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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2128 matches for " surveillance "
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Progress Achieved in Gandhinagar District of Gujarat State for Elimination of Malaria, 2007 to 2015—A Case Study  [PDF]
Mamta Dattani, Bharat Jesalpura, Dinkar Raval, Dipak Jagani, George Kurien
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2017.73021
Abstract: Background: Government of India has lunched the frame work for eliminating malaria from the country by 2030 [1] [2]. But progressive States like Gujarat has to achieve the target by 2024. The first step in this direction is to bring down the Annual Parasitic Incidence less than 1.0. Under National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) various activities for Vector control coupled with complete treatment to confirm malaria cases within 24 hours were given more focus and implemented diligently and effectively. Aim: To evaluate the progress of the efforts being undertaken for malaria elimination in Gandhinagar district. Design: Impact of malaria control efforts in Gandhinagar district covering all areas were studied in detail. Setting: Malaria prone villages of Gandhinagar district where preventive actions were undertaken in an integrated manner during the period of 2005 to 2015. Exploratory: Data pertaining to rural and urban areas of the district covering all PHCs, UHCs and Towns were analyzed and interpreted. Outcome: Reduction in malaria incidence and scaling up of non chemical methods for control of malaria. Analysis: Percentage and proportions. Results: Area specific approach adopted in rural areas of Gandhinagar district by putting more emphasis on good surveillance, ensuring complete treatment to malaria cases within 24 hours and effective strategy for vector control mainly non chemical methods resulted in reducing Annual Parasitic Incidence (API) from 1.96 in 2005 to 0.17 in 2015 in Gandhinagar district. 226 villages (74.83%) out of 302 in the district are malaria free and only 9 villages are having API > 1.0. The district aims to achieve malaria elimination in the next five years. Conclusion: Gandhinagar district has made rapid stride towards malaria elimination in a cost effective manner by utilizing the available resources. The strategies adopted by the district can be replicated by other districts and States to achieve the goal of malaria elimination.
Sistema de vigilancia alimentar e nutricional: frustra??es, desafios e perspectivas
Arruda, Bertoldo K. G. de;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 1992, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X1992000100013
Abstract: the author reports the importance of food and nutritional surveillance, the frustations experienced during its implementation, and challenges faced in the development of sisvan, analysing their varions dimensions - political, technical, organizational, operational and social - as well as recent perspectives generated by the recognition of nutritional aspects as a mandatory reference for social and economic policies. emphasis is given to surveillance as a basically local activity in nature, supported by decentralization proposals which are materialized in the municipalization of health services.
Enhanced Public Health Surveillance for the Sixth Worldwide Uchinanchu Festival Conducted by the Okinawa Prefectural Government, Japan  [PDF]
Munesada Yamakawa, Miyuki Yamauchi, Minoru Nidaira, Tomoyuki Azuma, Tadashi Nakasone, Fumie Ando, Takahiro Hayamizu, Saki Kinjo, Yuuki Nakamura
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2017.59010
Abstract: Objective: The Okinawa prefectural government conducted enhanced surveillance for the Sixth Worldwide Uchinanchu Festival, with participation of more than 5300 visitors from abroad, many of whom were Okinawan or of Okinawan descent, for early detection of Zika virus disease and other potential public health threat outbreaks. Method: Enhanced surveillance conducted from 12 October through 13 November involved four surveillance systems, (Nursery) School Absenteeism Surveillance system ((N)SASSy), Prescription Surveillance (PS), and Official Syndromic Surveillance (OSS), each of them operates routinely, in addition to case-based and sentinel surveillance under the Infectious Diseases Control Law as Official National Surveillance of Infectious Diseases (ONSID). This enhanced surveillance was conducted for analysis and evaluation, with intensive information sharing among concerned parties. Result: We performed the enhanced surveillance for 33 days from 12 October through 13 November. Information from enhanced surveillance was analyzed and evaluated, and eventually summarized as a daily report. There has been one rubella case at an elementary school in Okinawa City on 20 October and a measles case at an elementary school in Uruma City on 2 November. Those two cases were registered into (N)SASSy on a timely basis. The public health center investigated them quickly, and the measles case was denied later because symptoms did not satisfy with case definition. Discussion: We regard enhanced surveillance as useful to confirm events that might demand a public health response. Moreover, the related including public health centers or medical institutions confirmed the situation as valuable for the administrative structure. However, because almost all (nursery) schools or pharmacies are closed during successive holidays, outbreaks that occur on such days cannot be recognized on a timely basis. More sensitive surveillance for such days, with better preparations for ambulance transfer and at emergency departments in hospitals remains as a challenge for future work.
