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The study investigated the effects of four major particulate matter (PM) components namely sulphur, pulsar ash, carbon residue and ammonium components on the physical damage of sugarcane. A cyclone ambient kit tetra detector was used to quantify the components of the particulate matter at 2, 4, 6 and 8 km both in the windward and leeward sides of the power plant. This was done during the oncrop and offcrop season over a period of sixteen weeks. Eight sampling points were selected in an area of 2500 m2. Plant leaves were visually assessed for physical damage and the percentage of damage was noted. The results of the study were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and General Linear model-multivariate analysis to determine variation between the different means of components. Results showed that all PM components were only detected in the leeward side throughout the oncrop season and in the first two weeks of the offcrop. Ash and carbon deposition decreased with increasing distance. Ammonium components and sulphur were deposited only at 6 and 8 km. The percentage damage of the sugar cane was observed in the leeward side during the oncrop season. The physical damage caused by carbon and ash was observed in the 2 and 4 km distances whereas that caused by ammonium components and sulphur was observed in the 6 and 8 km distances.