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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 692 matches for " sugarcane "
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Characterization of Mixed Mortars with Partial Replacement of Sand with Sugarcane Bagasse Ash (SCBA)  [PDF]
Carlos Humberto Martins, Tainara Rigotti de Castro, Camila Colhado Gallo
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2016.63035
Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of partial sand replacement by sugarcane bagasse ash in mixed mortars utilizing a 1:2:9 mix proportion by volume for cement, lime and fine aggregate. The ash is characterized by its particle distribution, pozzolanic activity, chemical composition, bulk density, moisture content and loss on ignition. The mortars are then produced with a constant water/cement ratio of 2.64 and a partial replacement of sand with sugarcane bagasse ash using different substitution percentages (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%). The mortars are characterized in the plastic state: water retention, bulk density and air content, and in the hardened state: capillary coefficient, tensile strength by bending test, axial compressive strength and flexural and longitudinal Young’s modulus. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the ash can be incorporated into mortars without causing significant alterations in its properties.
Variabilidade espacial de popula??es de Diatraea saccharalis em canaviais e sugest?o de método de amostragem
Dinardo-Miranda, Leila Luci;Fracasso, Juliano Vilela;Perecin, Dilermando;
Bragantia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87052011005000008
Abstract: the sugarcane borer diatraea saccharalis fabr. (lepidoptera: crambidae) is one of the most important pests of sugarcane in brazil. the management of infested area is based on biological control with cotesia flavipes, whose releases are made according to the pest population in field. therefore, the evaluation of d. saccharalis population is important for the success of management program. the objective of this work was to study the spatial variability of d. saccharalis in sugarcane and suggesting a sampling method that allows an adequate evaluation of the population in the field. six fields with areas of 1 ha were sampled, within a grid measuring about 10 × 10 m, with islands. each sample point was represented by collecting biological forms of the pest in the stalks, considering 2 m of furrow. in most areas, d. saccaralis has aggregated spatial distribution and the values of range in semivariogram varied from 18 to 80 m. based on average range, it was estimated in six the number of samples per hectare to evaluate the population in a given area. this number was smaller than that estimated using classical statistical parameters. according to the results, to obtain a reliable evaluation of the population of d. saccharalis immature forms in sugarcane fields, samples should be collected 40 m apart, meaning about 6 sampling points per hectare. this method allows independent samplings, with coefficients of variation less than 50% in most areas.
Determining the Best Optimum Time for Predicting Sugarcane Yield Using Hyper-Temporal Satellite Imagery  [PDF]
Shingirirai Mutanga, Chris van Schoor, Phindile Lukhele Olorunju, Tichatonga Gonah, Abel Ramoelo
Advances in Remote Sensing (ARS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ars.2013.23029

Hyper-temporal satellite imagery provides timely up to date and relatively accurate information for the management of crops. Nonetheless models which use high time series satellite data for sugarcane yield estimation remain scant. This study determined the best optimum time for predicting sugarcane yield using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from SPOT-VEGETATION images. The study used actual yield data obtained from the mill and related it to NDVI of several two-month periods of integration spread along the sugarcane growing cycle. Findings were in agreement with results of previous studies which indicated that the best acquisition period of satellite images for the assessment of sugarcane yield is about 2 months preceding the beginning of harvest. Overall, of the five years tested to determine the relationship between actual yield and integrated NDVI, three years showed a significant positive relationship with a highest r2 value of 85%. The study however warrants further investigation to improve and develop accurate operational sugarcane yield estimation models at the local level given that other years had weak results. Such hybrid models may combine different vegetation indexes with agro-meteorological models which take into account broader crop’s physiological, growth demands, and soil management which are equally important when predicting yield.

