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Review of Children’s Identity Construction via Narratives  [PDF]
Jiryung Ahn
Creative Education (CE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2011.25060
Abstract: Understanding oneself is a fundamental human concern that starts early and continues throughout life. Identity construction is also a life-long process, but early childhood is the critical period for laying the foundation. Children’s identity construction proceeds through diverse perspectives which do not necessarily follow developmental steps. These perspectives include how children view themselves in relation to others through narratives, and how they embody themselves in the peer interactions of peer group and school. Self-identity is changed and transformed through interactions with environment and diverse experiences. The various ways children construct their identities reveal their efforts to “become.” Understanding who we are in early childhood opens the door to acknowledging ourselves as significant human beings.
The low frequency electromagnetic field on the rat EEG  [PDF]
Samira M. Sallam
Journal of Biophysical Chemistry (JBPC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbpc.2012.33026
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to find out the effects of low frequency electromagnetic field (EMF) 50 Hz - 10 mT on the rat electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded from the rat brain cortex and from the skull surface. The rats were, whole body, exposed to this EMF intensity one hour daily for 7 days. Recovery study was done after one week from stopping the EMF exposure. The effects of the filed were estimated by compression of the averaged EEG frequency spectra in the range of frequencies between 0.2 - 0.7 Hz and by comparison of amplitude of EEG waves in control, exposed to EMF and recovery animals. Statistically significant effects of EMF were observed both in EEG amplitude and power reduction at most EEG frequencies. Also, noticeable variations were observed in normal values of maximum amplitude and number of successive EEG epochs recorded from brain and skull surfaces after exposure to ELF magnetic fields. These results show that a weak low EMF can influence the spontaneous electrical rat brain activity in the animals subjected to the EMF.
Evaluation of a teacher-led physical activity curriculum to increase preschooler physical activity  [PDF]
Margaret Dunn-Carver, Lizzy Pope, Gregory Dana, Anne Dorwaldt, Brian Flynn, Janice Bunn, Jean Harvey-Berino
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.31018
Abstract: Preschool students are generally sedentary at school, and few interventions have addressed whether teacher-led activities can increase physical activity at preschools. The current study aimed to increase physical activity in preschool children enrolled in childcare centers by training childcare providers to deliver a physical activity curriculum. A within-group pre-test/post-test design was used including 32 children at 4 preschools. A teacher-led physical activity curriculum, the Coordinated Approach to Child Health Early Childhood Education Curriculum (CEC) was implemented in each childcare center for six weeks. Activity levels of participants were monitored through the use of accelerometers and direct observation for approximately five hours pre- and post-intervention. Time spent in moderate/vigorous physical activity in preschoolers in three of the four preschools suggested a positive trend increasing from 34.5% ± 13.2% baseline to 39.3% ± 15.4% at follow-up (p = 0.10). Teachers from all four centers reported spending 24.6 ± 13.0 minutes per activity session with up to two activity sessions completed per day. These results justify larger trials to determine the impact of a teacher-led physical activity curriculum on the intensity and duration of preschool students’ physical activity at school.
An Analysis of the Cycles and Periodicities of Annual Rainfall over Awka Region, Nigeria  [PDF]
Emma E. Ezenwaji, Philip O. Phil-Eze, Ifeanyi C. Enete, Bernard O. Osuiwu
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2014.44059
Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyse the cycles and periodicities of annual rainfall over Awka region, Nigeria. This is necessitated by the fact that, despite the fact that wet years contribute greatly to annual flooding and gully erosion observed in the area, researches on cycles and periodicities of rainfall in the area are obviously lacking. This research is, therefore, an attempt to close this gap in knowledge. 35 years rainfall data (1975-2010) were collected from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) Lagos from which harmonic calculation was made using Harmonic Analytical Technique. The model produced 13 harmonics (cycles) of which those of 1, 6 and 11 with amplitudes of 181.66 mm, 149.42 mm and 126.63 mm and periodicities of 35, 5.20 and 2.84 were isolated as most important. All calculations were performed using MINITAB version 16 statistical programme running under PC/Windows 98. Following from the findings, it was suggested that Urban and Regional Planners, Geomophologists and Engineers could use the result to develop a flood and erosion management plan for the area.
On Lyrical Poetry of Wordsworth, a Poet of Nature  [PDF]
Xiaolin Huang, Feifei Pei, Changle Fu
Advances in Literary Study (ALS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/als.2014.24018
Abstract: William Wordswith, one of the greatest poets in England, is known as the poet of nature. His poems took on greater significance in English literature. The purpose of this essay is to study his source of forming such a lyrical style and the process he expressed his ideal in singing highly of the nature to show my respect towards him.
Theory and Application of Tacit Knowledge Transfer  [PDF]
Jia-Cheng Chang, Ding-Bang Luh, Shiann-Far Kung, Akira Ueda
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.519193
Abstract: Tacit knowledge, regarding its essence, is a kind of “understanding”, comprehension, and the process of grasping and re-organizing experiences. Moreover, such ability can be controlled at will. However, spiritual understanding enables people to display the function of dominance and determination of knowledge. Therefore, this study first proposed the tacit knowledge transfer mode; there are two major strategies for the Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM): depict the essence instead of the appearance and understand spiritually. In other words, it allows learners to represent the knowledge learned and transfer it into body memory in order to apply it to similar situations through deduction and inference. This study aims to integrate Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM) into sketch instruction. The first phase was “knowledge accumulation”: we used “Mu” way to accumulate drawing knowledge. The phase two was “knowledge transfer”: we used “Lin” way to transfer drawing knowledge. In the process, the students in Department of Design are divided into the experimental group and the controlled group for comparisons. Having seven design experts evaluate the teaching effectiveness on the two groups (Mixed and anonymous), aiming at students’ learning achievement. The experiment concludes two main results: firstly, based on the expert evaluation scores, Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM) proves the significant effect of Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM) on Perspective Accuracy, Line Stability, and Form Expressivity of freehand sketch; secondly, from the experiment process and survey results, it was evident that Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM) has direct correlation with participants’ assertiveness. If there is a conflict between norm knowledge the effectiveness of transfer will be reduced significantly.
