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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 90 matches for " theophylline "
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A case with theophylline intoxication
Ertan Sal,Avni Kaya,Hayrettin Temel,Murat Ba?arano?lu
Turk Pediatri Ar?ivi , 2013,
Abstract: Theophylline is an agent used in the treatment of obstructive airway diseases. It has a risk of intoxication with serum concentrations higher than 15 μg/mL. A seven-year-old female patient presented with complaints of vomiting and headache. She had tachycardia and other physical examination findings were found to be normal. We were informed that she ingested 10 tablets named Bronkolin each containing 300 mg theophylline. Her serum theophylline levels were found to be >40 μg/ml (normal range: 10-20 μg/ml). She was monitorized and received charcoal, potassium supplementation and intravenous fluid. Her serum theophylline declined to 3.1 μg/ml and she was discharged. With this case presentation we wanted to emphasize that the possibility of drug intoxication should be considered in presence of hyperglycemia, hypopotassemia and tachycardia with accompanying symptoms including acute and unexplained vomiting and headache. (Turk Arch Ped 2013; 48: 55-6)
Interactions of Theophylline with Drug, Diet, Some Xenobiotics, and Habits and Their Toxicological Outcomes
Muhammed Charehsaz,Aylin Gürbay,Muhammed Karak?l??,G?nül ?ahin
Journal of Clinical and Analytical Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.4328
Abstract: In vitro and in vivo interactions which are commonly met during drug therapy and their toxicological outcomes are important. In order to increase effect of certain drugs, interactions, which are called as beneficial interactions, are intentionally applied. However, examples of these interactions are in limited number. On the other hand, untoward and hazardous interactions that cause very important outcomes in toxicological point of view are common. These types of interactions develop more easily during therapy with drugs have a narrow therapeutic window. Theophylline which is used in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has also a narrow therapeutic window. Therefore, in the present review, some important examples resulted from interactions of theophylline with drug, diet, xenobiotic, herbal product, habits and their toxicological outcomes have been given.
R. Amin,Soheila Alyasin,Gh. Rahmani
Iranian Journal Of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology , 2003,
Abstract: Theophylline, (1,3-dimethylxanthine) is widely used as a smooth muscle relaxant, myocardial stimulant and a diuretic agent. The most frequent use of theophylline is in treatment of acute and chronic asthma as a bronchodilator.To determine the effect of Theophylline on serum electrolyte and uric acid, 21 asthmatic children (age range 1,5-7 years) with severe acute asthma and 25 patients with chronic asthma (5-15 years ) who were being treated with slow-release theophylline were enrolled in this study. Fifty age and sex matched normal children took part as control. Blood samples (5ml) were withdrawn before, during and after completion of the course of intravenous theophylline treatment (0.05-0.70 mg/kg/ hr). Sera obtained were used for analysis of K+, Na+, phosphorus, calcium and uric acid by RA-1000 automated analyzer and the following results were obtained:(1) After treatment, total serum calcium in acute asthmatic patients decreased significantly compared with controls (P<0.01); (2) serum phosphate and K+ levels of acute and chronic asthmatic patients after therapy decreased as compared with controls (P<0.01). (3) Post therapy increase in serum level of uric acid in acute and chronic asthmatic patients was statistically significant as compared with control (P< 0.001).We conclude that the serum levels of phosphate, potassium, calcium and uric acid should be monitored in patient receiving theophylline especially during prolonged use and critical emergency cases.
Inorganic Molecularly Imprinted Polymer by Sol-Gel Process for Recognition of Caffeine  [PDF]
Min Jae Shin, Young Jae Shin, Jae Sup Shin
Open Journal of Organic Polymer Materials (OJOPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojopm.2013.31001
Abstract: A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was formed using an inorganic polymer by a sol-gel process. The monomers which were used to synthesize the inorganic polymer were tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), triethoxymethylsilane (MTES), and triethoxyphenylsilane (PTES). Caffeine was chosen as a template for the molecular imprinting, and theophylline was chosen as the analogous counterpart compound. The discriminating ability of the synthesized MIP to these two-compounds was estimated in this study. The MIP showed the highest discriminating ability when the ratio of TEOS:MTES: PTES in the synthesis of the inorganic polymer was 1:1:3, the reaction temperature was 50?C, and the pH of the reaction system was ~6.5.