Short Term Prediction of Infectious Diseases Patients from Prescription Surveillance  [PDF]
Tamie Sugawara, Yasushi Ohkusa, Hirokazu Kawanohara, Miwako Kamei
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2018.69007
Abstract: In Japan, the incidence of almost all common pediatric infectious diseases has been monitored, with 7 - 10 day delays, at medical institutions through the National Official Sentinel Surveillance of Infectious Diseases (NOSSID). On the other hand, based on prescriptions filled at external pharmacies, Prescription Surveillance (PS) collects information and provides estimated numbers of influenza, varicella, and gastroenteritis infectious (GI) patients to the public the following morning. For precise, and real-time estimation of incidences of common pediatric infectious diseases, we evaluated predictive power of PS for diseases other than influenza, varicella, and GI. Results demonstrated that PS information has sufficient predictive power for pharyngoconjunctival fever, group A streptococcal pharyngitis, exanthem subitum, and mumps, some predictive power for RS virus infection, erythema infectiosum and herpangina, but insufficient predictive power for hand, foot and mouth disease.
Descriptive Epidemiology for Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection Using (Nursery) School Absenteeism Surveillance System, and Proposal for Countermeasures  [PDF]
Junko Kurita, Natsuki Nagasu, Noriko Nagata, Naomi Sakurai, Yasushi Ohkusa, Tamie Sugawara
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2018.610005
Abstract: Objective: We present descriptive epidemiology of Mycoplasma infection using the (Nursery) School Absenteeism Surveillance System ((N)SASSy) in addition to national official sentinel surveillance for infectious diseases (NOSSID). It is expected to be helpful for early detection and response to outbreak of Mycoplasma infection and also to be useful for antimicrobial resistance measures. Method: The study period was 2010-2014 seasons. The study area was the whole of Ibaraki prefecture, Japan. NOSSID reports the number of patients with Mycoplasma pneumonia from 13 sentinel hospitals. We compare the number of patients and the incidence rate of NOSSID with the same information in (N)SASSy. Result: In NOSSID, the largest number of patients by age was 27 patients of one year old in 2012. (N)SASSy showed that the incidence rate in the elementary schools is high in 2011 and 2012. Especially, the second grade students were the highest. Discussion: Even though Mycoplasma infection is well known as a pediatric disease, we showed that second grade was the highest in incidence at first. Because (N)SASSy is timely and real-time information collection, evaluation and sharing countermeasures with (nursery) schools, public health centers, and physicians are useful for students and nursery school children, and communities. Conclusion: Because mycoplasma infection is common pediatric infectious diseases and because some patients rarely develop severe infections, we must prevent larger outbreaks. (N)SASSy can provide timely intervention at the initial phase of outbreak by monitoring situations in (nursery) schools and comparing data to baseline information.
Characteristics of Acute Flaccid Paralysis Reported by the Surveillance System and Verified by WHO Officer in Akwa Ibom State-Nigeria, 2006-2012  [PDF]
Bassey Enya Bassey, Vaz Gama Rui, Alex Ntale Gasasira, Mkanda Pascal, Goitom Weldegbriel, Ticha Johnson Mulum, Sylvester T. Maleghemi, Emem Abasi Bassey
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.619299
Abstract: Background: Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) was adopted by World Health Organization (WHO) in 1988 as a key pillar used in monitoring progress towards the global polio eradication initiative. High quality AFP surveillance is essential to support this global initiative. We applied recently developed case verification methods for the quantitative evaluation of AFP cases reported to the surveillance systems to evaluate the quality of AFP reports in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Objectives: The aim of this study is to identify the demographic, clinical and epidemiological attributes and quality of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance. Methods: All AFP cases reported in children 0 - 14 years during January 2006 to December 2012 were investigated and verified by WHO surveillance officers, using standard questionnaire. Two stool samples 24 - 48 hours apart from a total of 1184 AFP cases were collected within 14 days of onset of paralysis with the prior oral/verbal informed consent and transported to the national polio laboratory under reverse cold chain. Result: In all, 885/1184 representing 75% of the AFP cases reported were verified by WHO officers in the period under review. Overall, 534/885 (60.3%) of AFP cases had more than >3 doses of Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV), while 196/885 (22.2%) received 3 dose of OPV and 128/885 (14.5%) received between 1 - 2 doses of OPV. It was interesting that 27/885 (3%) never received OPV before. Overall, 743/885 (84.0%) were reported within ≤14 days of paralysis onset, while 142/885 (16%) were reported after ≥14 days of paralysis onset. In total, 797/885 (90.1%) of cases were found to have fever at the onset of paralysis; paralysis was found to be asymmetric in 805/885 (91%). Wasting or diminished muscle tone was observed in 34.0% of cases verified, while deep tendon reflexes were good (normal) in 79% of cases. Gullain-Barre syndrome was observed in 50.9% of the reported cases followed by injection neuritis (25.0%) and transverse myelitis (2.0%). However, other causes recorded 22.1%. The legs (90.2%) are the parts of the body mostly affected, while arm recorded 9.8% of the AFP cases reported and verified. Conclusions: The result of this study indicates that the characterization of AFP cases reported to the surveillance network could provide better understanding of age, and sex distribution, common clinical causes of AFP and impact of distance to health facilities on the health seeking behaviours of AFP cases.
