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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1321 matches for " substrate utilisation "
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Gregory C. Bogdanis,Anna Vangelakoudi,Maria Maridaki
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2008,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the relative exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation during walking in inactive and overweight men and women and evaluate any possible sex differences. Forty six healthy, sedentary, overweight men (age: 36.3 ± 1.3 years, body fat: 28.8 ± 0.8%, n = 28, mean ± SE) and women (age: 36.6 ± 1.8 years, body fat: 37.1 ± 0.8%, n = 18) participated in the study. Fat oxidation was calculated from expired air analysis using indirect calorimetry during an incremental treadmill walking test. Peak fat oxidation rate (PFO) was higher in men compared to women (0.31 ± 0.02 vs. 0.20 ± 0.02 g.min-1; p < 0.001), but this difference disappeared when PFO was scaled per kg fat-free mass (4. 36 ± 0.23 vs. 3.99 ± 0.37 mg.kg fat free mass-1.min-1). Also, the relative exercise intensity at which PFO occurred was similar for men and women and corresponded to 40.1 ± 1.8 and 39. 5 ± 2.3% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and 60.0 ± 1.4 and 57.8 ± 1.4% of maximal heart rate, respectively. The walking speed corresponding to PFO was 5.5 ± 0.2 and 5.0 ± 0.1 km·h-1 for men and women, respectively. Regression analysis showed that sex, FFM and VO2max were significant predictors of PFO expressed in g.min-1 (adjusted R2 = 0.48, p = 0.01). However when PFO was scaled per kg FFM, only a small part of the variance was explained by VO2max (adjusted R2 = 0.12, p < 0.05). In conclusion, peak fat oxidation rate and the corresponding relative exercise intensity were similar in male and female overweight and sedentary individuals, but lower compared to those reported for leaner and/or physically active persons. Walking at a moderate speed (5.0-5.5 km·h-1) may be used as a convenient way to exercise at an intensity eliciting peak fat oxidation in overweight individuals
Evaluación de la adecuación de las estancias en un hospital de tercer nivel
Pérez-Rubio,A.; Santos,S.; Luquero,F. J.; Tamames,S.; Cantón,B.; Castrodeza,J.J.;
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra , 2007, DOI: 10.4321/S1137-66272007000100003
Abstract: background: the appropriateness evaluation protocol (aep) has proved to be a useful tool for reviewing the utilisation of hospital resources. the aim of this article is to determine the proportion of inappropriate admissions and stays, as well as their causes, in patients hospitalised in the hospital clínico universitario de valladolid (hcuv). material and methods: a retrospective, analytical, observational, cohort study. the period of study was one year (2004). a sample of 1,630 admissions was gathered. case definition, variables of interest and the model of data gathering were carried out in accordance with the aep. the principal variables were analysed by means of a basal analysis and the possible relations between them. results: fifty-four percent of the admissions showed at least one day of inappropriate stay, with the global rate of inappropriateness being 34.17%. amongst the causes responsible for inappropriateness, 68.9% of admissions showed at least one criterion falling under the responsibility of the doctor or the hospital, and 51.3% were due to delays in the development of study or treatment. conclusions: the utilisation of methods of identification of inappropriate use such as aep show applications both in planning and in hospital management, by making it possible to identify hospital problems causing delays, principally problems of an organisational type, making it possible to develop interventions aimed at reducing inappropriate use.
Biomass energy resources utilisation and waste management  [PDF]
Abdeen Mustafa Omer
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.31016
Abstract: This Article discusses a comprehensive review of biomass energy sources, environment and sustainable development. This includes all the biomass energy technologies, energy efficiency systems, energy conservation scenarios, energy savings and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce emissions. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts of biomass technology. This article gives an overview of present and future use of biomass as an industrial feed-stock for production of fuels, chemicals and other materials. However, to be truly competitive in an open market situation, higher value products are required. Results suggest that biomass technology must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated, but especially in remote rural areas.
A utiliza??o de servi?os de saúde por sistema de financiamento
Porto,Silvia Marta; Santos,Isabela Soares; Ugá,Maria Alicia Dominguez;
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81232006000400013
Abstract: this article analyses, from micro-data of the national sample household survey (pnad/ibge) from 1998 and 2003, the utilisation of health services according to different financing systems. in other words, it analyses if this utilisation has been done through the national health system sus (public and universal health insurance, financed by taxes), through private health insurance (premiums paid by the insured population and/or their employers) or through out-of-pocket payments. the main results are: 1) sus finances most of inpatient and outpatient utilisation and its participation has strongly increased from 1998 to 2003; 2) although the absolute number of outpatient utilisation made through the three systems has increased, sus expansion has been much stronger (it increased 44%) and it corresponded to a slower increase (6,2%) of out-of-pocket utilisation and 3) sus is the main financing system of the two extremes of complexity of health care: primary care and high complexity services.
