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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 20209 matches for " vaccine development "
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JJo, a Recombinant Dimer of Conformationally Restricted Peptide Elicits Protective Response against Group A Streptococcus (GAS) Isolates from a GAS-Endemic Region  [PDF]
Raju Sunagar, Vidiya Ramachandran, Melina Georgousakis, Kadaba S. Sriprakash, Melkote S. Shaila
World Journal of Vaccines (WJV) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wjv.2011.14013
Abstract: A peptide (J14) containing conformationally restricted epitopes from the M protein of group A streptococcus (GAS) is capable of eliciting protective immune response against GAS infection. However, the protective response may be lost possibly due to its weak secondary-structure when the antigen is fused with other antigens in a recombinant polyepitope vaccine construct. We previously showed that JJo, a conformationally stabilized derivative of dimeric J14, overcomes this problem. We now show that anti JJo antibodies react with diverse GAS isolates found in the Indian sub-continent and that these antibodies are opsonic for GAS. The GAS strains used in this study were isolated from throat and skin swabs from Mumbai, Chennai and Vellore. Sera from mice immunized with recombinant JJo peptide were tested by ELISA, immunofluorescence, flow-cytometry, indirect bactericidal assay and mouse challenge assays to determine specific immunogenicity, opsonic functions and protection against an Indian isolate. We propose that JJo is a robust antigen suitable for inclusion in recombinant multi-epitope vaccines which are potentially affordable option for the pediatric population of developing countries.
Development of a vaccine to prevent Japanese encephalitis: a brief review
Viroj Wiwanitkit
International Journal of General Medicine , 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S6281
Abstract: pment of a vaccine to prevent Japanese encephalitis: a brief review Review (5771) Total Article Views Authors: Viroj Wiwanitkit Published Date October 2009 Volume 2009:2 Pages 195 - 200 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S6281 Viroj Wiwanitkit Wiwanitkit House, Bangkhae, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: Japanese encephalitis (ICD 10: A83.0) is an important specific viral encephalitis caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus, a virus of the Flavivirus group. Millions of people, especially those in endemic areas of developing countries in Asia, are at high risk from this infection. Therefore proper management to deal with this virus is essential. There is no specific treatment for Japanese encephalitis virus. Supportive and symptomatic treatments are usually used, which emphasize the importance of prevention in this specific neurological disorder. Vector control or vaccination can be used to prevent the disease. Because the existing Japanese encephalitis vaccine poses some undesirable problems, a new vaccine is needed. The process of developing a new vaccine is briefly discussed.
Hand Washing with Soap: the Most Effective a€ Do-It-Yourselfa€ Vaccine?
Hiremath Ravishekhar, Kotwal Atul, Kunte Renuka, Hiremath Sandhya, Venkatesh
National Journal of Community Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: Hand washing is one of the most effective means of preventing diseases and have a major impact on public health in any country. It is known to significantly reduce the two leading causes of mortality a€“ diarrheal diseases and acute respiratory infections, including the recent outbreak of pandemic influenza. Because hand washing with soap can prevent the transmission of a variety of pathogens, it may be more effective than any single vaccine or hygiene behaviour. Promoted broadly enough, hand washing with soap can be viewed as an essential do-it-yourself vaccine. a€ Good hand hygiene is the first line of defense against spread of many illnessesa€ . Therefore public should be provided with adequate knowledge and tools to enable them to protect themselves and their families from infection and illness by practicing proper hand hygiene through support of key stakeholders, Government, industry, and donors who can offer unique resources which are necessary to ensure the success of a large-scale program. Conducting a situation assessment and, where needed, making the case for hand washing on topics ranging from cost effectiveness to health impact will give the hand washing program a solid foundation. This is the important time to re-look at our hand hygiene habits, for hands are the key carrier of germs that spread infections, and good hand hygiene is the one tool within easy reach of everyone, that can reduce the risk of infection. If the millennium development targets for reduction in child mortality are to be met, hand washing habits must be improved.
