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Le ferite invisibili nei ricordi di abusi dimenticati / Les blessures invisibles dans les souvenirs d'abus retrouvés / The “invisible” hurts caused by abuses in the memory
Fargnoli A. L.
Rivista di Criminologia, Vittimologia e Sicurezza , 2010,
Abstract: In questo articolo, si prende in considerazione un aspetto poco noto degli effetti del trauma. In particolare, quando un’esperienza profondamente negativa resta nella memoria di chi l’ha vissuta, si trasforma nel tempo in una ferita che, non avendo le connotazioni proprie esplicite delle ferite fisiche, diventa “invisibile”. Ma la ferita è presente nel soggetto ed opera in modo da condizionare la sua esistenza, le sue relazioni e spesso anche il suo futuro. Quando un soggetto subisce un abuso non riesce, spesso, a reagire nella maniera adeguata e si trasforma nel tempo in una persona con molte ferite: il dolore c’è, ma è quasi impossibile scoprirne la causa.Dans cet article, un aspect peu connu des effets du traumatisme est pris en considération. Il s’agit du fait que, quand une expérience profondément négative reste dans la mémoire de sa victime, elle se transforme progressivement en blessure qui – du fait qu’elle n’a pas les connotations explicites de blessures physiques – devient invisible . Elle n’en est pas moins présente dans le for intérieur du sujet et elle agit de fa on à conditionner son existence, ses relations et souvent aussi son avenir. Quand un sujet subit un abus il réussit rarement à réagir de manière adéquate et il devient, au fur et à mesure, une personne marquée par beaucoup de blessures. La douleur existe alors bel et bien, mais il devient quasi-impossible d’en découvrir la cause.In this article, a little-know aspect of trauma’s effects is taken into consideration. In particular, when a person lives a really bad experience, this experience could become, after time, an “invisible” hurt. It is deeply inside the person and influences his life, his relationships, and his future as well. When a person suffers an abuse, he often couldn’t react in the right way: as time goes by, hurts may condition all the aspects of his life. The pain is real, but sometime it is hard to find out the cause of it.
Il rifiuto / Le refus / The refusal
Dominici M. R.
Rivista di Criminologia, Vittimologia e Sicurezza , 2010,
Abstract: L’articolo parte dalla problematica legata alla complessità dei flussi migratori, che vengono esaminati da diversi punti di vista: da un lato, viene evidenziato il tentativo di sottrarsi, da parte di molte persone, a situazioni ambientali di difficoltà, di sofferenza e di miseria ; dall’altro lato, si sottolinea come tale fenomeno possa essere collegato strettamente alla criminalità transnazionale.In entrambe le prospettive, si generano situazioni e rischi di vittimizzazione.Successivamente, prendendo a prestito vecchie favole, vi si costruiscono attorno le esperienze di situazioni reali che riguardano un bambino, il senso e la perdità di identità.Cet article aborde le problème de la complexité des flux migratoires. Ces derniers sont observés selon différents points de vue : d’une part, l’auter met en évidence que de nombreuses personnes essaient d’échapper à des situations éprouvantes, de souffrance et de misère ; d’autre part, l’auter souligne que ce phénomène peut être strictement lié à la criminalité transnationale.Dans les deux cas, des risques de victimisation se créent.Ensuite, en empruntant de vieilles fables, l’auter construit autour d’elles les expériences de vie réelle qui incluent un enfant, le sens et la perte d’identité. This article discusses the problem related to the complexity of migration from different points of view : on the one hand, the author underlines that a large number of people seeks to escape from difficult situations of poverty ; on the other hand, the author highlights that this phenomenon can be strictly related to transnational crime. In both cases, these situations increase the risks of victimization. Then, borrowing old fables, the author builds around them some experiences of real life including the ones of a child and of the sense and the loss of identity.
