posttransplant. Urinary decoy cells are positive in two patients (22.2%). The histologic changes of BKVN are not pathognomonic, and can be mistaken for allograft rejection, ie, tubulointerstitial nephritis with varying degrees of inflammatory infiltrates, tubulitis and tubular atrophy, and fibrosis. Typical findings on histology are focal interstitial mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrates, presence of plasma cells, necrotic tubular epithelium, and presence of homogenous intranuclear inclusion bodies. Immunohistochemistry with SV40 staining were positive in allograft. Graft loss occurred in one patient and the other 8 showed progressive allograft dysfunction. Conclusion: The definitive diagnosis of BKV disease requires renal biopsy. Immunohistochemistry with SV40 staining has been used as an indirect method to document the presence of BKVAN.
A Report on the Death of Mixed Infection of HEV and HBV  [PDF]
Yonggang Qu, Yujian Zheng, Chuangfu Chen, Guangze Zhu, Ningyi Jin
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2015.33015

Mixed infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is frequent. HEV mixed infection often leads to activation of hepatic pathological changes and worsens the inflammatory activity. However, it is not known clearly how these two types of virus influence each other in human body. Intensive investigation has revealed that HEV mixed infection inhibits HBV replication. We have just encountered a relative rare case. The patient who was a HBV carrier and was infected by HEV. Before he was infected by the HEV, the measurement of his HBV DNA fixed quantity examination on fluorescence was <103 copies/ml; his routine biochemistry was normal; and his anti HEV-IgM and anti-HEV-IgG appeared to be negative reaction. After he was infected by HEV, his routine biochemistry increased, and the measurement of his HBV DNA fixed quantity examination on fluorescence was 8.51 × 105 copies/ml. It indicated that the replication of HBV was activated after the patient infected HEV. Finally, he was dead. This case revealed that HEV mixed infection may activate the replication of HBV, not inhibit HBV replication, and demonstrated the needs for further studies about the mechanism of the interaction of the two viruses.

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