Evaluation of Visible Losses and Damage to the Ratoon Cane in the Mechanized Harvesting of Sugarcane for Different Displacement Speeds  [PDF]
Carmen Maria Coimbra Manh?es, Ricardo Ferreira Garcia, Delorme Correa Junior, Francisco Maurício Alves Francelino, Helenilson de Oliveira Francelino, Carlos Mair Fran?a Gon?alves dos Santos
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.520312
Abstract: This study aimed at quantitatively evaluating the sugarcane losses and the damage caused to the ratoon cane while using the Case IH A8800 harvester in different displacement speeds; it was conducted in the municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Three speeds were used as treatment (2 km·h-1, 3 km·h-1, and 4.5 km·h-1), and each treatment was composed of six rows of harvested ratoon, each with a length of 290 m. In order to evaluate the quantitative losses in t·ha-1 and the percentage of losses, the remaining sugarcane, left on the field after harvesting, was collected. The sampling frame was set to every 50 m, dividing the borders by 40 m; the measurement for each sampling area was of 20 m2, with five repetitions. In order to evaluate the damage caused to the ratoon canes, we chose a visual methodology to classify the damage degrees, ranging from one to four. There was no significant difference in losses when comparing different speeds. Therefore, it is more advantageous and economically viable to use the speed of 4.5 km·h-1, which collects more in less time.
A Novel Approach for Sugarcane Yield Prediction Using Landsat Time Series Imagery: A Case Study on Bundaberg Region  [PDF]
Muhammad Moshiur Rahman, Andrew J. Robson
Advances in Remote Sensing (ARS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ars.2016.52008
Abstract: Quantifying sugarcane production is critical for a wide range of applications, including crop management and decision making processes such as harvesting, storage, and forward selling. This study explored a novel model for predicting sugarcane yield in Bundaberg region from time series Landsat data. From the freely available Landsat archive, 98 cloud free (<40%) Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) images, acquired between November 15th to July 31st (2001-2015) were sourced for this study. The images were masked using the field boundary layer vector files of each year and the GNDVI was calculated. An analysis of average green normalized difference vegetation index (GNDVI) values from all sugarcane crops grown within the Bundaberg region over the 15 year period identified the beginning of April as the peak growth stage and, therefore, the optimum time for satellite image based yield forecasting. As the GNDVI is an indicator of crop vigor, the model derived maximum GNDVI was regressed against historical sugarcane yield data, which showed a significant correlation with R2 = 0.69 and RMSE = 4.2 t/ha. Results showed that the model derived maximum GNDVI from Landsat imagery would be a feasible and a modest technique to predict sugarcane yield in Bundaberg region.
Printability of HDPE/Natural Fiber Composites with High Content of Cellulosic Industrial Waste  [PDF]
Luis Claudio Mendes, Sibele Piedade Cestari
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2011.29181
Abstract: In this paper, a continuous polymeric matrix highly filled with fiber of sugarcane bagasse has been obtained and its feasibility as an ink-absorbing material has been evaluated. In order to study the effect of the amount of cellulose fiber on the surface printability, contact angle measurement using different liquids—water-based inks, ethanol and ink for ink-jet printers—and printing tests were performed on composites of high density polyethylene (HDPE) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB). The composites were processed in a Haake internal mixer, using the SCB without any previous chemical treatment or compatibilizer. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and derivative thermogravimetry (TG/ DTG) revealed an increase in the thermal stability and in the degree of crystallinity of the HDPE. The optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the cellulosic material was homogeneously embedded within the HDPE matrix. In order to assess the resistance of the composite sample to the pull strength of the printer, tensile tests were applied to the composites and the results were compared to known paper samples. The best result was achieved in the composite with the highest content of SCB, as well as the shortest drying time.
Trend Analysis of Small Scale Commercial Sugarcane Production in Post Resettlement Areas of Mkwasine Zimbabwe, Using Hyper-Temporal Satellite Imagery  [PDF]
Shingirirai Mutanga, Abel Ramoelo, Tichatonga Gonah
Advances in Remote Sensing (ARS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ars.2013.21004
Abstract: This study used normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from Spot Vegetation images as a proxy for sugarcane growth and production model. Time series analysis was undertaken using the moving average computed in R Programming language to monitor sugarcane production after the inception of land reform in the Mkwasine Estate of Zimbabwe. Overall the findings showed a declining trend with a few years of improved production over the 11 year period under investigation. To attest the possible explanations for the observed trend the study related NDVI data with climate variables and considered non climate factors such as land tenure. The predicted yield estimates over the years correlated very well with rainfall. The study therefore envisaged that hyper-temporal satellite imagery can be used to monitor sugarcane production and enhance decision making for future policy direction.