Dual Dynamic PTZ Tracking Using Cooperating Cameras  [PDF]
Mohammed A. Eslami, John R. Rzasa, Stuart D. Milner, Christopher C. Davis
Intelligent Control and Automation (ICA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ica.2015.61006
Abstract: This paper presents a real-time, dynamic system that uses high resolution gimbals and motorized lenses with position encoders on their zoom and focus elements to “recalibrate” the system as needed to track a target. Systems that initially calibrate for a mapping between pixels of a wide field of view (FOV) master camera and the pan-tilt (PT) settings of a steerable narrow FOV slave camera assume that the target is travelling on a plane. As the target travels through the FOV of the master camera, the slave cameras PT settings are then adjusted to keep the target centered within its FOV. In this paper, we describe a system we have developed that allows both cameras to move and extract the 3D coordinates of the target. This is done with only a single initial calibration between pairs of cameras and high-resolution pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) platforms. Using the information from the PT settings of the PTZ platform as well as the precalibrated settings from a preset zoom lens, the 3D coordinates of the target are extracted and compared to those of a laser range finder and static-dynamic camera pair accuracies.
Enhanced Surveillance for National (Handicapped) Sports Games in Wakayama, Japan 2015  [PDF]
Chisa Kambe, Hiroko Fujii, Tetsuya Niu, Hideo Matsuura, Naoko Nagai, Yuuki Nakamura, Takako Nojiri
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2018.67004
Abstract: Introduction: We undertook enhanced surveillance of the 2015 Kinokuni Wakayama National Sports Games (70th National Sports Games) and the Kinokuni Wakayama Handicapped Sports Games (15th National Handicapped Sports Games) held in Wakayama prefecture in 2015, for which this paper presented operational details and an evaluation. Methods: Enhanced surveillance conducted involved (Nursery) School Absenteeism Surveillance system ((N)SASSy), Prescription Surveillance, and Ambulance Transfer Surveillance from 30 August through 9 November. We evaluated those surveillances on all days including weekends, integrated the results as a daily report, and published it on the web. Results: We found no cluster or cases requiring more tracing and investigation except for suspected cases of rubella in (N)SASSy. Moreover, no moderate aberration was found for two consecutive days for the same area and symptom. Conclusion: Our experience with this enhanced surveillance presents important lessons for countermeasures by local governments for mass gatherings or politically important events.
Der gl serne Bürger und der vorsorgliche Staat: Zum Verh ltnis von überwachung und Sicherheit in der Informationsgesellschaft
Ralf Bendrath
Kommunikation@gesellschaft , 2007,
Abstract: Das Sicherheitsparadigma des Pr ventionsstaates im Kampf gegen den Terror“ unterscheidet sich in zweierlei Hinsicht von dem des Gefahrenabwehrstaates im Kalten Krieg. In zeitlicher Hinsicht geht es nicht mehr um die Abwehr gegenw rtiger Bedrohungen, sondern um die Vorbeugung zukünftiger Risiken. Auf der Akteursebene sind die Tr ger dieser Risiken nicht mehr Staaten, sondern Individuen. Damit gelten nun alle als potenziell verd chtig. Hier spielt der Computer eine entscheidende Rolle, indem er die alten überwachungstechniken des Aufzeichnens und Verbreitens von Informationen durch die M glichkeit des automatischen Entscheidens erg nzt. Aus überwachen und Strafen“ wird damit überwachen und Sortieren“, aus individuellen Bewertungen wird massenhafte digitale Diskriminierung auf der Basis von vernetzten Datenbanken und in Algorithmen gegossenen Vorurteilen. Mit diesem Verfahren sind jenseits juristischer und politischer Schwierigkeiten drei strukturelle Probleme verbunden: das Problem der Modellbildung, das Problem der Probabilistik und das Problem der Definitionsmacht. Dennoch scheint der Trend zum weiteren Ausbau der überwachungsinfrastrukturen nicht aufzuh ren. M gliche Erkl rungen, aber auch Hinweise auf weiteren Forschungsbedarf, liefern dafür jeweils auf unterschiedlichen Ebenen die Gesellschaftsdiagnose, die Techniksoziologie und die politische konomie. In normativer Hinsicht geht es hier letztlich auch um die Sicherheitsvorsorge der Bürger gegenüber dem Staat und damit um die Frage: Wie k nnen wir unsere technischen Infrastrukturen so aufbauen, dass unf hige und unredliche Machthaber damit keinen gro en Schaden anrichten k nnen?
The Household Registration System
Phillips James,MacLeod Bruce,Pence Brian
Demographic Research , 2000,
Abstract: Although longitudinal experimental community health research is crucial to testing hypotheses about the demographic impact of health technologies, longitudinal demographic research field stations are rare, owing to the complexity and high cost of developing requisite computer software systems. This paper describes the Household Registration System (HRS), a software package that has been used for the rapid development of eleven surveillance systems in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Features of the HRS automate software generation for a family of surveillance applications, obviating the need for new and complex computer software systems for each new longitudinal demographic study.
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