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Assessment of Polyamines and Trehalose in Wheat Microspores Culture for Embryogenesis and Green Regenerated Plants  [PDF]
Amina Redha, Patrice Suleman
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.411275

Most aspects of microspore culture protocol have the capacity to cause stress to microspores, hence, less stressful treatments might be required to avoid deleterious effects. In stressed plants, polyamines and trehalose can act as compatible solutes or osmoprotectants by stabilizing proteins and biological membranes. To improve green plant regeneration in wheat microspore culture, this study assessed the effects of polyamines (putrecine, spermidine, spermine) and trehalose on androgenic response namely embryogenesis, green plant regeneration and ploidy of green plants regenerated in three spring wheat genotypes. Microspores of the genotypes produced significant numbers of embryos and green plants among polyamine treatments but trehalose had no effect (P ≤ 0.05). Polyamine treatments for 30 min generally produced more green plants per 100 microspores than the 60 min treatments in all three genotypes. At least three out of twelve polyamine treatments in each genotype improved the production of double haploid plants and seed setting in regenerants. Wheat genotype, concentration and duration of polyamine treatment had significant impact on embryogenesis and regeneration of green plants in this study. The study also showed that polyamines could be used to accelerate cultivar development in wheat breeding.

Productive Performance of Wheat Based on Nitrogen Fertilization in Coverage  [PDF]
Michael Jonathan Fernandes Alves, Wilson Wagner Ribeiro Teixeira, Edelclaiton Daros, Luís César Cassol, Jo?o Augusto Lopes Pascoalino, Milton Ferreira de Moraes
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.69159
Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate genotypes of wheat depending on doses of N in order to determine the best value of N and the components of productivity of wheat. Experiment was carried out in Pato Branco—PR in soil classified as Eutrophic typical RED LATOSOL. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in 3 × 5 (× N doses genotypes), with three repetitions. The genotypes were: CD 108, CD 115 and BRS 220, and the doses of n were: zero; 20; 40; 80 and 120 kg of N·ha-1, applied at the beginning of tillering. After harvest assessed number of Spike (NE), Tang (EC) length, grains per Spike (GE), mass of thousand grains (MMG), grain yield (R) and weight/HL (PH), application of N increased the NE and R, and however decreased to MMG. The genotypes differed among themselves, featuring better performance of the NE (the BRS 220), CE (the CD 115) and R (the CD 108). There were positive correlations between the doses of N with the NE and R and be-tween NE with the R, and negative correlation between doses of N with the MMG. It is concluded that the NE is the main factor that affects the R with N supply.
Efeito de substratos sobre a germina??o de uredosporos e comprimento de tubos germinativos de Puccinia triticina
Reis, Erlei M.;Richter, Rudinei L.;
Fitopatologia Brasileira , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-41582007000100012
Abstract: the objective of this study was to test a methodology which provides a better germination rate of urediniospores and higher growth of germ tubes of the causal agent of wheat leaf rust (puccinia triticina) in relation to the water-agar substratum. the following substrata were tested: water-agar, potato-sucrose-agar (psa), 1/4 psa, dextrose-agar, fructose-agar, manitol-agar, sucrose-agar, wheat-leaves infusion-agar and, wheat-leaves extract-agar. a urediniospore suspension was poured on the substrata in petri dishes and incubated in growth room, in darkness at 20 oc, for 6, 12 and, 24 hours. germination of urediniospores and length of the germ tube were assessed. means for germination and germ tube length were compared by duncan test at 5%. the highest germination rate and germ tube growth were observed on the wheat-leaves infusion and wheat-leaves extract-agar substrata.
