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Purpose: Surfactant proteins exist in the
digestive tract and may play an important role in the host defense. However, the expression of
surfactant proteins in the premature digestive system remains unclear. The aim of this study was to
investigate the expression of surfactant proteins in the intes-tines and
pancreas of murine fetuses. Methods:
Immunostaining for SP-A and SP-D was assessed in the small intestine and
pancreas of ICR murine fetuses on days 15, 16, 17 and 18 of gestation (normal
duration of pregnancy: 19 - 21 days). RT-PCR was performed to
detect the expression of spa and spd mRNA in the small intestine and
pancreas on day 16, 17 and 18 of gestation. Results:
Immunoreactivity for SP-A and SP-D in the
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to compare the structures of the chiral molecular micelles (MM) poly-(sodium undecyl-(L,L)-leucine-valine) (poly(SULV)) and poly-(sodium undecyl-(L,L)-valine-leucine) (poly (SUVL)). Both MM contained polymerized surfactant monomers terminated by chiral dipeptide headgroups. The study was undertaken to investigate why poly(SULV) is generally a better chiral selector compared to poly(SUVL) in electrokinetic chromatography separations. When comparing poly(SULV) to poly(SUVL), poly(SULV) had the more conformational flexible dipeptide headgroup and hydrogen bond analyses revealed that the poly(SULV) headgroup conformation allowed a larger number of intramolecular hydrogen bonds to form between monomer chains. In addition, a larger number of water molecules surrounded the chiral centers of the poly(SULV) molecular micelle. Poly(SULV) was also found to have a larger solvent accessible surface area (SASA) than poly(SUVL) and fluctuations in the poly(SULV) SASA during the MD simulation allowed dynamic monomer chain motions expected to be important in chiral recognition to be identified. Finally, approximately 50% of the Na+ counterions were found in the first three solvation shells surrounding both MM, with the remainder located in the bulk. Overall the MD simulations point to both greater headgroup flexibility and solvent and analyte access to the chiral centers of the dipeptide headgroup as factors contributing to the enhanced chiral selectivity observed with poly(SULV).
It is well known that small amounts of surfactants, such as 1-Octanol, in the aqueous solution can increase the absorption rate significantly. In this paper, experimental data were obtained for absorption of water vapour into an aqueous LiBr solution with different concentrations of 1-Octanol. An experimental rig was specifically designed and developed in this work in order to investigate the effect of surfactant (1-Octanol) on the enhancement of the heat and mass transfer in the absorption process, in addition to, the investigation of the impact of the use of magnetic stirrer inside the absorber. The experimental rig for this study was based on the refrigeration mode of the intermittent vapour absorption system. In order to study the heat and mass transfer in water-lithium bromide vapour absorption air conditioning systems, it was necessary to monitor the concentration of the solution continuously. As a consequence, two procedures for obtaining the LiBr solution concentration were used. The first method was based on the measurement of the density and temperature of the solution, while the second was based on its electrolyte conductivity and the temperature. The experimental results showed that the surfactant concentration has a significant effect on the absorption rate; this is called the Marangoni instability. It has been concluded that, in order to clarify the absorption enhancement phenomenon, it is necessary to understand the physicochemical aspects of the absorption process and the effect of surfactants on the enhancement of such process. Additionally, it has been concluded that new approaches are needed to explain the observed behaviour.