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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1110 matches for " theories of ambiguity "
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On Ambiguity and Two Arguments from Ambiguity
Drazen Pehar
Prolegomena , 2005,
Abstract: The author explores and criticises two arguments from ambiguity: S. Pinker’s argument from ambiguity in support of the ‘Language of Thought’ hypothesis, and the argument from ambiguity proposed by K. P. Parsons against Davidsonian ‘semantics of truth-conditions’. Leaning primarily on G. Harman and D. Davidson he aims to demonstrate that the Pinker/Parsons arguments share a common strategy, on the one hand, and imply and/or suggest, as he claims, an implausible view of ambiguity, on the other. Discussing Pinker’s argument he further attempts to elucidate the ways in which the modifications of public and inter-subjectively accessible aspects of the use of language reflect the differences in interpretations of an ambiguity. His exploration of the argument against ‘semantics of truth-conditions’ then aims to explain, contra Parsons, the sense in which talk about the truth conditions for ambiguity does not implicate a threat to Davidson’s perspective on the theory of meaning. Finally, the author argues for the view of ambiguity as a kind of ignorance/undecidability that, as he contends, represents both more realistic and more plausible theoretical option than the one on which both Pinker and Parsons found their arguments and which also comes out in Aristotle (under an interpretation), K. Bach and W. Lycan.
Tolerance of Ambiguity: A Review of the Recent Literature  [PDF]
Adrian Furnham, Joseph Marks
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.49102
Abstract:

This review paper attempts to update the literature on tolerance of ambiguity (TA) and related concepts since a previous review (Furnham & Ribchester, 1995). Various related concepts like Uncertainly Avoidance and In/Tolerance of Uncertainly are reviewed. Both correlational and experimental studies of TA are reviewed and tabulated. Further, an attempt was made to identify and critique various different questionnaires design to measure TA. Recommendations for the use of these tests in research are made. The reasons for progress and lack of progress in this field are highlighted.

Theories of Punishment in the Age of Mass Incarceration: A Closer Look at the Empirical Problem Silenced by Justificationism (The Brazilian Case)  [PDF]
Salo Carvalho
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2013.14006
Abstract:

The paper examines three central problems involving punitive social control in recent decades: first, the steady increase in the number of incarcerated people (the phenomenon of great confinement), with special emphasis on the Brazilian case; second, the way criminology interprets contemporary confinement (New Penology); and finally, the lack of a (dogmatic) criminal law theory on the reality of mass incarceration. Incarceration data are presented here as premises in order to inquire about the relations between the (normative-philosophical) theories regarding the justification of punishment and the (empirical) phenomena of mass incarceration. The questions behind the current reflection are therefore about what role criminal theories play in the expansion or contraction of the power to punish (potestas puniendi) and the explanations the justification models offer to the problem of hyper-punishment.

Central Bank Communication, Ambiguity and Market Interest Rates: A Case Study  [PDF]
Carlo Di Giorgio, Enzo Rossi
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.33039
Abstract: We asked a representative sample of European banks to judge messages released by ECB members (from February 1999 to February 2000) in terms of their ambiguity. In this paper, we use our survey to derive a definition of ambiguity and to evaluate ECB communication. A Structural Vector Autoregression model is estimated and the results show that ambiguous messages were able to affect agents’ expectations for a limited period after a speech by ECB members; moreover, they show that ambiguity had temporary effects also on volatility and moved rates away from the policy rate.
Intersexuality and the Subjective Definition of Gender  [PDF]
Ana Amélia Reis de Paula, Márcia Maria Rosa Vieira
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.59127
Abstract:

Intersexuality questions how human gender definition occurs. As a baby is born, a sex, boy or girl, is assigned through genital observation. However, the simplicity to assign the gender disappears when, as the genitals are observed, their conformation is not clear. Genitals are ambiguous when their appearance imposes difficulties, or even an impossibility to assign a sex to a child. This is the case for children born with some degree of deformity or any Sexual Differentiation Disorders (SDD). Such fact places a strain, both on the parents and on those who will assist the child. The complexity of the problem demands that the child be assisted by an interdisciplinary team composed of a pediatrician, an endocrinologist, a surgeon and a psychologist in addition to a team of diagnostics experts. A study is undertaken in order to understand what caused the Genital Ambiguity (GA) and, therefore, make sex definition possible. When the SDD diagnosis is established early in life, it can cause severe angst on the parents or even the family. That is because it is the family who will be held responsible for what happens to the child. The name choice and the civil registry is the parents’ responsibility. They must make a choice. The parents decide if there will be an investigation in order to make the biological sex clear, or if they will allow the child to grow so that they can define their own sex, based on the assumption that nature itself may decide the path towards sexual clarity. Although possible, that is a perilous path to follow, since biology has already given hints that something has happened that prevented the sexual identification already at birth. The article deals with the main discoveries and psychoanalytic concepts in relation to sexual constitution and its workings in order to clarify the question that has guided and accompanied us along the way: does sexual ambiguity interfere in the assumption of sex made by the subject? Clinical medicine teaches us how the subjects have answered the question: Am I a boy or a girl?

The Influence of Psychological Distance on Ambiguity Decision Making: A Perspective Based on the Construal Level Theory  [PDF]
Zeyu Tan, Yaozhong Liu
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2018.95063
Abstract: Based on the construal level theory, this paper investigates the influence of different dimensions of psychological distance on the ambiguity decision making. Based on the four dimensions of psychological distance, this paper uses single factor within-subjects experiment design and randomly assigns subjects into each dimension to participate in the experimental manipulation so as to test whether different psychological distance dimensions have an influence on the ambiguity decision making. The results show that, under the conditions of time distance, space distance, social distance and probability, the closer the psychological distance is to decision making, the lower the construal level for the decision event or the object, thereby more inclined to ambiguity avoidance. Thus, the closer the psychological distance of decision event is, the higher degree of the individual’s ambiguity avoidance.
From “Cogito Ergo Sum” to “Vivo Ergo Sum”: Current Theoretical Trends and Changing Perspectives in Leadership  [PDF]
Ozkan Karaaslan
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2015.44014
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to review recent developments in leadership theories from paradigm perspective and introduce the new frontiers and challenges of leadership theories and practice. Considering that organizational analysis is rooted in different social science paradigms, “scientization” was likely to result in hegemony of a single paradigm in management field—and in specific leadership studies—by suppressing knowledge claims of other paradigms. In conjunction with this, the study attempted to verify whether the leadership field is dominated by modernist-positivist approach by analyzing the trend in last 15 years from this perspective. Findings of the review significantly demonstrated that the recent developments in the field can be described as a transition from a modernist-positivist approach towards more balanced fashion which employs both retrospective and interpretive approach in leadership studies. However, it is also underlined that integrative perspectives that consider how disparate leadership theories—66 different leadership theories in specific-relate or operate simultaneously to influence the emergence of leadership phenomena is crucial.
Non-reactive strategies in decision-form games
David Carfi`,Angela Ricciardello
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti : Classe di Scienze Fisiche, Matematiche e Naturali , 2009,
Abstract: In this paper we propose a concept of rationalizable solution for two-playerdecision-form games: the solution by iterated elimination of non-reactivestrategies. Several original theorems are proved about this kind ofsolution. We study the relations between solutions by iterated eliminationof non reactive strategies and game equilibria. We present an existencetheorem for bistrategies surviving the iterated elimination and an existencetheorem for solution by iterated elimination in contracting games. We, also,show that an equilibrium of a game survives iterated elimination of nonreative strategies. At the end we prove a characterization of solvability byiterated elimination of non-reactive strategies.
Emergence of 9/11 Conspiracy Theories: Teaching and Research
Dr Pathan Maherunissa
Deccan International Journal of Advanced Research Studies , 2013,
Abstract: Read The Full-length Paper
Performance Evaluation of Various Signal Processing Techniques in a Tracking Radar
A.Kranthi,Ch.Srinivasu
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: The resolution is the important parameter of the radar. Here waveform design plays an important role in the radar applications. These waveform designs can be achieved by using signal processing tools like auto correlation and ambiguity function. In this project signal processing techniques have been developed by using above functions. These techniques are most useful in the multi target scenario of the radar. In this project the signals like burst signal, linear frequency modulated (LFM) signals are used for the determination of radar resolution and also these waveforms are implemented in popular codes like “COSTAS”. The three dimensional plots are generated to evaluate both range and Doppler resolution by using ambiguity functions. The results are being presented for the COSTAS code by using LFM signals. The performance of these waveforms is comparedwith the conventional waveforms.
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