Preclinical and Clinical Development of a YFV 17 D-Based Chimeric Vaccine against West Nile Virus
Gustavo H. Dayan,Konstantin Pugachev,Joan Bevilacqua,Jean Lang,Thomas P. Monath
Viruses , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/v5123048
Abstract: Substantial success has been achieved in the development and implementation of West Nile (WN) vaccines for horses; however, no human WN vaccines are approved. This review focuses on the construction, pre-clinical and clinical characterization of ChimeriVax-WN02 for humans, a live chimeric vaccine composed of a yellow fever (YF) 17D virus in which the prM-E envelope protein genes are replaced with the corresponding genes of the WN NY99 virus. Pre-clinical studies demonstrated that ChimeriVax-WN02 was significantly less neurovirulent than YF 17D in mice and rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys. The vaccine elicited neutralizing antibody titers after inoculation in hamsters and monkeys and protected immunized animals from lethal challenge including intracerebral inoculation of high dose of WN NY99 virus. Safety, viremia and immunogenicity of ChimeriVax-WN02 were assessed in one phase I study and in two phase II clinical trials. No safety signals were detected in the three clinical trials with no remarkable differences in incidence of adverse events (AEs) between vaccine and placebo recipients. Viremia was transient and the mean viremia levels were low. The vaccine elicited strong and durable neutralizing antibody and cytotoxic T cell responses. WN epidemiology impedes a classical licensure pathway; therefore, innovative licensure strategies should be explored.
Platform for Plasmodium vivax vaccine discovery and development
Valencia, Sócrates Herrera;Rodríguez, Diana Carolina;Acero, Diana Lucía;Ocampo, Vanessa;Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762011000900023
Abstract: plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent malaria parasite on the american continent. it generates a global burden of 80-100 million cases annually and represents a tremendous public health problem, particularly in the american and asian continents. a malaria vaccine would be considered the most cost-effective measure against this vector-borne disease and it would contribute to a reduction in malaria cases and to eventual eradication. although significant progress has been achieved in the search for plasmodium falciparum antigens that could be used in a vaccine, limited progress has been made in the search for p. vivax components that might be eligible for vaccine development. this is primarily due to the lack of in vitro cultures to serve as an antigen source and to inadequate funding. while the most advanced p. falciparum vaccine candidate is currently being tested in phase iii trials in africa, the most advanced p. vivax candidates have only advanced to phase i trials. herein, we describe the overall strategy and progress in p. vivax vaccine research, from antigen discovery to preclinical and clinical development and we discuss the regional potential of latin america to develop a comprehensive platform for vaccine development.
The yellow fever 17D vaccine virus as a vector for the expression of foreign proteins: development of new live flavivirus vaccines
Bonaldo, Myrna C;Caufour, Philippe S;Freire, Marcos S;Galler, Ricardo;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762000000700037
Abstract: the flaviviridae is a family of about 70 mostly arthropod-borne viruses many of which are major public health problems with members being present in most continents. among the most important are yellow fever (yf), dengue with its four serotypes and japanese encephalitis virus. a live attenuated virus is used as a cost effective, safe and efficacious vaccine against yf but no other live flavivirus vaccines have been licensed. the rise of recombinant dna technology and its application to study flavivirus genome structure and expression has opened new possibilities for flavivirus vaccine development. one new approach is the use of cdnas encopassing the whole viral genome to generate infectious rna after in vitro transcription. this methodology allows the genetic mapping of specific viral functions and the design of viral mutants with considerable potential as new live attenuated viruses. the use of infectious cdna as a carrier for heterologous antigens is gaining importance as chimeric viruses are shown to be viable, immunogenic and less virulent as compared to the parental viruses. the use of dna to overcome mutation rates intrinsic of rna virus populations in conjunction with vaccine production in cell culture should improve the reliability and lower the cost for production of live attenuated vaccines. the yf virus despite a long period ignored by researchers probably due to the effectiveness of the vaccine has made a come back, both in nature as human populations grow and reach endemic areas as well as in the laboratory being a suitable model to understand the biology of flaviviruses in general and providing new alternatives for vaccine development through the use of the 17d vaccine strain.