Femicidio: la forma più estrema di violenza contro le donne / Fémicide : la forme la plus extrême de violence faite aux femmes / Femicide: the most extreme form of violence against women
Karadole Cristina
Rivista di Criminologia, Vittimologia e Sicurezza , 2012,
Abstract: Femicide, as the extreme form of violence against women, is a little-known phenomenon because of the lack of studies and data collection in Italy. The article provides an overview on the main criminological and feminist international literature in this field and, conceptualising femicide and its different declinations in both feminist and scientific research, highlights particularities of the crime of femicide. The examination of this kind of crime requires a specific approach, different from the one employed for studying most criminal homicide categories, because it is a gender crime, a masculine act arising from power relationships between genders given by the fact that men possess a more dominant role in society. Femicide, in fact, is the final act of the male violence cycle against women, and it is placed at the top of this violence.As the present work argues, and in contrast to public opinion and media representations, this phenomenon neither is a typical behavior of different and foreign cultures, nor may be referred to situations of social disadvantage or cultural marginality, but it is part of “normal” relations and disputes between men and women, such as male violence against women. This means that most situations considered to be quite safe for women can potentially be associated to some risk of becoming a victim. Indeed, femicides are perpetrated at victims’ homes or in their family homes, by male partners.Subsequently, the author analyses both the international literature and Italian data coming from sociological and criminological research.The second part of the article is dedicated to explaining the results of a survey on a sample of articles from newspapers, conducted by the femicide study group of the Antiviolence Centre “Casa delle donne per non subire violenza” of Bologna. This study identifies some of the characteristics of femicides in Italy, the social environment where it occurs, the profile of the authors and of the victims and, especially, the clear links between this crime and violence against women. Le fémicide, comme forme extrême de violence faite aux femmes, est un phénomène encore méconnu car il existe encore peu d’études sur le sujet en Italie. à l’issue d’une revue de la littérature criminologique et féministe internationale, cet article vise à définir le concept de fémicide et ses différentes déclinaisons dans la recherche scientifique et dans la lutte politique féministe. Le texte met en évidence la particularité de ce délit, qui doit être considéré différemment par rapport aux autres formes d’homicides. En effet, il
In Their Own Words: Young Peoples’ Vulnerabilities to Being Groomed and Sexually Abused Online  [PDF]
Helen C. Whittle, Catherine E. Hamilton-Giachritsis, Anthony R. Beech
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.510131
Abstract:

Little is known about why some children and young people are vulnerable to being groomed online, yet this has important implications for policy, practice and prevention. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify factors contributing to a young person’s vulnerability towards online grooming. Thematic Analysis was conducted on eight interviews with young people (six females and two males) who had experienced online grooming, resulting in sexual abuse online and/or offline. The reasons why participants engaged with the offenders varied on most levels of the Bron-fenbrenner (1979) ecological model (including individual, family, community and society). The loss of family protection was found to be central in contributing to vulnerability, as is online risk taking behavior. Three victim vulnerability scenarios emerged: 1) multiple long-term risk factors, 2) trigger events and 3) online behavioral risks. In each of these scenarios, parental and family factors were very important. It is suggested that further research is needed to investigate the applicability of these scenarios to other samples. Recommendations include parent and carer communication and involvement with their children’s internet use, as well as consistent, early onset internet safety education.

Toward establishing basic rights of victims in Japan
Morosawa Hidemichi
Temida , 2008, DOI: 10.2298/tem0801061m
Abstract: The author talks about improving victim rights in Japan and his important role in it. A period of Victims’ Renaissance in Japan began in the 1990s when the Japanese Association of Victimology and Mito Victim Assistance Cener, first non-governmental community-based integrated victim support center in Japan were established. Since May 1999 to May 2004, four laws such as “Crime Victim Protection Law”, “Child Abuse Prevention Law”, “Law for Proscribing Stalking Behavior” and so on were enacted and six laws were reformed. The word “rights of victim”, did not appear in any laws. After 2000, the National Association of Crime Victims and Surviving Families (NAVS) played an important role. This Association achieved a great success in securing victims a position as the subject of rights. In June 2007, Japan changed the Criminal Procedure Law. This new law will be effective on six months after the day of promulgation. Japanese Government will promulgate it till the end of 2007. Under this new law, crime victims will be allowed to take part in criminal trials, and also make statements during trials.