7-(2-Ethyltiophenyl) Theophylline as Copper Corrosion Inhibitor in 1M HNO3  [PDF]
Ouédraogo Augustin, Akpa Sagne Jacques, Diki N’guessan Yao Silvère, Diomande Gbe Gondo Didier, Coulibaly Nagnonta Hippolyte, Trokourey Albert
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (MSCE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/msce.2018.68004
Abstract: 7-(2-ethyltiophenyl) theophylline was used as copper corrosion inhibitor in 1M HNO3 solution. The study was performed using mass loss, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods. The results show that the inhibition efficiency increases up to 91.29% with increase of the inhibitor concentration (from 0.05 to 5 mM) but decreases with raising temperature of the solution. Copper dissolution was found to be temperature and 7-(2-ethyltiophenyl) theophylline concentration dependent. The thermodynamic functions related to the adsorption of the molecule on the copper surface and that of the metal dissolution were determined. The results point out a spontaneous adsorption and an endothermic dissolution processes. Adsorption models including Langmuir, El-Awady and Flory-Huggins isotherms were examined. The results also suggest spontaneous and predominant physical adsorption of 7-(2-ethyltiophenyl) theophylline on the metal surface which obeys Langmuir isotherm model. Further investigation on the morphology using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has confirmed the existence of a protective film of inhibitor molecules on copper surface. Furthermore, the global and local reactivity parameters of the studied molecule were analyzed. Experimental and theoretical results were found to be in good agreement.
Combination therapy for airflow limitation in COPD
Mostafa Ghanei, Leila Nezhad, Ali Harandi, Farshid Alaeddini, Majid Shohrati, Jafar Aslani
DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2008-2231-20-6
Abstract: Existing evidence confirms that no pharmacologic agent ameliorates the decline in the lung function or changes the prognosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We tried a critical combination therapy for management of COPD.Current or past smoker (passive or active) COPD patients with moderate to severe COPD who did not respond to primitive therapy (i.e., oral prednisolone (50 mg in the morning) for 5 days; with Beclomethasone Fort (3 puff q12h, totally 1500 micrograms/day), Salmeterol (2 puffs q12h, 50 micrograms/puff) and ipratropium bromide (4 puffs q8h) for two months, enrolled to study. Furthermore they were received N-Acetylcysteine (1200 mg/daily), Azithromycin (tablet 250 mg/every other day) and Theophylline (100 mg BD).The study group consisted of 44 men and 4 women, with a mean age and standard deviation of 63.6?±?12.7 years (range 22–86 years). Thirteen of 48 patients (27.0%) was responder based on 15% increasing in FEV 1 (27.7?±?7.9) after 6.7?±?6.1 months (57.9?±?12.9 year old). There were statistically significant differences in age and smoking between responders and non-responders (P value was 0.05 and 0.04 respectively). There was no difference in emphysema and air trapping between two groups (p?=?0.13).Interestingly considerable proportion of patients with COPD can be reversible using combination drug therapy and patients will greatly benefit from different and synergic action of the drugs. The treatment was more effective in younger patients who smoke less.Worldwide, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the sixth leading cause of death [1] and is the only condition in the top 10 causes of death with an increasing prevalence and mortality [2]. It has been estimated that COPD will become the third leading cause of death worldwide by 2020, and its ranking relative for number of disability-adjusted life-years lost will increase from 12th to 5th [3]. COPD is characterised by slowly progressive development of airflow limitation th
Methylxanthine Drugs Are Human Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitors
Agnieszka Wikiera, Magdalena Mika, Krzysztof y a
Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.2478/v10222-011-0043-3
Abstract: Methylxanthines such as caffeine, theobromine and theophylline are intensively consumed as food components by large proportion of human population all over the world. This class of compounds show various biological activities and have been found to act as broad specificity inhibitors towards numerous enzymes. However, their action on digestive enzymes have not been yet investigated. In this paper we aimed to evaluate the effects of methylxanthines on the human pancreatic lipase activity in vitro. Emulsions of short- and long-chain triglycerides (tributyrin and tripalmitate, respectively) were used as substrates. The concentrations of methylxanthines in the reaction mixtures covered the range between 0.015 mmol/L to 15 mmol/L. We demonstrated that all three tested substances, caffeine, theophylline and theobromine inhibited the hydrolysis of tributyrin and tripalmitate catalysed by human pancreatic lipase in dose-dependent fashion. The highest lipase inhibition ratios during tripalmitate and tributyrin hydrolysis were 25.74% and 79.54% respectively in the presence of caffeine, 29.89% and 62.79% respectively with theophylline and 21.08% and 67.74% respectively in the presence of theobromine. All the tested methylxanthines exert stronger inhibition in the short-chain triglyceride lipolysis comparing to long-chain substrates. Their mechanism of action involves most likely the interaction with enzyme protein but not substrate emulgation. In case of tripalmitate lipolysis all the methylxanthines showed mixed type of inhibition. Interestingly, during tributyrin lipolysis theophylline behaved as classical noncompetitive inhibitor.
