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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3771 matches for " systemic exposure "
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Efectos proinflamatorios de la contaminación atmosférica
Oyarzún G,Manuel; Dussaubat D,Nelson; Miller A,M. Eugenia; Labra J,Silvia; González B,Sergio;
Revista chilena de enfermedades respiratorias , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-73482011000300002
Abstract: intermittent exposure of rats to santiago's traffic pollution is associated to a decrease in growth after more than 100 days (range: 101-111) and to histological lung damage after 90 and particularly after 180 days. our aim was to assess whether a 90 days exposure of rats to air from a santiago's heavy traffic avenue, is able to induce a systemic proinflammatory reaction. thirty-days-old sprague-dawley rats (n = 7) were directly exposed to air from a heavy traffic avenue (8 h, 5 days a week, from april 27 to july 29, 2009). controls (n = 7) breathed animal room air. rats were weighed twice a week and after completing 90 days of observation, lungs were subjected to histopathology and c reactive protein, viscosity and f2-isoprostane in plasma and microhematocrit were determined in blood samples. exposure to pm10, pm2.5, ozone, no2 and co were estimated from registrations of 4 santiago's monitoring stations. plasmatic c reactive protein and viscosity and microhematocrit were significantly increased after 90 days of exposure as compared to controls (p < 0.05). no significant changes were observed in f2-isoprostane, nor in lung histopathology, nor in body weight curve versus time in exposed as compared to control series. hourly mean value of pm25 in the 8 h of exposure was high: 38.9 μg/m3. it is concluded that 90 days of intermittent exposure of rats to santiago's air pollution would promote a systemic inflammatory reaction. this response to air pollution might precede the decrease in body growth and the histological lung damage reported previously by our laboratory in the same species after intermittent santiago's urban air pollution exposure.
Does endotoxin exposure affect lung function and induce systemic inflammation in workers handling bacterial single cell protein?
Marit Skogstad,Liv Ingunn Bjoner Sikkeland,Reidun ?vsteb?,Kari Bente Foss Haug
SJWEH Supplements , 2009,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Bioprotein or bacterial single-cell protein (SCP) consists of dry bacterial biomass mainly of a single gram-negative species, which contains endotoxins. Used as animal feed, bioprotein was produced in a biotechnology plant in Norway from 1999 until 2006, when the plant was closed down. This paper summarizes four previously published studies, where we aimed to explore the inflammatory effects of endotoxin exposure from bacterial SCP on the plant employees. METHODS: Most of the 28 workers that were examined in 2003 and 2005, among them five women, worked full-time at the plant. We collected blood, measured lung function, and performed sputum analysis. RESULTS: Our previous findings showed that exposure to endotoxins exceeded 200 endotoxin units/m3 in 80% of the measurements. During a work shift in 2003, significant decreases in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were detected along with an increase in the white blood cell count and serum IL-6 (interleukin-6). In 2005, compared to a control group, an abundance of neutrophils was detected in the sputum of the workers handing bioprotein in addition to circulating lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and increased inflammatory markers in plasma. CONCLUSION: Prolonged exposure to bacterial SCP, resulting in inhalation of endotoxin into the blood, is probably the cause of inflammatory responses in the lung and blood.