Tiempos De Memoria, Tiempos De Víctimas
Sánchez G.,Gonzalo;
Análisis Político , 2008,
Abstract: this article illustrates the plurality of subjectivities linked to the memory of victims. the author explores the stories of three well known survivors of the nazi concentration camps: primo levi, jean améry and jorge semprún. starting from there, the text deepens in the survivor's profi les and analyzes each testimony to present this way a series of considerations, with a high pedagogic orientation, aiming at the generation of social conscience in view of the complexity of memory in connection with the victims of a confl ict and thus preventing further errors in its treatment.
'Quando la vittima è una comunità di fedeli. Tutela dei beni culturali ecclesiastici e difesa degli interessi legittimi della comunità nel segno della tradizione/Si la victime est une communauté de fidèles. Protection des biens culturels et ecclésiastiques et défense des intérêts légitimes de la communauté au nom de la tradition/When the Victim is a Community of Parishioners. Protection of Cultura
Cicale Vito
Rivista di Criminologia, Vittimologia e Sicurezza , 2011,
Abstract: Il patrimonio culturale della Chiesa non può essere considerato come un insieme di oggetti da museo dato che il lorouso ha l’obiettivo di promuovere lo sviluppo dell’esperienza religiosa.La dimensione artistica del patrimonio culturale ecclesiastico è strettamente collegata alla sua qualità artistica e al suoruolo religioso. Perciò, il fine ultimo di tali opere d’arte è il servizio alla Chiesa, la facilitazione del contatto con Dio.Infatti, questo rapporto si riflette in tutte le opere che l’uomo ha associato all’adorazione di Dio: dai vasi sacri ai tessutifino alle costruzioni architettoniche monumentali. Questi beni contribuiscono a sostenere le tradizioni religiose che sonostate – e in una certa misura che sono ancora – la base di una rete sociale e di un’educazione alla cultura religiosa ecattolica.Le tradizioni religiose dei piccoli paesi rappresentano ancora l’elemento più gradito e diffuso della cultura popolare delnostro paese, il patrimonio certamente ancora oggi da promuovere e alimentare.RésuméLes biens culturels de l'église ne peuvent pas être considérés comme des pièces de musée car leur usage a commeobjectif de développer l'expérience religieuse. La dimension artistique du patrimoine ecclésiastique est étroitement liéeà sa qualité artistique et à son r le religieux. Par conséquent, le but ultime des oeuvres d’art est le service de l'Eglise, lafacilitation du contact avec Dieu.En effet, ce rapport se reflète dans toutes les oeuvres que l'homme a associées à l'adoration de Dieu : les vases sacrés, lestissus et les constructions les plus monumentales. Ces biens contribuent à soutenir les traditions religieuses qui ont été -et dans une certaine mesure sont encore - la base d'un réseau social et d’une éducation à la culture religieuse etcatholique. Les traditions religieuses des villages sont toujours les aspects le plus aimés de la culture populaire dansnotre pays, il s’agit encore aujourd’hui d’un patrimoine à enrichir et à cultiver.AbstractThe cultural heritage of the Church cannot be considered as the range of objects of a museum because their use aims atthe development of religious experience.The artistic dimension of the ecclesiastical artistic heritage is closely linked with its artistic quality and to the religiousrole of this quality. The ultimate purpose of these artistic works is the service to the Church, the easing of contact withGod. This relationship reflects indeed in the works that man associates with the worship of God: from the sacred vesselsand vestments to the most monumental architectural constructions. These valuable good
Sicurezza e circolazione stradale/Sécurité et circulation routière/Safety Issues and Road Traffic
Colombo Cristina
Rivista di Criminologia, Vittimologia e Sicurezza , 2011,
Abstract: L’articolo intende affrontare l’attualissima problematica riguardante la sicurezza e la circolazione stradale, mantenendoun occhio di riguardo sul fenomeno della guida in stato di ebbrezza. Il punto viene fatto sulle modifiche introdotte dallalegge del 2010, sugli strumenti e le proposte di accertamento, nonché sull’importanza di conoscere gli effetti dell’alcolsulla guida.RésuméCet article aborde la problématique actuelle de la sécurité sur la route et tout particulièrement le phénomène de laconduite sous l’emprise de l’alcool. Les principaux points qui vont être analysés dans l’article sont les suivants : lesmodifications introduites par la loi de 2010, les instruments et les propositions pour prouver une conduite sousl’emprise de l’alcool et, enfin, l’importance de conna tre les effets de l’alcool sur la conduite.AbstractThe article analyzes the present situation on safety issues and road traffic, focusing on issues related to driving whileintoxicated. The main points of the article are: the changes introduced by the Act of 2010, the means and theassessment proposals along with the importance of knowing the effects of alcohol on driving.