Physicochemical Properties of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil from Sugarcane Straw and Sugarcane in Natura  [PDF]
Josilaine A. C. Durange, Margareth R. L. Santos, Marcelo M. Pereira, Luiz A. P. Fernandes Jr., Marcio N. Souza, Anderson N. Mendes, Liena M. Mesa, Caio G. Sánchez, Elisabete M. S. Sanchez, Juan M. M. Pérez, Nakédia M. F. Carvalho
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2013.42A002

Under the renewable energy context, sugarcane biomass pyrolysis has been growing as a convenient route to produce bio-oil, which can be set into the chemical industry and refineries as building blocks or combustion fuel. In this work sugarcane straw was submitted to direct pyrolysis in a fluidized bed pilot plant at 500°C, in presence of air. Sugarcane in natura was also pyrolysed as a model for comparison, in order to determine the viability of processing different sources of raw biomass. The physicochemical characterization of the biomass precursors as well as of the bio-oils was also carried out, which points both biomass feedstocks as suitable for bio-oil production in terms of viscosity, surface tension, density and acidity. The bio-oil obtained from sugarcane in natura presented higher carbon and hydrogen content as well as lower oxygen content. On the other hand, the metal content is higher in the bio-oil obtained from sugarcane straw, in special the iron and potassium contents were 807 ppm and 123 ppm against 27 ppm and 1 ppm in the bio-oil from sugarcane in natura. Aliphatic and aromatic compounds as well as carbohydrates scaffolds were identified as the main components of the bio-oil. GC-MS analyses showed aromatic products from lignine fragmentation and free sugars and sugar derivatives.

Effect of Dilution of Treated Distillery Effluent (TDE) on Soil Properties and Yield of Sugarcane  [PDF]
Previna Sivaloganathan, Baskar Murugaiyan, Saravanan Appavou, Leninraja Dharmaraj
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.49222

Sugarcane is one of the most important cash crops, which plays a pivotal role in India’s agricultural and industrial economy. The treated distillery effluent (TDE) being plant originated, contains all plant nutrients and organic matter. Therefore, it is being used as a cheap source of nutrients and organic manure in agriculture activities in soil besides improving soil physical properties. The experiment was conducted during August, 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 with CO 86032 in a randomized block design with six treatments and was replicated four times. The TDE was discharged @ 1.00, 0.50, 0.33, 0.25 and 0.20 lakh liters·ha-1 to get the dilutions of 1:10, 1:20, 1:30, 1:40 and 1:50 dilutions respectively. It was applied four times at 40 days interval starting from 45th day after planting. The fertilizers viz., N and P @ 75 percent of the recommended dose were applied and K was skipped. The results revealed that irrigation with TDE at 1:10 dilution resulted in higher yield of sugarcane. The TDE did not have any influence on quality parameters of sugarcane. The TDE application favourably influenced the available nutrients and organic carbon content in the soil. Besides, the present findings credibly proved that the TDE application not only enhanced the soil fertility status but also substituted for 25 percent of N and P and 100 percent of K fertilizers to sugarcane crop.

Responses of Rice Mini-Core Collection Accessions to Damage by Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) Stem Borer  [PDF]
Jacqueline Barbosa Nascimento, José Alexandre de Freitas Barrigossi
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.59082

This study aimed to observe the response of 32 rice accessions to attack of sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis Fabr., 1794). Twenty larvae were placed on the leaf sheaths of rice plants. At 30 days after infestation, the rice plants were cut at ground level and taken to the laboratory to analyse the signs of borer attack, external and internal diameter of the stem and weight of surviving larvae. The results of the morphological traits of the rice plant, response of the plant to insect attack and development of the sugarcane borer larvae indicated a genotypic variation. The accessions that most favored larval survivals were IRAT 124 and MEARIN. Larvae with highest weight (0.0643 g) were found in IAPAR L 99-98 and the largest internal diameters of the rice stem (5.65 mm) were found in LAC 12. These accessions (IRAT 124, MEARIN, IAPAR L 99-98 and LAC 12) remained morphologically grouped with IAC 47, cultivar susceptible to sugarcane borer. The most tolerant materials based on the ability to produce new tillers after larval infestation were BR IRGA 417 and MTU 15. The results of this study indicate that all the morphological traits were able to separate the accessions of rice into different groups in relation to resistance to the sugarcane borer D. saccharalis. These materials can be used as donor sources in pre-breeding for genetic resistance to sugarcane borers.

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