Comparison of the systemic bioavailability of mometasone furoate after oral inhalation from a mometasone furoate/formoterol fumarate metered-dose inhaler versus a mometasone furoate dry-powder inhaler in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Kosoglou T, Hubbell J, Xuan F, Cutler DL, Meehan AG, Kantesaria B, Wittmer BA
International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S36592
Abstract: mparison of the systemic bioavailability of mometasone furoate after oral inhalation from a mometasone furoate/formoterol fumarate metered-dose inhaler versus a mometasone furoate dry-powder inhaler in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Original Research (421) Total Article Views Authors: Kosoglou T, Hubbell J, Xuan F, Cutler DL, Meehan AG, Kantesaria B, Wittmer BA Published Date March 2013 Volume 2013:8 Pages 107 - 116 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S36592 Received: 01 August 2012 Accepted: 12 September 2012 Published: 07 March 2013 Teddy Kosoglou,1 James Hubbell,2 Fengjuan Xuan,3 David L Cutler,1 Alan G Meehan,4 Bhavna Kantesaria,5 Bret A Wittmer6, 1Clinical Pharmacology, 2Exploratory Drug Metabolism, 3Early Development Statistics, 4Medical Communications, 5Drug Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA; 6Commonwealth Biomedical Research, LLC, Madisonville, KY, USA Dr Bret A Wittmer passed away on May 9, 2012. Background: Coadministration of mometasone furoate (MF) and formoterol fumarate (F) produces additive effects for improving symptoms and lung function and reduces exacerbations in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The present study assessed the relative systemic exposure to MF and characterized the pharmacokinetics of MF and formoterol in patients with COPD. Methods: This was a single-center, randomized, open-label, multiple-dose, three-period, three-treatment crossover study. The following three treatments were self-administered by patients (n = 14) with moderate-to-severe COPD: MF 400 μg/F 10 μg via a metered-dose inhaler (MF/F MDI; DULERA /ZENHALE ) without a spacer device, MF/F MDI with a spacer, or MF 400 μg via a dry-powder inhaler (DPI; ASMANEX TWISTHALER ) twice daily for 5 days. Plasma samples for MF and formoterol assay were obtained predose and at prespecified time points after the last (morning) dose on day 5 of each period of the crossover. The geometric mean ratio (GMR) as a percent and the corresponding 90% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for treatment comparisons. Results: Systemic MF exposure was lower (GMR 77%; 90% CI 58, 102) following administration by MF/F MDI compared to MF DPI. Additionally, least squares geometric mean systemic exposures of MF and formoterol were lower (GMR 72%; 90% CI 61, 84) and (GMR 62%; 90% CI 52, 74), respectively, following administration by MF/F MDI in conjunction with a spacer compared to MF/F MDI without a spacer. MF/F MDI had a similar adverse experience profile as that seen with MF DPI. All adverse experiences were either mild or moderate in severity; no serious adverse experience was reported. Conclusion: Systemic MF exposures were lower following administration by MF/F MDI compared with MF DPI. Additionally, systemic MF and formoterol exposures were lower following administration by MF/F MDI with a spacer versus without a spacer. The magnitude of these differences with respe
Modulation of the Startle Reflex during Brief and Sustained Exposure to Emotional Pictures  [PDF]
Aimee Mavratzakis, Elaine Molloy, Peter Walla
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.44056

Previous investigations using pictures to elicit an emotional response have shown that the startle reflex habituates over time due to decreased excitation in the obligatory startle processing pathway, an effect that is independent of emotion modulation aspects of the startle response. However, in some instances, startle magnitude has been selectively potentiated during sustained exposure to passively viewed unpleasant pictures. This study assessed startle modulation during brief, alternating and sustained exposure to emotional pictures. Self-reported ratings of emotion were collected online with picture viewing to determine if any change in startle magnitude was observable in explicit emotional responses. Self-reported ratings of pleasantness and arousal were no different across the brief and sustained picture presentations. However, a significant main effect (independent from emotion category) of presentation condition was found for startle magnitudes, showing that, contrary to previous research involving passive picture viewing, mean startle magnitudes during sustained exposure were reduced relative to brief exposure. These findings are likely the result of a general habituation of the startle reflex in the obligatory pathway. The findings are also discussed in terms of the effect of the concurrent emotion rating task, which may have differently affected the cumulative effects of emotion exposure compared to passive picture viewing.