Response to an Earthquake in Bangladesh: Experiences and Lesson Learnt  [PDF]
Animesh Biswas, Saidur Rahman Mashreky, Koustuv Dalal, Toity Deave
Open Journal of Earthquake Research (OJER) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojer.2016.51001
Abstract: A powerful earthquake occurred in Nepal on 25th April 2015 where the highest measure of the tremor was 7.9 on the Richter scale with a minimum of 6.6. The death toll was around 3000 and thousands were injured in the devastation of the disaster. The earthquake and subsequent earth tremors were also felt in other South East Asian countries including Bangladesh, India and China. Bangladesh was jolted twice by tremors and, although the tremor was not as severe, it was reported to be between 4 and 5 on the Richter scale. Aftershocks over the next few days were also experienced and these ranged around 5 on the Richter scale. In Bangladesh, six lives were lost, and more than 200 people were injured and were taken to hospital. There were also many buildings that collapsed in the mega city Dhaka and its surrounding areas. This study describes the country’s response to the earthquake. This experience and the lessons learnt highlight the importance for national earthquake-proof building regulations and systems to lessen the damage and devastation of any future earthquake.
Trusted Third Party Authentication Protocol Development for Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Ahmad Alshanty, Ibrahim Er?an
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2016.911037
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) need effective security mechanisms because these networks are deployed in hostel unattended environments. There are many parameters which affect selecting the security mechanism as its speed and energy consumption. This paper presents a combined security system for WSN that enhances the security of the network and it is energy consumption. This system combines three mechanisms, asymmetric, trusted third party, and pre-distribution. The performance evaluation demonstrates that the combined protocol can enlarge the life time for WSNs, and enhance its security. This integrated protocol can provide sufficient security no matter how many sensors are compromised. Fixed key storage overhead, full network connectivity, and low communication overhead can also be achieved. Consequently, it enhances the immunity against different types of attacks. Moreover, this protocol is offered a high level of security for WSN considering its limited recourses. So it creates a balance between both security and constrained resources.
Hyperuricemia in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure in the General Hospital of National Reference of N’Djamena (Chad)  [PDF]
Guillaume Mahamat Abderraman, Ibrahim Hamat, Zeinabou Maiga Moussa Tondi, Ahmed Tall Lemrabott, Maria Faye, Cisse Mouhamadou Moustapha, Kossi Akomola Sabi, Ka Elhaj Fary Ka, Niang Abdou, Diouf Boucar
Open Journal of Nephrology (OJNeph) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojneph.2017.71002
Abstract: Introduction: Hyperuricemia is defined as a level of serum uric acid greater than or equal to 70 mg/l (420 μmol/l) in men and 60 mg/l (360 μmol/l) in women. Several studies have shown that it is a risk factor or a factor of progression of chronic kidney disease. Recent experimental and epidemiological data correlate the association of hyperuricemia with chronic kidney disease (CKD), arterial hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, thus raising the question of the usefulness of therapeutics in the prevention of renal diseases. The objective of this study is to seek a link between chronic kidney disease and hyperuricemia. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive and analytical study conducted at hemodialysis unit and cardiology service of General Hospital of National reference of N’Djamena (Chad) from 1th January to 1th October 2013 (10 months). We included all chronic kidney disease patients hospitalized in hemodialysis unit and cardiology service who presented associated hyperuricemia. Results: There were 712 CKD patients who were hospitalized. Among them, there were 108 patients who were included in the study and who had hyperuricemia as a prevalence of 15.20%. The average age of patients was 35.5 years and the sex ratio was 3/1. The age group between 40 to 60 years represented 54.6%. There were 41.7% of traders. Hypertensive patients accounted for 49.1%; association of diabetes and hypertension was noted in 12.90%. Renal insufficiency was moderate in 43.5% of patients. Hyperuricemia was present in more than 90% of patients. Profession, age, hematuria, proteinuria and hypertension were statistically positively related to hyperuricemia. Treatment consisted of prescribing allopurinol in 84% of patients. In more than 11% of patients the progression was unfavorable. Conclusion: The implication of hyperuricemia in chronic kidney disease has been proved in several recent studies. However, randomized studies at very long scales have to be carried out to conclude from its real impact on the prevention and treatment of chronic kidney disease.
The Macro-Share Economy and Nominal GDP Targeting  [PDF]
David Eagle
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2017.77149
Abstract: Using the Pareto criterion and competitive microfoundations, this paper challenges the consensus’ focus on inflation control as the goal of monetary economic policy. It is the price level, not inflation per se, that determines whether a borrower or lender gains or loses. Pareto efficiency suggests that the goal of monetary policy should be to minimize, not inflation risk, not even price-level risk, but rather share risk. Share risk is the risk that a predetermined payment as a share of the whole economy will differ from expectations. We conclude that to minimize share risk, central banks should target nominal GDP. Minimizing share risk also helps to minimize employment risk. We show this latter result using a tautological relationship between three variables: 1) hours of employment, 2) the average wage share of the economy, and 3) the percent of nominal GDP going to employee compensation. We use US data on these three variables before, during, and after the 2007-2008 Financial Crisis to study this relationship.
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