An Appraisal of Resource Utilization in Vocational and Technical Education in Selected Colleges of Education in Southwest Nigeria
Education , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.edu.20120201.08
Abstract: Availability and adequacy of resources in an organisation go a long way in achieving specific goals and objectives. The utilisation of these resources is also very germane. This paper dealt with required resources in Vocational Technical Education, its availability and adequacy. The major resources which were identified and researched into are utilisation of space and physical resources in Vocational and Technical Education in selected Collages of Education in South West Nigeria. Descriptive research of the survey type was used with 1,040 subjects. The subjects were selected using stratified, purposive and simple random sampling techniques. Questionnaire and inventory were the instruments used for this study. Recommendations were made based on the findings and conclusion of the study.
The EurMedStat proposals on indicators for price and utilisation
Tom Walley,Pietro Folino-Gallo,Michael Barry,Mario Bruzzone
Italian Journal of Public Health , 2006, DOI: 10.2427/5946
Abstract: Medicines account for an increasing proportion of healthcare budgets in all European countries. The EuroMedStat project aims to establish methods and systems for comparing the publicly funded pharmaceutical markets across Europe. A key issue is how to compare prices across countries. There are established methods for bilateral comparisons between two countries which are used in pricing negotiations but no means of a broader overview. Difficulties exist because of: a lack of directly comparable packages of individual medicines across Europe; currency conversion in some countries, despite the use of the euro; a range of different prices from different parts of the supply chain that could be studied; differences even within what are included in prices across countries (e.g. pharmacy fees etc); and most important, lack of availability of data on many of these points. Our aim was to produce pragmatic suggestions and these are presented. We suggest that the price used in the pharmacy retail price; that the denominator for price is the defined daily dose; and that the package size selected is that which most closely equates to one month’s treatment at the most commonly used dosage. From this, we derive a number of markers of the efficiency of national markets. It is important that the limitations of these are understood and that they are sued only as broad indicators to begin exploring areas of possible concern, and not for instance in price setting. These indicators now need field testing and the project will extent to include the new accession countries.
Knowledge and Utilisation of Emergency Contraception Pills among Female Undergraduate Students at the University of Nairobi, Kenya  [PDF]
Mwaniki Grace Nyambura, James N. Kiarie, Omenge Orang’o, Okubatsion Tekeste Okube
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2017.79100
Abstract: Background: Emergency Contraception (EC) is used after unprotected sexual intercourse, following sexual abuse, misuse of regular contraception or non-use of contraception. Seventeen percent of pregnancies in Kenya are unintended, potentially leading to unsafe abortion that contributes to the high maternal mortality rate in Country. According to 2016 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS), the maternal mortality ratio was 362 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Female students in University or College are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and illegal abortions resulting in mortality, morbidity and psychosocial problems. Knowledge on EC is very important for students as they are not in stable relationships and not using regular contraception. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and use of Emergency Contraception among female undergraduate students in the University of Nairobi. Materials and Methods: We used an institution-based cross sectional, quantitative study to sample was employed among 383 female undergraduate students at the University of Nairobi. The University of Nairobi has six colleges and systematic random sampling was used to select study participants from each college. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and analysed using SPSS Version 16. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression were used to determine sample characteristics significantly associated with knowledge and utilisation of Emergency Contraception. Results: Most (53%) of the respondents were sexually active, and only 20% of the sexually active female students had ever used Emergency Contraception. Emergency Contraception awareness was high at 86.4%. However, based on a predefined criterion, accurate knowledge of Emergency Contraception was low at 42.6%.The majority (82.5%) of the
Limited Focus on the Use of Health Care by Elderly Migrants—A Literature Review  [PDF]
Katarina Hjelm, Bj?rn Albin
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.46049

Our premise for this literature review is the global demographic change caused by the world’s population living longer and becoming older, and extensive international migration leading to multicultural societies. Increasing age leads to health problems, often long-term or chronic, requiring investments in health care. Worse health and dissimilarities in pattern of morbidity/ mortality have been found in foreign-compared to Swedish-born persons, so it is reasonable to assume that this affects use of health care. The exploratory review focuses on elderly migrants’ (>65 years) use of healthcare. The databases Pub Med, EBSCO, CINAHL and ERIC were searched in 2000-2013. A limited number of studies were found; few had a comparative approach, most were from the USA, and focused on migrants from the former Soviet Union or countries in South-East Asia. A range of factors were identified that influence patterns of health care use: language fluency, ability to communicate, self-reported health status, prevalence of chronic disease, physical distance from care provision, availability of transport to reach care, cost of care, the health insurance system, cultural norms and values regarding different forms of care, level of education, and length of residence in the host country. Most studies treated health care from a general perspective and collected data from community and hospital settings, without analysing usage separately. Some studies indicated elderly migrants making use of health care less than other groups but the pattern is not unambiguous: other studies show that there is an overuse of health care. It is therefore difficult to show any particular pattern, or possible differences in use, regarding community versus in-patient care. Studies focusing on migrants’ actual use of health care are few and further research is needed, especially because elderly people form the largest group of users of health care and will be even larger in the future.