Fluoride Contamination of Groundwater and Health Hazard in Central India  [PDF]
Nohar Singh Dahariya, Keshaw Prakash Rajhans, Ankit Yadav, Shobhana Ramteke, Bharat Lal Sahu, Khageshwar Singh Patel
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.717115
Abstract: The basic bed rocks of central India are contaminated with fluorite minerals. The overuse of groundwater for irrigation causes increased mineralization of F- in the groundwater. This contaminated groundwater is widely used for drinking and other household purposes. The excess F- is excreted through urine of animals. In this work, the exposure of contaminated groundwater in domestic animals of Dongargarh city, Chhattisgarh, India is studied. The symptoms of fluorosis diseases in the domestic animals i.e. cattle and buffalo are surveyed. The quality and sources of the contaminants of the groundwater are discussed.
Efectos proinflamatorios de la contaminación atmosférica Proinflammatory effects of air pollution in Santiago de Chile
Manuel Oyarzún G,Nelson Dussaubat D,M. Eugenia Miller A,Silvia Labra J
Revista Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias , 2011,
Abstract: La exposición intermitente de ratas centinela a la contaminación del tráfico vehicular de Santiago se ha asociado a disminución del crecimiento corporal después de cien días de exposición (rango: 101-111) y a da o histopatológico del pulmón a los 90 días y más, especialmente a los 180 días de exposición. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar si la exposición al aire de una avenida con elevado tráfico vehicular durante 90 días era capaz de inducir en la rata una respuesta inflamatoria sistémica. Ratas Sprague-Dawley de 30 días de edad (n = 7) fueron directamente expuestas a respirar el aire de una avenida con elevado flujo vehicular (8 h, 5 días por semana, desde el 27 de abril hasta el 29 de julio de 2009). Las ratas control (n = 7) respiraron aire del bioterio. Las ratas se pesaron dos veces por semana y después de completar 90 días de observación, los pulmones se destinaron a estudio histopatológico. Se realizó microhematocrito y se determinó proteína C reactiva, viscosidad y F2-isoprostano plasmáticos en muestras de sangre. La exposición a PM10, PM2,5, ozono, NO2 y CO se calculó de los registros de cuatro estaciones de monitoreo de Santiago. Después de 90 días de exposición se observó un aumento significativo (p < 0,05) de la proteína C reactiva y de la viscosidad plasmática y también del microhematocrito, en relación a la serie control. No se observaron cambios significativos en F2-isoprostano plasmático, ni en la histopatología pulmonar, ni en la curva de peso corporal versus tiempo al comparar la serie expuesta con la serie control. El promedio horario de PM2,5 en las 8 horas de exposición fue alto: 38,9 μg/m3. Concluimos que 90 días de exposición intermitente a la contaminación aérea de Santiago en el modelo experimental promueve una reacción inflamatoria sistémica. Esta respuesta a la contaminación aérea podría preceder a la disminución del crecimiento corporal y al da o histológico pulmonar encontrado en otro de nuestros estudios en esta misma especie después de la exposición intermitente a la contaminación aérea de Santiago. Intermittent exposure of rats to Santiago's traffic pollution is associated to a decrease in growth after more than 100 days (range: 101-111) and to histological lung damage after 90 and particularly after 180 days. Our aim was to assess whether a 90 days exposure of rats to air from a Santiago's heavy traffic avenue, is able to induce a systemic proinflammatory reaction. Thirty-days-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 7) were directly exposed to air from a heavy traffic avenue (8 h, 5 days a week, from April 27 to July 29, 2009). Controls
Predicting Lung Function Decline with Serum Pneumoproteins: A Case Control Study  [PDF]
Shikha Mittoo, Marie Hudson, Ernest Lo, Russell Steele, Keng Wong, David Robinson, Zoheir Bshouty, Murray Baron
Open Journal of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases (OJRA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojra.2014.41008
Abstract: Introduction: Predictors of lung function decline in systemic sclerosis (SSc) are unknown. Serum pneumoprotein levels, surfactant protein-D (SP-D) and Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6), correlate with pulmonary damage. We aimed to test whether levels can predict rapid lung function decline in SSc. Methods: SSc patients who had serial pulmonary function tests (PFT) were analyzed for SP-D and KL-6 levels by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Levels were correlated with an annual rate of decline in % predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) of >﹣2% (out-come); controls did not experience this FVC decline. Uni- and multi-variate analysis, adjusting for age, disease duration, gender, baseline % predicted FVC, SP-D, and KL-6, was performed. Results are reported as mean ± SD. Results: Thirty three cases and 25 controls had a disease duration of 8.8 ± 7.3 and 8.3 ± 6.1 years, respectively. In adjusted analyses, lung function decline correlated with greater baseline FVC OR = 1.03 [95% CI of 1.00-1.07]; a trend towards significance was observed for greater levels of SP-D with FVC decline, OR = 1.37 [95% CI of 0.96-2.12]. Conclusion: Our data provide evidence that SSc patients with long-standing disease are still at risk for lung function decline and SP-D levels may predict lung function decline.
