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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 20801 matches for " temperature effect. "
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The Diffusion of Tc-99 in Beishan Granite-Temperature Effect  [PDF]
C. Li, Z. Zheng, X. Y. Liu, T. Chen, W. Y. Tian, L. H. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. L. Liu
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology (WJNST) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjnst.2013.31006

In the safety assessment of a potential site for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) disposal, the investigation on the geochemical behaviors of key radionuclides with the possibility for releasing from the potential repository is an important aspect. Due to the high mobility of technetium under most repository conditions, lots of research works were performed to investigate the diffusion of technetium in different potential rocks. In spite of these studies, there remains a lack of data addressing temperature effects. In this paper, the diffusion of 99Tc in Beishan granite at temperatures from 25℃ to 55℃ was studied with laboratory small scale diffusion devices. The experimental data were fitted with a finite difference scheme to get the effective diffusion coefficient (De) of . The results indicated that the relationship of De with temperatures could be described as the modified Stokes-Einstein equation, and the formation factor of Beishan granite was constant in the temperature range of 25℃ - 55℃ with the value of (3.91 ± 1.77) × 10-4.

The Effect of Temperature on Synthesis and Stability of Superparamagnetic Maghemite Nanoparticles Suspension  [PDF]
Irwan Nurdin,   Ridwan,   Satriananda
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (MSCE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/msce.2016.43005
Abstract: Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles have been synthesized using chemical co-precipitation at a different temperature. Characterizations of the sample were performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), alternating gradient magnetometry (AGM) and thermogravimetryanalysis (TGA). The stability of the maghemite nanoparticles suspension was studied at different pH and time of storage by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurements. The XRD patterns confirmed that the particles were maghemite. TEM observation showed that the particles have spherical morphology with narrow particle size distribution. The particles showed superparamagnetic behavior with good thermal stability. The increasing of temperature in the synthesis of maghemite nanoparticles produced smaller size particles, lower magnetization, better thermal stability and more stable maghemite nanoparticle suspension.
The Effect of Time and Temperature Variables on Some Routine Coagulation Tests among Subjects of African Descent in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria  [PDF]
D. Ikhuenbor, F. Aghedo, I. Z. Isah, I. Iwueke, R. A. Oladigbolu, N. B. Egenti, O. Erhabor
Open Journal of Blood Diseases (OJBD) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojbd.2016.64011
Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of time and temperature variables on routine Pro-thrombin Time test and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) test among subjects of African descent in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria. Samples of 99 subjects made up of 49 male and 50 female subjects with mean age 38.3 ± 22.3 years. Coagulation tests were performed immediately specified times after phlebotomy up to 24 hours (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 24 hours at room temperature of 40 degrees C. Our data demonstrate that prothrombin time and APTT results are stable for up to 2 hours, remaining constant regardless of storage conditions. Post hoc tests using Bonferroni correction revealed that there were increases in PT time from 0 hour to 4 hours (17.82 ± 0.61 seconds vs 18.30 ± 0.59 seconds, respectively), from 0 hour to 24 hours (17.82 ± 0.61 seconds vs 18.48 ± 0.59 seconds, respectively), from 2 hours to 4 hours (17.89 ± 0.58 seconds vs 18.30 ± 0.59 seconds), from 2 hours to 24 hours (17.89 ± 0.58 seconds vs 18.48 ± 0.58 seconds), which were all statistically significant (p = 0.002 and p < 0.000, p < 0.000, p < 0.000, respectively). However, the increase in PT time from 0 hour to 2 hours (17.82 ± 0.61 seconds vs 17.89 ± 0.59 seconds, respectively) and from 4 hours to 24 hours (18.30 ± 0.59 vs 18.48 ± 0.59 seconds, respectively) were not statistically significant (p = 1, p = 0.428). A repeated measure ANOVA determined that mean PTTK time differed statistically significantly between time points F (3, 291) = 119.22, p < 0.001. Post hoc tests using Bonferroni correction revealed that there were increase in PTTK time from 0 hour to 2 hours (37.86 ± 1.04 seconds vs 39.94 ± 1.07 seconds, respectively), from 0 hour to 4 hours (37.86 ± 1.04 seconds vs 42.34 ± 1.11 seconds, respectively), from 0 hours to 24 hours (37.86 ± 1.04 seconds vs 44.93 ± 1.20 seconds), from 2 hours to 4 hours (39.94 ± 1.07 seconds vs 42.34 ± 1.11 seconds), from 2 hours to 24 hours (39.94 ± 1.07 seconds vs 44.93 ± 1.20 seconds) and from 4 hours to 24 hours (42.43 ± 1.11 vs 44.93 ± 1.20 seconds), which were all statistically significant at p < 0.001). Therefore, we conclude that there are no statistically significant differences in the PT and APTT between 0 and 2 hours. A longer timing (after 2 hours) from phlebotomy collection of blood from respondents elicited a statistically significant increase in the PT and APTT result. There were no statistically significant differences in the PT and APTT result determined 4 hours and 24 hours after phlebotomy. Longer timing from collection of blood from
Analysis of Shupe Effect of Fiber Optic Ring Resonator Based on Photonic Crystal Fiber  [PDF]
Bo Yang, Yong Li, Li Sun
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2017.54072
Resonator fiber optic gyroscope (RFOG) is a new kind of high precision inertial sensor based on Sagnac effect by using a shorter fiber. This paper analyzes the noise induced by Shupe effect, and the characteristics of fiber optic ring resonator (FORR) based on photonic crystal fiber are analyzed. The influence of temperature on polarization and noise induced by Shupe effect are mainly investigated, and simulation results show that FORR based on photonic crystal fiber exhibits better performance than that of conventional fiber, and simulation shows that the noise induced by Shupe effect in FORR based on photonic crystal fiber is 7 times lower than conventional fiber.
Profile Characterization and Temperature Effect on the Wettability of Microstructured Surfaces  [PDF]
Yuxuan Han, Yingwei Liu, Minami Kaneko, Fumio Uchikoba
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology (JSEMAT) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jsemat.2018.84008
Abstract: Wetting is one of the omnipresent phenomena governed via natural laws. Moreover, surface wettability at non-ambient temperature especially at high temperature (30°C to 90°C) is of great importance in many industrial processes. In this study, Si wafers with various structures were fabricated to investigate wettability at different temperatures. Three shapes with micro-pillar structured surfaces were designed and fabricated. Pillar-structured surfaces were fabricated by photolithography and ICP etching. The temperature-dependent wettability of single-phase regime droplets was characterized using contact angle measurements. The wetting behavior of a water droplet was observed.
Production of Infant Formula Analogs by Membrane Fractionation of Caprine Milk: Effect of Temperature Treatment on Membrane Performance  [PDF]
Catherine O. Maduko, Young W. Park
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.210147
Abstract: A two-step-cascade membrane separation by ultrafiltration was performed on caprine milk prepared under different temperature conditions to eliminate beta-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) from the whey fraction. Effects of temperature treatment and membrane pore size on the elimination of β-Lg and retention of alpha-lactalbumin (α-La) were examined to determine the optimum permeate fraction for production of infant formula analogues from caprine milk. The frozen raw caprine milk, with and without prior pasteurization, showed the best membrane separation performance. The permeates obtained from the 800/30kDa membrane combination showed the optimal results. The infant formula analog produced using the casein and 800/30kDa-permeate fractions of the treated caprine milk had the closest similarity to human milk with respect to the total protein content (1.3g 100g-1), beta-lactoglobulin content (1% - 2%), and casein- α-lactalbumin ratio (0.6 - 0.7). Membrane performance during ultrafiltration of caprine milk was affected by temperature treatment of the milk prior to membrane separation.
Mathematical Model and Experiment of Temperature Effect on Discharge of Lead-Acid Battery for PV Systems in Tropical Area  [PDF]
Boonyang Plangklang, Pornchai Pornharuthai
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2013.51006