L'approccio psicoterapeutico alle vittime di violenza: una prospettiva fenomenologica/L'approche psychothérapeutique chez les victimes de violence : une perspective phénoménologique/he Psychoterapeutic Approach to Victims of Violence: a Phenomenological Perspective
Cimino Luca
Rivista di Criminologia, Vittimologia e Sicurezza , 2011,
Abstract: L’autore affronta il problema della psicoterapia della vittima di violenza indicando i principi generali che ne devonoguidare lo svolgimento e proponendo, fra i vari modelli possibili, un paradigma di cura fenomenologicamente fondatoche, per le sue intrinseche caratteristiche, appare particolarmente idoneo a consentire quell’adattamento umano aglieventi traumatici che rappresenta l’avvio di ogni processo di guarigione.RésuméL’auteur aborde le problème de la psychothérapie chez la victime de violence en indiquant les principes généraux quidoivent guider son déroulement, et en proposant, parmi les différents modèles possibles, un paradigme de traitementphénoménologiquement fondé. Ce dernier para t, pour ses caractéristiques intrinsèques, particulièrement approprié àl’adaptation des individus après les événements traumatiques, qui représente le début de chaque processus de guérison.AbstractThe author addresses the problem of psychotherapy of victims of violence indicating the general principles that shouldguide its development thus proposing a phenomenological perspective as one of the possible models. Owing to itsintrinsic characteristics, this perspective seems particularly appropriate to allow that sort of human adaptation necessaryto begin a healing process after encountering a traumatic event.
Crime victim’s needs: proposal of an explicative model - Les besoins des victimes du crime : proposition d’un modèle explicatif - I bisogni delle vittime del crimine: proposta per un modello esplicativo
Giannini A. M.,Tizzani E.
Rivista di Criminologia, Vittimologia e Sicurezza , 2009,
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to describe a model to understand crime victim’s needs, during their first approach to police forces. There are several publications from around the world dealing with the needs of victims in order to increase the awareness of police operators in this field. In this work these needs will be analysed and linked directly to their underlying psychological processes.Of course victim’s reactions to crime are spread in a wide range of possibilities and, to talk properly about the topic, it is important to comprehend that these reactions are influenced by a large number of variables. In this paper we will discuss the importance to understand the variables involved, and we will present a concept of victim’s vulnerability, open and flexible, that include risks and protective factors.In this framework it will be possible to describe a continuum of possible reactions, that goes from the lightest, common emotional response, to the heaviest painful trauma symptoms.Then this paper aims at correlating the victims feelings to their psychological needs.L’objectif de cet article est de proposer un modèle de compréhension des besoins des victimes qui se manifestent lors du premier contact avec les forces de l’ordre et qui sont liés aux processus psychologiques sous-tendus.Il va sans dire que les réactions des victimes sont extrêmement variables et il est nécessaire de comprendre qu’elles peuvent être influencées par de très nombreux facteurs.La première partie de ce travail sera donc consacrée à la compréhension des variables impliquées, en partie pour proposer aussi une conceptualisation de la vulnérabilité des victimes ouverte et flexible, en prenant en considération les facteurs de protection et de risque.Après quoi, un continuum des réactions possibles des victimes sera créé : d’un c té du continuum, se trouvent les réactions les plus communes et modérées, et de l’autre, les réactions post-traumatiques. En conclusion l’article présente la fa on dont l’état mental de la victime, causé par le délit, favorise la manifestation de certains besoins fondamentaux.Scopo di questo lavoro è proporre un modello di comprensione dei bisogni delle vittime che emergono nel primo approccio con le Forze dell’Ordine. In questo lavoro i bisogni verranno analizzati e correlati ai processi psicologici che li sottendono e favoriscono il loro emergere. Naturalmente, le reazioni delle vittime sono estremamente variabili e, per affrontare l’argomento in modo adeguato, è necessario comprendere che possono essere influenzate da un numero elevatissimo di fattori.La parte
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