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We investigate the spatial extent of a statistically highly significant shift in atmospheric temperatures over Europe around 1987-1988 using a boot-strap change point algorithm. According to this algorithm, this change point (average warming of about one degree Celsius) is statistically highly significant (p > 99.9999%). The change point is consistently present in satellite and surface temperature measurements as well as temperature re-analyses and ocean heat content over most of Western Europe. We also find a connection with parts of the North Atlantic Ocean and eastern Asia. Although the time of change coincides with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) going from negative to positive, the consistent warmer temperatures throughout the decades after 1987-1988 does not coincide with a persistent shift of the NAO, as it returns to a neutral/negative in the 1990’s. Furthermore, the shift does not coincide with any other known mode of multidecadal internal climate variability. We argue that the notion of a shift is “spurious”, i.e. the result of a fast change in Europe from dimming to brightening combined with an accidental sequence of cold (negative NAO) and warm (positive) NAO years during this period. The “shift” could therefore be considered as a fingerprint of European brightening during the last few decades.
Objectives: Patients with hyperhidrosis suffer from an extreme perspiration that cannot be aligned with natural or situational standards. Endoscopic sympathectomy is a meaningful option for palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis. A standardized method of monitoring the immediate intraoperative success has not been established yet. The presented investigation shows one proposed sollution by monitoring skin surface temperature. The main aspect is to demonstrate a significant rise in temperature with utility for monitoring the immediate success of surgery. Methods: Twenty patients with primary hyperhidrosis were observed and treated in a standardized setting against a control group (n = 10). We obtained diverse data that permit determination of a point of time of measurement of surface temperature and definition of a degree of temperature variance. Results: After 5 minutes a significant change of 0.5? Celcius was noted on the palms; after 10 minutes on average 1.2? Celcius. Axillary temperature had significantly changed after 10 minutes with a mean temperature variation of 0.8? Celcius on the right side and 0.6? Celcius on the left side. Conclusions: Under consideration of appropriate time intervals of measurement and determined changes in surface temperature an early control of correct clip application in ETS is possible. In the palmar aspect an increase of 0.5? Celcius at an 5 minutes interval, and more than 1
compared mothers’ and newborns’ temperatures (T) when the WHO recommended
skin-to-skin contact (SSC) was practiced during cesarean section under regional
anesthesia. 139 neonates were randomized to be left in their
mothers’ arms warmed by a forced air warmer (SSC-FAW) or put in an incubator.
Maternal and newborn rectal T was recorded immediately after birth, at 5, 10
and 15 minute intervals. Maternal and neonatal T was comparable between the groups. FAW is as effective as an incubator in
preventing neonatal hypothermia while the mother is undergoing surgery in the
operating room, while favouring SSC.