This paper presents Mathematical Model and Experiment of Temperature effect on Charge and Discharge of Lead-Acid Battery performance in PV system power supply. To test temperature effect on battery discharge cycles, a temperature range of tropical area from 25 - 60 degrees Celsius in a simulator is set up for testing. This temperature range is normally practical for battery usage. This allows the battery to determine the parameters of the battery quickly and high accurate. A Mathematical Model with MATLAB Program is written and constructed as block diagram using the equations of battery the parameters. By running program, the effects of various parameters are investigated. The results showed that time of discharge the battery is longer. Then, the experiment is set up by battery VRLA 12 V 20 AH. The results confirmed the mathematical model simulations.

Oxygen Isotope Effects on Tc Related to Polaronic Superconductivity in Underdoped Cuprates  [PDF]
B. I. Kochelaev, K. A. Müller, A. Shengelaya
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.56057

The planar oxygen isotope effect on Tc observed in copper oxide superconductors is remarkable in that it increases from near nil at optimal doping to a value twice that derived from BCS theory in the underdoped region. This behavior is quantitatively followed by a formula proposed by Kresin and Wolf in 1994 for polarons along the c-axis. Herein it is revisited in a more transparent way, and it is pointed out that the heterogeneity of pairing is relevant and has to be taken into account to explain the unusual planar isotope effects on Tc in underdoped cuprates.

Josephson Fourier Spectrometer Based on HTSP: Construction and Quantum Computer Realization Problem  [PDF]
Dresvyannikov Maxim, Zherikhina Larisa, Murzin Vladimir, Tskhovrebov Andrey
Journal of Quantum Information Science (JQIS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jqis.2014.43015

The possibility of creating a spectrometer of THz range, which is based on non-stationary Josephson effect in HTSP is considered. Simple design of Josephson junction adjustable at cryogenic conditions is proposed. Using of such device for solving the problem of factorization of high value numbers, which in fact is the only motivation for creating a quantum computer, is discussed.

Effect of Temperature and Concentration of Ammonium Nitrate Solution on the Succeptibility of Mild Steel to Stress Corrosion Cracking  [PDF]
F. S. Mohammed, S. E. A. A. Yahya, A.G. Elramady
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2010.22013
Abstract: The effect of varying the temperature and the concentration of ammonium nitrate solution on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of mild steel is studied. An increase in the temperature causes a decrease in the stress corrosion life. It appears that the susceptibility in the range 368 K to 380 K was greater than at other temperatures. Near the boiling point corrosion and stress corrosion occurs, at the boiling point, the cracking was associated with a high rate of general corrosion. Microscopic examination after stress corrosion testing in 10Wt%, 20Wt%, and 52Wt% NH4NO3 solution revealed that in all cases there was severe intergranular attack, especially at the high concentration.
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