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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 30563 matches for " type C "
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Seasonal modulation of the C-type lectin MGL on human DCs  [PDF]
Ilaria Grazia Zizzari, Chiara Napoletano, Aurelia Rughetti, Hassan Rahimi, Marianna Nuti
Open Journal of Immunology (OJI) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oji.2013.34027
Abstract: The C-type lectin MGL is a pathogen recognition receptor, expressed by dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (Mfs), able to bind GalNAc (Tn) carrying structures. This receptor also recognized Tn-TAAs that were internalized, processed and presented by DCs to T cells and it acted as an adjuvant on DCs, highlighting its possible application in anti-cancer vaccination. In this work, we found that this receptor present a seasonal modulation: its expression is higher in winter rather than in summer. The percentage of MGL+ donors displayed a negative trend that dropped to 33% during the summer and increased up to 100% in winter. This modulation could be also ascribed to the circa-annual variation of glucocorticoids, in fact MGL is up-regulated in presence of dexamethasone in vitro. The seasonal variation of this receptor could be an important point in the field of tumor vaccination strategies.
Algunas consideraciones conceptuales y metodológicas en la investigación sobre el patrón de la conducta Tipo C
Análise Psicológica , 1998,
Abstract: this paper reviews some conceptual and methodological issues present in the research about type c behavior pattern. it raises the inherent complex fields of a chronic disease, such as cancer, of the personality scope, and the relationship between them. it also discusse the key question about the nuclear concept in the type c behavior pattern: is the subject consciously inhibiting the expressive component of his emotional response or is he not conscious of the physiological component in his response? lastly, it' s shows the advantages and disadvantages in the different designs used in the type c behavior pattern investigation.
A Common Fixed Point Theorem for Compatible Mappings of Type (C)  [PDF]
M. Rangamma, Swathi Mathur, P. Srikanth Rao
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2011.15047
Abstract: We establish a common fixed-point theorem for six self maps under the compatible mappings of type (C) with a contractive condition [1], which is independent of earlier contractive conditions.
Levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, TGF-β, and IL-6 in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection and hyperinsulinemia  [PDF]
Luis A. Salazar, Xóchitl García-Samper, Susana Alcázar-Leyva, Patricia Gorocica, Eduarda Cerón, María Cristina Negrete-García, Luis F. Monta?o, Noé Alvarado-Vásquez
Open Journal of Immunology (OJI) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oji.2013.31003
Abstract: Background: Previous evidences support to inflammatory process associated with the IR those important factors in the development of fibrosis and hepatic damage in patients with HCV infection. Objectives: Determine the presence of immunological or histological differentces between hyperinsulinemic and non-hyperinsulinemic chronic HCV-infected patients with at least 10 years of evolution. Material and Methods: The body mass index, Child-Puigh score, liver function tests, and biochemical profile were evaluated in 30 control, 40 chronic HCV-infected patients with hyperinsulinemia, and in 40 normoinsulinemic chronic HCV-infected patients with at least 10 years of evolution. In addition, HCV genotype and viral load were established with the Amplicor System. In addition, nitrites in plasma, and TNF-α, IL-1β, TGF-β, IL-6, and insulin levels were determined. Results: No differences were found in BMI, Child-Pugh “A” scores, ALT, viral load, or genotype between the hyperinsulinemic (>25 IU/ml) and normoinsulinemic (<25 IU/ml) patients. Hyperinsulinemia patients had a higher HOMA- IR value (13.6) than normoinsulinemia patients (3.4), and none had a glycemia > 126 mg/dl. Cy- tokines concentration did not show differences with respect to controls. Nitrites showed a slight increase only in patients with HCV infection. Conclusions: Absence of changes in the proinflammatory cytokines concentration or in some inflammation markers in chronic HCV patients with hyperinsulinemia suggests that long-term insulin levels, in presence of HCV, cannot explain by themselves the hepatic alterations observed in the patient with HCV infection, the presence of others elements (alcoholism, cirrhosis, etc.) is necessary to onset hepatic damage in these patients.