Sociodemographic Predictors of Health-Related Quality of Life and Healthcare Service Utilisation among Young Refugees in South Australia  [PDF]
Tahereh Ziaian, Helena de Anstiss, Georgia Antoniou, Teresa Puvimanasinghe, Peter Baghurst
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2016.61002
Abstract: Although refugee adolescents and children are recognised as a health risk population, few studies have explored their Health-related Quality of Life (HRQOL). The present study investigated 1) the sociodemographic predictors of HRQOL such as ethnicity, trauma exposure, and length of residency in Australia in a multiethnic paediatric population with refugee experiences and 2) the relationship between mental healthcare utilisation and HRQOL. Method: Participants were 458 adolescents and children, aged 4 - 17 years, living in South Australia. Parents provided data across the sample and adolescents also completed questionnaires. Overall HRQOL and its composite functional dimensions were assessed using the Paediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL) instrument. Questions from the Child and Adolescent Component of the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing were used to assess service utilisation. Results: Migration region/ethnicity predicted better HRQOL as well as physical, emotional and psychosocial functioning for both children and adolescents. African youths indicated higher HRQOL than those from the former Yugoslavia and the Middle East/South Asia respectively. Pre-migration trauma exposure was associated with lower HRQOL; and longer stay in Australia was related to lower emotional functioning in children. There was a negative association between healthcare service utilisation and PedsQL scores, with participants accessing services demonstrating lower HRQOL. Conclusion: Using more rigorous methods, future research is needed to investigate additional sociodemographic predictors of HRQOL, and protective/risk factors that impact on HRQOL of young refugees.
Changes among male and female visitors to practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine in a large adult Norwegian population from 1997 to 2008 (The HUNT studies)
Aslak Steinsbekk, Marit B Rise, Roar Johnsen
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-61
Abstract: Two cross sectional adult total population health surveys from Central Norwegian (the Nord-Tr?ndelag Health Studies (HUNT)). In 1997 42,277 and in 2008 50,713 respondents were included. Variables included demographics (age, education, working status), lifestyle (daily smoker, did hard physical activities), health status (self-rated health status, recent complaints, chronic complaints, psychiatric complaints, a range of diseases) and health care use (visit general practitioner, chiropractor). A test of difference between the results of multivariable logistic regression models for each year, including all variables, was used to analyse changes from 1997 to 2008.In 1997 9.4% (95%CI 9.1-9.6) of the population had visited a CAM practitioner in the last 12 months and this increased to 12.6% (12.3-12.9) in 2008 (p < 0.001 for difference). Prevalence of CAM use in females was almost twice as high as that in males both years. For males, the significant changes from 1997 to 2008 (p < 0.05) were an increase in odds of visiting for those under 50 years, who had a recent complaint, were widower or did hard physical activities. There was a decrease for males who had a university degree, psychiatric complaint or hay fever. For females there was an increase in the odds for those under 50 years, who had a recent complaint or chronic complaint. It was a decrease for females with reported fair global health, psychiatric complaint, hay fever or if they had visited a chiropractor.The increase in visits was mainly among younger people of both genders with more limited complaints. A larger proportion of the more healthy part of the population is increasing their visits to CAM practitioners.Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) are treatment modalities outside the dominant health care system. Several studies have investigated the reasons why people use these practices [1]. Issues such as control and participation, perceptions of illness, holism and natural treatments, and general ph
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