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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5116 matches for " total phenolics "
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Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) as Affected by Soaking and Cooking Conditions  [PDF]
Aharon Segev, Hana Badani, Liel Galili, Ran Hovav, Yoram Kapulnik, Ilan Shomer, Shmuel Galili
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.27099
Abstract: Chickpea lines with colored testa (seed coat) contain high levels of polyphenolic compounds that exhibit high levels of antioxidant activity. However, common processing procedures, such as soaking and cooking, may decrease the levels of these bioactive compounds and subsequent overall antioxidant activity. Here, the effects of soaking, cooking and steaming processes were examined in relation to total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and ferric reducing ability of plasma antioxidant activity (FRAP AA) of colored chickpea seeds. All processing steps significantly reduced TPC, TFC and FRAP AA in all of the tested chickpea seeds. Nevertheless, soaking the seeds at room temperature (for 22 h) resulted in a smaller decrease in TPC, TFC and FRAP AA than soaking at 60℃ (for 2 h). Moreover, steaming was superior to cooking in terms of conserving polyphenol and antioxidant activity. The observed reduction in TPC was mainly due to leaching of these compounds from the seed coat into the soaking or cooking water. Based on these results, we suggest that soaking at room temperature for 22 h followed by steaming for 1 h is the best method for retaining TPC, TFC and FRAP AA of colored chickpea.
Effects of Baking, Roasting and Frying on Total Polyphenols and Antioxidant Activity in Colored Chickpea Seeds  [PDF]
Aharon Segev, Hana Badani, Liel Galili, Ran Hovav, Yoram Kapulnik, Ilan Shomer, Shmuel Galili
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.33053
Abstract: Chickpea lines with colored testa (seed coat) contain high levels of polyphenolic compounds that exhibit high levels of antioxidant activity. In a previous study, we showed that common processing procedures, such as soaking and cooking, decrease the levels of these bioactive compounds and subsequent overall antioxidant activity. The observed reduction in total phenolic content was due to the movement of polyphenols from the seed coat to the soaking or cooking water. Here, the effects of baking, roasting and frying processes were examined in relation to total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and ferric-reducing ability of plasma antioxidant activity (FRAP AA) of colored chickpea seeds. Baked, fried and roasted colored chickpea seeds had significantly higher levels of TPC, TFC and FRAP AA than regular cream- and beige-colored seeds subjected to the same treatments. In contrast to our previous results with soaking and cooking, baking, frying and roasting retained most of the TPC, TFC and FRAP AA in the final products. Thus, colored chickpeas subjected to these three processing methods might be considered a functional food in addition to its traditional role of providing dietary proteins.
Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Red and Yellow Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Seeds as Affected by Baking and Cooking Conditions  [PDF]
Yael Brend, Liel Galili, Hana Badani, Ran Hovav, Shmuel Galili
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.38151
Abstract: Seeds with colored testa (seed coat) contain high concentrations of polyphenolic compounds that exhibit high levels of antioxidant activity. Common processing procedures, such as cooking and baking, decrease the levels of these bioactive compounds and consequently, overall antioxidant activity. Here, the effects of baking and cooking processes were examined on total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and ferric-reducing ability of plasma antioxidant activity (FRAP AA) of red and yellow quinoa seeds. Our results indicate that red quinoa seed contains significantly higher levels of TPC, TFC and FRAP AA than yellow quinoa seeds. In addition, cooked and baked quinoa seeds retain most of their TPC, TFC and FRAP AA in the final product. Thus, red quinoa seeds processed by these two methods might be considered a functional food, in addition to its traditional role of providing dietary proteins. Due to their high antioxidant activity, red quinoa seeds might also contribute significantly to the management and/or prevention of degenerative diseases associated with free radical damage.