Avalia??o de danos causados pelo Barley yellow dwarf virus: PAV em cultivares de trigo no Brasil
Lanzarini, Ariane C.;Schons, Jurema;Salvadori, José R.;Nienow, Alexandre A.;Nicolini-Teixeira, Fernanda;Binotto-Missiura, Francini;Deuner, Elaine;
Fitopatologia Brasileira , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-41582007000600011
Abstract: the aim of this study was to assess the damage caused by the barley yellow dwarf virus (bydv-pav) in five wheat cultivars (brs 177, brs 179, brs 194, brs camboatá and brs angico) grown in a greenhouse at embrapa (empresa brasileira de pesquisa agropecuária), passo fundo, state of rio grande do sul, brazil, in 2005. the damage caused by the bydv-pav was determined by the analysis of agronomic traits (plant height and dry matter) and yield (number of tillers, ears, and grains per plant; thousand-grain weight). the data were submitted to the analysis of variance and the means were determined by tukey's test at 5%. the virus significantly affected all of the tested variables. among the agronomic traits, dry matter was the most affected one, with rates between 26.1% (brs 177) and 51.4% (brs 179). reductions in plant height ranged between 12.5% (brs 177) and 15.5% (brs camboatá). total grain yield was greatly affected by the viral infection, with significant damage in all cultivars, with a reduction between 34.2% (brs camboatá) and 60.8% (brs 179). there was a reduction in the mean number of tillers per plant only in brs angico and brs 179 cultivars, which amounted to 20 % and 26.6% respectively. the reduction in the mean number of grains varied between 26.1% (brs camboatá) and 54.3% (brs 179). finally, the reduction in thousand-grain weight corresponded to 16.9% and 38.4% in brs camboatá and brs 194 cultivars, respectively.
Evaluation of plant growth-promoting and bioprotecting rhizobacteria on wheat crop
Fitopatologia Brasileira , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-41582001000300003
Abstract: experiments were carried out under laboratory, growth chamber, and field conditions to evaluate the effect of plant growth-promoting and bioprotecting rhizobacteria (pgpbr) seed treatment on seed pathogens, seed germination, plant growth, and grain yield of wheat (triticum aestivum). most of the pgpbr strongly reduced the recovery of the pathogens from infected wheat seeds. all treatments, except the chemical iprodione + thiram, significantly promoted plant growth over the nontreated control. psudomonas putida biotype a (11) and p. agglomerans (14) showed the greatest effects. field experiments, carried out at two locations, indicated that all treatments, except p. chlororaphis (42), significantly increased seedling emergence of wheat . in pato branco, pr, p. putida biotype a (11) and p. putida biotype b (44) presented the best results, both being superior to fungal biological and chemical treatments. in passo fundo p. putida biotype a (11) and p. putida biotype b (17 and 44) significantly improved yield over the nontreated control. yield increases of these three pgpbr were similar to the chemical treatment iprodione + thiram. in pato branco, p. putida biotype a (11) and p. putida biotype b (17), as well as the chemical treatment, provided significant increase over the nontreated control. yield increases by the pgpbr varied from 18% to 22% in passo fundo and from 27% to 28% in pato branco.
Cardoso, Elbio Treicha;Nedel, Jorge Luiz;
Ciência Rural , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782002000200004
Abstract: in brazil, the methods traditionally used for cultivar identification are morphologic traits from seed, seedling or plant. the methods using electrophoresis allows cultivar identification using less time and resources. the objectives of this study was to define the electrophoretic pattern of wheat cultivars in southern brazil, as well as to verify intra-cultivar variation. four electrophoresis systems were used in polyacrylamide gels. two were used for total protein (apage and sds-page) and two for the enzymatic systems of esterase and peroxidase. the apage allowed to characterize individually the cultivars br 18, br 35, cep 24, cep 27, embrapa 15, embrapa 40, iapar 17, iapar 29, ocepar 16, ocepar 21, rs 01 and rs 08 and put the others in to three groups: group 1: br 38 and embrapa 52; group 2: embrapa 16, embrapa 24 and embrapa 49; group 3: br 23, br 32 and iapar 28. with the utilization of sds-page and esterase it was possible to individualize the cultivars of the three groups. intra-cultivar variation were not detected using apage. however, embrapa 16 showed variation in sds-page. using esterase, intra-cultivar variation was detected in br 38 and embrapa 15; for peroxidase intra-cultivar variation was detected in br 23, cep24, cep 27, embrapa 15, embrapa 40 and iapar 17. the results showed that it is possible to identify wheat cultivars by electrophoresis, since the different systems are combined.
BRS 327: a new bread wheat cultivar
Silva, Márcio Só e;Caier?o, Eduardo;Scheeren, Pedro Luiz;Eichelberger, Luiz;Nascimento Junior, Alfredo do;Miranda, Martha Zavariz de;
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1984-70332010000400013
Abstract: wheat cultivar brs 327 resulted from a cross between cep 24 and brs 194. 'brs 327' has high yield, white flour and belongs to the bread class. the mean grain yield in the four years of evaluation was 3,998 kg ha-1.