The yellow fever 17D vaccine virus as a vector for the expression of foreign proteins: development of new live flavivirus vaccines
Bonaldo Myrna C,Caufour Philippe S,Freire Marcos S,Galler Ricardo
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2000,
Abstract: The Flaviviridae is a family of about 70 mostly arthropod-borne viruses many of which are major public health problems with members being present in most continents. Among the most important are yellow fever (YF), dengue with its four serotypes and Japanese encephalitis virus. A live attenuated virus is used as a cost effective, safe and efficacious vaccine against YF but no other live flavivirus vaccines have been licensed. The rise of recombinant DNA technology and its application to study flavivirus genome structure and expression has opened new possibilities for flavivirus vaccine development. One new approach is the use of cDNAs encopassing the whole viral genome to generate infectious RNA after in vitro transcription. This methodology allows the genetic mapping of specific viral functions and the design of viral mutants with considerable potential as new live attenuated viruses. The use of infectious cDNA as a carrier for heterologous antigens is gaining importance as chimeric viruses are shown to be viable, immunogenic and less virulent as compared to the parental viruses. The use of DNA to overcome mutation rates intrinsic of RNA virus populations in conjunction with vaccine production in cell culture should improve the reliability and lower the cost for production of live attenuated vaccines. The YF virus despite a long period ignored by researchers probably due to the effectiveness of the vaccine has made a come back, both in nature as human populations grow and reach endemic areas as well as in the laboratory being a suitable model to understand the biology of flaviviruses in general and providing new alternatives for vaccine development through the use of the 17D vaccine strain.
Adaptive Immunity to Hepatitis C Virus
Mirjam B. Zeisel,Samira Fafi-Kremer,Eric Robinet,Fran?ois Habersetzer,Thomas f. Baumert,Fran?oise Stoll-Keller
Viruses , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/v1020276
Abstract: The precise role of adaptive immune responses in the clinical outcome of HCV infection is still only partially defined. Recent studies suggest that viral-host cell interactions during the acute phase of infection are essential for viral clearance or progression into chronic HCV infection. This review focuses on different aspects of the adaptive immune responses as determinants of the different outcomes of HCV infection, clearance or persistent infection, and outlines current concepts of HCV evasion strategies. Unravelling these important mechanisms of virus-host interaction will contribute to the development of novel strategies to prevent and control HCV infection.
Neutralizing Antibody Response to Hepatitis C Virus
Yong Wang,Zhen-Yong Keck,Steven K. H. Foung
Viruses , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/v3112127
Abstract: A critical first step in a “rational vaccine design” approach for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is to identify the most relevant mechanisms of immune protection. Emerging evidence provides support for a protective role of virus neutralizing antibodies, and the ability of the B cell response to modify the course of acute HCV infection. This has been made possible by the development of in vitro cell culture models, based on HCV retroviral pseudotype particles expressing E1E2 and infectious cell culture-derived HCV virions, and small animal models that are robust tools in studies of antibody-mediated virus neutralization. This review is focused on the immunogenic determinants on the E2 glycoprotein mediating virus neutralization and the pathways in which the virus is able to escape from immune containment. Encouraging findings from recent studies provide support for the existence of broadly neutralization antibodies that are not associated with virus escape. The identification of conserved epitopes mediating virus neutralization that are not associated with virus escape will facilitate the design of a vaccine immunogen capable of eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies against this highly diverse virus.
The utility of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) and other non-human primate models for preclinical testing of Leishmania candidate vaccines
Grimaldi Jr, Gabriel;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762008000700002
Abstract: leishmaniasis causes significant morbidity and mortality, constituting an important global health problem for which there are few effective drugs. given the urgent need to identify a safe and effective leishmania vaccine to help prevent the two million new cases of human leishmaniasis worldwide each year, all reasonable efforts to achieve this goal should be made. this includes the use of animal models that are as close to leishmanial infection in humans as is practical and feasible. old world monkey species (macaques, baboons, mandrills etc.) have the closest evolutionary relatedness to humans among the approachable animal models. the asian rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta) are quite susceptible to leishmanial infection, develop a human-like disease, exhibit antibodies to leishmania and parasite-specific t-cell mediated immune responses both in vivo and in vitro, and can be protected effectively by vaccination. results from macaque vaccine studies could also prove useful in guiding the design of human vaccine trials. this review summarizes our current knowledge on this topic and proposes potential approaches that may result in the more effective use of the macaque model to maximize its potential to help the development of an effective vaccine for human leishmaniasis.
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