Effect of Home-Cooking Methods on Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) Cultivars Grown in Egypt  [PDF]
Ateea A. Bellail, Omayma E. Shaltout, Mohammed M. Youssef, Ahmed M. A. El Gamal
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.34069
Abstract: Four sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) cultivars grown in Alexandria, Egypt, including Monofya 6, Monofya 66, Abeeis, and Beauregard were cooked using four different home-cooking methods (boiling, baking, microwaving, and deep-frying). The antioxidant contents (total phenolics by Folin-Denis, and individual phenolic acids by HPLC) as well as the antioxidant activity determined by reducing power (RP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2,2’-azinobis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) were measured in this study. Results indicated that total phenolic contents of raw flesh tissue by Folin-Denis ranged from 0.53 to 0.87 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent (mg ChAE)/g dry weight basis (dw). The RP ranged between 0.1 and 0.25 mg ChAE/g dw, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities varied from 1.10 to 1.72 and 0.85 to 1.51 μmol trolox equivalent (TE)/g dw, respectively. Thermal processing significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased the total phenolic content, as well as individual phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity of all the cultivars under study. In this respect, deep-frying exhibited the highest increment among the four processing methods. The most abundant individual phenolic acids in processed flesh roots tissues were chlorogenic acid followed by 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Total phenolic contents were highly correlated with RP, DPPH, and ABTS, also the correlation between the DPPH and ABTS values were significantly high.
Preliminary Evaluation for Comparative Antioxidant Activity in the Water and Ethanol Extracts of Dried Citrus Fruit (Citrus unshiu) Peel Using Chemical and Biochemical in Vitro Assays  [PDF]
Joo-Shin Kim
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.42025
Abstract:

Comparative antioxidant activities of the water and ethanol extracts obtained from dried citrus fruit (Citrus unshiu) peel were determined using chemical and biochemical in vitro assays. Chemical assays were used for evaluation of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and reducing power of both extracts and their total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents and antioxidant activities were investigated. Biochemical assays were performed to evaluate the inhibition activities of AAPH-induced rat RBC hemolysis and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation using rat brain tissue cells. Linear correlation between the antioxidant activities of both extracts were determined by chemical assays, and total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents was observed in concentration-dependent mode. Both extracts showed >95% DPPH radical scavenging and >85% hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and higher reducing capacity at the same level of 3200 ppm. In the inhibition activity of AAPH-induced hemolysis, water extracts showed a strong activity in concentration-dependent mode up to 1600 ppm with no statistical difference found between 1600 and 3200 ppm (P > 0.05). In the inhibition activity of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation, ethanol extracts showed the higher inhibition percentage of lipid peroxidation than those of water extracts at the same concentration with no significant difference (P > 0.05) found in the range of 800 to 3200 ppm. The extracts of dried Citrus unshiu peel may be considered as potential antioxidant ingredients of functional food depending on the conditions at which reactive oxygen species are implicated.

Antioxidant Activity Assessment and Color Analysis of Skin from Different Peach Varieties Grown in South Carolina  [PDF]
Yueyuan Zhang, Inyee Han, Paul Dawson
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.61003
Abstract: Peach skin is a byproduct from the further processing of fresh peaches with the potential to be recovered and utilized as a natural antioxidant. Color analysis, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of peach skin from 13 varieties of peaches grown in South Carolina were determined. Color analysis indicated that Norman, Cary Mac, Ruby Prince and Flame Prince differed from other varieties of peaches. Antioxidant activity of peach skin extracts were evaluated by the total phenolics (TP), DPPH free radical scavenging (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) assays. The range of total phenolics content was 8.38 - 18.81 (gallic acid equivalent mg/g dry weight). The total phenolic content was highly correlated to DPPH and FRAP activity in peaches ranging from 8 - 23 AE/mg and 5 - 12 AE/mg, respectively. Three peach varieties with skins having the greatest antioxidant capacity were Red Globe, Scarlet Prince, and O’Henry.