Inverse relationship between glomerular hyperfiltration and C-peptide level in Type 1 diabetes  [PDF]
Anissa Messaaoui, Sylvie Tenoutasse, Christian Mélot, Harry Dorchy
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2014.41009

Background: Increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) commonly develops in early diabetes and is closely correlated with the development of diabetic nephropathy. Objective: The aim was to study the relationship between GFR, C-peptide level and other parameters at diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes. Methods: We determined GFR, Cpeptide level, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), body mass index (BMI) SDS and loss of weight at diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes in 495 children (231 females). Linear and multiple regression analysis was used to test for the associations between GFR and other parameters. Results: In the 495 patients, GFR median (interquartile range) was increased vs normal values (p = 0.0001). GFR was significantly negatively correlated with age (p < 0.001) and C-peptide level (p = 0.001), and positively correlated with weight loss (p = 0.02). The multiple regression analysis showed that age (p = 0.001) and C-peptide level (p = 0.05) were independently and negatively related to GFR. Conclusions: This study shows that, at onset of Type 1 diabetes, higher the GFR, younger the age and lower the C-peptide level are. The role of this hyperfiltration in the development of later nephropathy and the putative preventive effect of C-peptide administration need to be evaluated.

Outbreak of botulism in a dairy herd in Turkey
S Senturk, H Cihan
Irish Veterinary Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/2046-0481-60-8-481
Abstract: Botulism is caused by a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobe. Botulinum toxin is an exotoxin produced during the growth and autolysis phase of the organism under anaerobic conditions [12,14]. Eight known botulinum toxins, A, B, Ca, Cb, D, E, F and G, have been identified. Disease in cattle is produced primarily by types C and D. Clostridium botulinum types C and D produce potent toxins in carrion, feed contaminated with dead rodents, birds or reptiles, or any rotting material [12,14,1]. This study is the first confirmation, by direct toxin isolation, of Clostridium botulinum type C and Clostridium botulinum type D in cattle, in Turkey.The study was conducted on a Holstein Friesian breeding farm near the town of Bandirma in Balikesir. The herd consisted of 105 cattle. Clinically, 26 cattle including milking cows were found to be suffering from different degrees of suspected botulism. They ranged in age from four to eight years and had been ill for between two and eight days. A routine clinical examination of the animals, including body temperature, pulse, respiratory rates and ruminal movements, was performed. The neurological examination included an assessment of each affected animal's mental status, gait, pupillary light reflexes, anal reflexes, tongue reflexes, swallowing reflexes, tail tone and sensitivity to pricking with a needle. In the detailed history, the owner reported that the milking cows' feed, in addition to grain, haylage and silage, included ensiled poultry litter. It was reported that dry cows, heifers and calves were unaffected. These animals were fed different rations, without poultry litter. Routine haematological values, including haematocrit, haemoglobin, erythrocyte, total white cell and platelet counts, were determined by a haemocell counter (Cell Dyn 3500; Abbott Inc., USA). The concentrations of serum urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine kinase (CK) and, potassium (K
Hybrid External Fixation for Open Severe Comminuted Fractures of the Distal Femur  [PDF]
Ebrahim Ghayem Hassankhani, Ali Birjandinejad, Farzad Omidi Kashani, Golnaz Ghayem Hassankhani
Surgical Science (SS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2013.42033

Background: The treatment of distal femoral open comminuted fractures is a major problem for orthopedic surgeon. The basic and important aim in treatment of these fractures is to assemble the condylar fragments and then fix the condyles to the femoral shaft by minimum handling of the bone and soft tissues. Objectives: To evaluate the treatment of distal femoral open comminuted fractures (type C2 and C3) with hybrid external fixator. Methods: Thirty-four patients with distal femur open comminuted fracture (type C2 and C3) were treated by hybrid external fixator between January 2005 and December 2008. All of the fractures were opened with extension to joint surface. 30 patients were male and 4 were female. Their average age was 30.5 years (17 to 72 years). Average follow up period was 36 months. 12 patients had isolated fracture and 22 patients had multiple fractures. The bony and functional results were evaluated by the association for the study and application of the method of Ilizarov (ASAMI) protocol and knee society score. Results: 29 out of 34 fractures (85%) had union without bone grafts. Average time of union was 6.1 months (4 - 19 ms). The average knee range of motion was 87.5 degrees (30 - 115 degrees). The bony results were excellent in 24 patients (70.5%), good in 6 (17.7%), fair in 2 (5.9%), and poor in 2 (5.9%), and the functional results were excellent in 10 (29.4%) patients, good in 14 (41.2%), fair in 6 (17.6%), and poor in 4 (11.8%), and the functional results were excellent in 10 (29.4%) patients, good in 14 (41.2%), fair in 6 (17.6%), and poor in 4 (11.8%) according to ASAMI protocol. According to the knee society score the functional results were excellent in 9 (26.44%) patients, good in 13 (38.26%), fair in 7 (20.6%), and poor in 5 (14.7%). Conclusion: Hybrid external fixator is an effective method for treatment of distal femoral open comminuted fractures (type C2 and C3) and may be considered as an alternative surgical methods in the management of these fractures.