Inoculación de trigo (Triticum aestivum, L.) con rizobios adaptados a ecosistemas ganaderos de Alberta, Canadá
Bécquer,C.J; Salas,Beatriz; Archambault,D; Slaski,J; Anyia,A;
Pastos y Forrajes , 2007,
Abstract: a greenhouse experiment was carried out in order to select rhizobium strains inoculated on wheat (triticum aestivum, l., var. cdc teal). for that 16 canadian native strains, belonging to sinorhizobium medicae, as well as 12 commercial strains, were used. the inocula were prepared in ymb medium and shaken up to obtain a title of 106-108 cells/ml. the standard methods for the inoculation of cereals were used. a dendrogram was constructed by means of the ward's method (square euclidian distance). the variables: aerial dry weight (adw), dry weight of root (dwr), stem length (sl), dry weight of spikes (dws) and number of shoots (ns) were evaluated. a significant increase was observed in all the variables in the treatments inoculated with the native strains and the commercial strains of rhizobium, as compared to the absolute control. in aerial dry weight, dry weight of spikes and dry weight of root, most of the treatments did not differ significantly from the fertilized control. in stem length there were 17 treatments statistically higher than the fertilized control. ten strains were selected from the total. the treatments selected in the dendrogram constituted 31% for the native strains and 42% for the commercial strains. field trials with the strains selected inoculated on cereals of economic interest for cuba are recommended.
Selección de cepas de rizobios aisladas de ecosistemas ganaderos de Canadá, inoculadas en trigo (Triticum aestivum, L.).
Bécquer,C.J; Salas,Beatriz; ávila,U; Palmero,L; Nápoles,J.A; Ulloa,Lisbet;
Pastos y Forrajes , 2007,
Abstract: a field experiment was carried out in order to select rhizobial strains inoculated to wheat (triticum aestivum, l., var. cuba-204). several parameters of agricultural significance were assessed, such as: aerial dry weight, length of stems, grain yield, weight of 1 000 grains and nitrogen yield. as selection criterion of the best treatments, the statistically higher values compared to the fertilized control were considered. four reference strains, belonging to several rhizobial genus and species were used, as well as ten native strains, belonging to sinorhizobium that were isolated from roots of legumes (melilotus and medicago), adapted to canadian livestock ecosystems in alberta. one of the strains was isolated from legumes adapted to soils contaminated with hydrocarbons located in the same geographic zone. the strains grew yma and re-suspended in ymb until they reached a 6 8 cfu of 10 - 10 cells/ml. standard methods for the inoculation of cereals were used. a complete randomized block experimental design with 16 treatments and four replications within plots was used. a treatment was fertilized with 150 kg/ha (nh no ). variance analysis was applied while differences between treatments were 4 3 found through lsd (fisher’s test) (p<0, 05). a dendrogram was built through the centroid method (euclidian distance). it was concluded that a significant increase of values in all the variables was shown as compared to the absolute control. several treatments, inoculated with reference or native strains showed values statistically higher than those of the fertilized control. six rhizobial strains of highly promising use for the local agriculture were selected. biofertilization of wheat with rhizobia is strongly recommended as an alternative of high ecological and economic value for the agriculture of cuba.
Respostas fenológicas de cultivares brasileiras de trigo à vernaliza??o e ao fotoperíodo
Ribeiro, Tanaka Lima Parreira;Cunha, Gilberto Rocca da;Pires, Jo?o Leonardo Fernandes;Pasinato, Aldemir;
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-204X2009001100003
Abstract: the objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of vernalization and photoperiod on the phenological development of five brazilian wheat cultivars. the experiment was carried out in passo fundo, rio grande do sul state, brazil, in three sowing dates: june 23, july 25 and august 27 of 2003. the experimental design was random block, with split split plots, and four repetitions. the treatments consisted of: three light regimes - natural photoperiod (np), four hour day length extensions (ep 4), and an extended photoperiod of 20 hours of light per day (ep 20), in the main plot; two vernalization regimes - unvernalized (nv) and vernalized during thirty days (v) - in the split plot; and five wheat cultivars - brs 179, brs 194, brs 207, brs figueira, and brs umbu - evaluated in the split split plots. there was an interaction between photoperiod and cultivar cycle for the first sowing date. for all the cultivars, the cycle was reduced with the increase of the photoperiod. however, for the second and third sowing dates, there was also an interaction between cultivars and vernalization. these variables accelerated the crop cycle, and affected the duration of important subperiods for the composition of yield grain components.
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