Pharmacokinetic Behavior of Theophylline following PEEP in Critically Ill Patients with Acute Lung Injury
Naser Hadavand,Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh,Sima Sadray,Reza Shariat Moharreri
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2004,
Abstract: The effect of Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) on the hepatic elimination of low to moderate extraction ratio drugs has not been clearly defined. We prospectively investigated the effect of PEEP on the clearance of theophylline in 30 (20 males and 10 females) intubated critically ill adult patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). The Mean (±SD) age was 57±17 years, creatinine clearance 86±36 ml/min, serum albumin 3.2±0.57 mg/dl and the median APACHE (acute physiology and chronic health evaluation) II score was 25 (with a range of 16 to 34). Critically ill patients who had met the diagnostic criteria for ALI/ARDS were enrolled on PEEP in low (5-9 cmH2O) and high (10-15cmH2O) levels. All patients received the ordered dose of aminophylline infusion (3 mg/kg over 30 min and then 15 mg/h) after 2 h of initiating PEEP. Blood samples were collected after theloading dose, 2 and 6 h the aminophylline continuous infusion. Vital signs were recorded before and after 2 h of PEEP and each blood sampling interval. Cirrhotic patients and those who had received any drug which could interact with the metabolism and clearance of theophylline, were not included. The Mean(±SD) value of the pharmacokinetic key parameters of theophylline in high (n=17) and low (n=13) PEEP groups were as follows: Vd=0.42(±0.15) L/kg and0.54(±0.13) L/kg, clearance = 0.035(±0.024) L/h/kg and 0.056 (±0.025) L/h/kg. Mean measured theophylline concentrations following loading dose were 7.08 mg/L and 5.09 mg/L. The calculated volume of distribution (P<0.03), clearance (P<0.05) and theophylline serumconcentration (P<0.05), in high versus low peep group, were found to be significantly different. Positive ventilation tends to reduce Vd and clearance of theophylline in critically ill patients.
Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic effects of flumazenil and theophylline application in rats acutely intoxicated by diazepam
?egrt Zoran,?or?evi? Sne?ana,Ja?evi? Vesna,Kilibarda Vesna
Vojnosanitetski Pregled , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/vsp0902141s
Abstract: Background/Aim. The majority of symptoms and signs of acute diazepam poisoning are the consequence of its sedative effect on the CNS affecting selectively polisynaptic routes by stimulating inhibitory action of GABA. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of combined application of theophylline and flumazenil on sedation and impaired motor function activity in acute diazepam poisoning in rats. Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided in four main groups and treated as follows: group I - with increasing doses of diazepam in order to produce the highest level of sedation and motor activity impairment; group II - diazepam + different doses of flumazenil; group III - diazepam + different doses of theophylline; group IV - diazepam + combined application of theophylline and flumazenil. Concentrations of diazepam and its metabolites were measured with LC-MS. The experiment was performed on a commercial apparatus for spontaneous motor-activity registration (LKBFarad, Sweden). Assessment of diazepam- induced neurotoxic effects and effects after theophylline and flumazenil application was performed with rotarod test on a commercial apparatus (Automatic treadmill for rats, Ugo Basile, Italy). Results. Diazepam in doses of 10 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg produced long-time and reproducible pharmacodynamic effects. Single application of flumazenil or theophylline antagonized effects of diazepam, but not completely. Combined application of flumazenile and theophylline resulted in best effects on diazepaminduced impairment of motoric activity and sedation. As a result of theopylline application there was better elimination of diazepam and its metabolites. Conclusion. Combined application of flumazenil and theophylline resulted in the best antidotal effects in the treatment of diazepam poisoned rats. These effects are a result of different mechanisms of their action, longer half-life of theophylline in relation to that of flumezenil and presumably the diuretic effect of theophylline.
The Ability of Dermatophytes to Utilize Methylxanthine as Sole Source of Carbon and Nitrogen
Ali Abdul Hussein S. AL-Janabi
Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Methylxanthine contains common compounds that widely consumed by human through their presentin food, drink and beverages or through involving in pharmaceutical drugs. Dermatophytes were selected toinvestigate for their ability to utilize three main compounds of methylxanthine as sole source of carbon andnitrogen. Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Epidermophyton floccosum were grown on three types of media:Medium A lacks of carbon source, medium B lacks of nitrogen source and medium C lacks of carbon andnitrogen sources. Two isolated species of dermatophytes revealed well growth on medium A and less on mediaB and C. Dermatophytes showed ability to use methylxanthine as sole source of carbon and nitrogen withefficiency to use carbon than nitrogen.
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