Role of the Mannose Receptor (CD206) in Innate Immunity to Ricin Toxin
Emily Gage,Maria O. Hernandez,Joanne M. O’Hara,Elizabeth A. McCarthy,Nicholas J. Mantis
Toxins , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/toxins3091131
Abstract: The entry of ricin toxin into macrophages and certain other cell types in the spleen and liver results in toxin-induced inflammation, tissue damage and organ failure. It has been proposed that uptake of ricin into macrophages is facilitated by the mannose receptor (MR; CD206), a C-type lectin known to recognize the oligosaccharide side chains on ricin’s A (RTA) and B (RTB) subunits. In this study, we confirmed that the MR does indeed promote ricin binding, uptake and killing of monocytes in vitro. To assess the role of MR in the pathogenesis of ricin in vivo, MR knockout (MR?/?) mice were challenged with the equivalent of 2.5× or 5× LD50 of ricin by intraperitoneal injection. We found that MR?/? mice were significantly more susceptible to toxin-induced death than their age-matched, wild-type control counterparts. These data are consistent with a role for the MR in scavenging and degradation of ricin, not facilitating its uptake and toxicity in vivo.
A secre??o residual do peptídeo C faz diferen?a no tratamento do diabetes melito tipo 1?
Rodacki, Melanie;Milech, Adolpho;Oliveira, José Egídio Paulo de;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-27302008000200020
Abstract: type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by progressive destruction of the pancreatic b cells, what leads to insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia. however, a significant secretory function may persist for long periods in a few patients, what is clinically evident through the detection of serum c peptide. this phenomenon might reduce the risk of chronic complications, severe hypoglycemias and allow easier metabolic control. it is possible that these advantages are caused, at least partially, by c peptide itself, acting directly in its target tissues.
Prevalência de infec??o pelo vírus da hepatite C em pacientes com diabetes melito tipo 2
Parolin, M?nica Beatriz;Réa, Rosangela;Vargas, Rosa Maria;Almeida, Ana Cristina Ravazzani de;Baldanzi, Giorgio Roberto;Lopes, Reginaldo Werneck;
Arquivos de Gastroenterologia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-28032006000200003
Abstract: background: recently, a possible epidemiological association between hepatitis c virus infection and diabetes mellitus has been suggested and a higher prevalence of hcv antibodies has been found among type 2 diabetic when compared with normal controls. aim: to evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis c infection in diabetic patients in curitiba, pr, brazil. patients and methods: a total of 145 type 2 and 104 type 1 diabetic patients attending the outpatient diabetic unit of an university hospital were consecutively tested for anti-hcv, using a fourth-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). the control group was constituted by 16,720 volunteer blood donors attending the blood bank of the same hospital during the period of the study. diabetic patients were also evaluated for clinical, biochemical (aminotransferase levels) and demographic variables and previous exposure to risk factors for hepatitis c infection. results: a higher prevalence of hepatitis c infection was observed in type 2 diabetic patients in comparison with blood donors. although anti-hcv prevalence in type 2 diabetic patients was higher than found in type 1, it did not reach statistical significance. both diabetic groups were predominantly female, and as expected, type 2 diabetic were older than type 1. race distribution, duration of the disease, and previous exposure to hepatitis c risk factors were similar in both groups, but type 2 diabetic subjects had higher median levels of alanine aminotransferase than type 1.conclusions: a higher prevalence of hepatitis c infection was detected in type 2 diabetic patients in comparison with blood donors in our region, in accordance with study data from different populations. if all type 2 diabetic patients should undergo regular screening for hepatitis c infection remains a question.
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