Unusual Presentation of Lupus in Pediatric Patient: Case Report  [PDF]
Karan Raheja, P. S. Narang, Satwinder Kapoor, A. J. Chitkara, Nikhil Vinayak, Alok Kalyani
Open Journal of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases (OJRA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojra.2016.64016
Abstract: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem disease characterized by loss of self-tolerance resulting in development of autoantibodies and formation of immune complexes. Multiple organ involvement can be seen with renal and neurological involvement carrying the worst prognosis. This case report is of 13-year-old Indian boy who presented with fever and rash, along with Macrophage Activation Syndrome secondary to sepsis. Patient showed improvement in symptoms with steroid therapy and IVIG.
Duodenitis in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases: Pathologist Perspective  [PDF]
Priyavadhana Balasubramanian, Bhawana Ashok Badhe, Rajesh Nachiappa Ganesh, Lakshmi C. Panicker, Pazhanivel Mohan
Open Journal of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases (OJRA) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojra.2018.83008
Abstract: Aims: To study the histomorphology of duodenitis associated with systemic autoimmune diseases with clinicopathologic correlation. Patients and Methods: This is a descriptive prospective study. Fifteen patients of autoimmune diseases with duodenitis were included. Informed consent was taken. Histomorphological parameters studied were villous architecture, crypt architecture, intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) count per 100 enterocytes, villous tip IEL count per 20 enterocytes were counted, inflammatory cells in lamina propria—lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, epithelioid cells. Statistical analysis was done using IBM-SPSS software version 21. Results: Fifteen cases of duodenitis associated with autoimmune diseases included 6 patients of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 5 of rheumatoid arthritis, one each of ankylosing spondylitis, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis and seronegative reactive arthritis. All these cases were serologically proven. Only 3 (20%) patients had mild villous blunting. Six patients (46.7%) had increased IEL counts. The range of IELs was 8 - 30, mean ± SD was 14 ± 7.6. Range of villous tip IELs was 0 - 8 with mean ± SD of 3.45 ± 2.56. Six patients (46.7%) had increased IEL counts but only 3 patients (20%) had increased villous tip IELs. All patients had moderate increase in lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate in lamina propria. Eosinophils in lamina propria were increased in 46.7% cases.? Conclusion: One of the causes for malabsorptive conditions in adult population in South India is found to be duodenitis associated with autoimmune conditions. We conclude that a combination of clinical, serological, endoscopic and histopathologic features is crucial in arriving at a correct diagnosis.
Significance of Personal Exposure Assessment to Air Pollution in the Urban Areas of Egypt  [PDF]
Mahmoud M. M. Abdel-Salam
Open Journal of Air Pollution (OJAP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojap.2015.41001

Air pollution, both indoor and outdoor, has been found to be related to serious adverse health effects. Accurate estimation of air pollution exposure has become very important to suggest proper air pollution control policies and to further assess the effectiveness of these policies. In many instances, personal exposures have been found to be greater than concentrations measured at fixed site monitoring stations. As people spend most of their time indoors particularly during harsh weather conditions, it is necessary to consider indoor air quality in exposure assessment studies. The current paper focuses on the importance of personal exposure assessment based on spatial and temporal activity patters both indoors and outdoors.

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