Chemical Composition, Phenolics, Anthocyanins Concentration and Antioxidant Activity of Ten Wild Edible Plants  [PDF]
Khalil I. Ereifej, Hao Feng, Taha Rababah, Ali Almajwal, Muhammad Alu’datt, Sana I. Gammoh, Layal I. Oweis
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.67061
Abstract: Plants were collected and prepared for chemical analysis, total phenolics, anthocyanins concentrations, and free radical scavenging activity. Results showed that, protein concentration of Malva parviflora (22.9%) was the highest among the plants. Ruta chalepensis had high levels of fat and carbohydrates (4.2% and 51.7%, respectively), but had the lowest level of ash (8.7%). Mineral concentrations varied and found to have appreciable amounts of Ca, Na, K, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn and P. Total phenolic ranged from 163.1 (Tetragonolobus palaestinus) to 1328.8 mg GAE/100g (Ruta chalepensis). Anthocyanins ranged between 18.1 (Gundelia tournefortii) and 100.1 mg/100g (Rumex acetosella). These plants differed in free radical scavenging activity. It was concluded that these plants could be considered as natural sources for antioxidants and valuable natural resources as a new addition to the diet of inhabitants.
Antioxidant activity, total phenolics and total flavonoids of Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp leaves
Lee Wei HAR,Intan Safinar ISMAIL
International Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants , 2012,
Abstract: Methanolic extract of Syzygium polyanthum leaves showed mild antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 90.85 μg/ml compared to the standard quercetin (24.09 μg/ml) on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Nevertheless, the total phenolics was analysed via Folin-Ciocalteau method in which 11125 mg gallic equivalent (GAE) and 312.52 mg caffeic acid equivalent (CAE)/100 g dry leaves were obtained. Analyses by HPLC and LC-MS confirmed the presence of gallic acid and caffeic acid as the major phenolic acids in the methanolic Syzygium polyanthum leaves extract. The total flavonoids analysis based on Down Method and HPLC suggested only a minute percentage of flavonoids in the methanolic extract.
Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Pinus laricio Needles and Their Responses to Prescribed Burnings
Magali Cannac Cannac,Vanina Pasqualini,Stéphane Greff,Catherine Fernandez,Lila Ferrat
Molecules , 2007, DOI: 10.3390/12081614
Abstract: Fire is a dominant ecological factor in Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Management strategies include prescribed (controlled) burning, which has been used in the management of several species, such as Pinus nigra ssp laricio var. Corsicana, a pine endemic to Corsica of great ecological and economic importance. The effects of prescribed burning on Pinus laricio have been little studied. The first aim of this study was to characterize total and simple phenolic compounds in Pinus laricio. The second aim was to understand: i) the short term (one to three months) and medium term (three years) effects of prescribed burning, and ii) the effects of periodic prescribed burning on the production of phenolic compounds in Pinus laricio. The first result of this study is the presence of total and simple phenolic compounds in the needles of Pinus laricio. 3-Vanillyl propanol is the major compound. After a prescribed burning, the synthesis of total phenolic compounds increases in Pinus laricio for a period of three months. Total phenolic compounds could be used as bioindicators for the short-term response of Pinus laricio needles to prescribed burning. Simple phenolic compounds do not seem to be good indicators of the impact of prescribed burning because prescribed burnings are low in intensity.
COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIHEMOLYTIC CAPACITIES OF PLANTS OF INDIAN ORIGIN USING MULTIPLE ANTIOXIDANT ASSAYS
Deepinderjeet Singh Joshan,Shruti Rawal
International Journal of Phytopharmacy , 2012, DOI: 10.7439/ijpp.v2i4.691
Abstract: The present study is concerned with both in-vitro assessment of antioxidant activity and anti-hemolytic effects of Ficus bengalensis, Calendula officinalis and Juglans regia. Total flavonoids and phenolics also were determined by using aluminum nitrate and Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric methods respectively. The antioxidant capacity of sample was assessed through reducing power assay, DPPH-scavenging effect,metal chelation assay and superoxide scavenging assay. The extract of Calendula officinalis was found to be more efficient in as antioxidant and anti-hemolytic agents using the in vitro assays as compared to Ficus bengalensis and Juglans regia.
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