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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9493 matches for " state "
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Entanglement and Closest Product States of Graph States with 9 to 11 Qubits  [PDF]
Cuifeng Wang, Lizhen Jiang, Lei Wang
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2013.14010

The numbers of local complimentary inequivalent graph states for 9, 10 and 11 qubit systems are 440, 3132, 40457, respectively. We calculate the entanglement, the lower and upper bounds of the entanglement and obtain the closest product states for all these graph states. New patterns of closest product states are analyzed.

The Use of Solid State NMR to Evaluate the Carbohydrates in Commercial Coffee Granules  [PDF]
Regina Freitas Nogueira, Elisangela Fabiana Boffo, Maria Inês Bruno Tavares, Leonardo A. Moreira, Leila Aley Tavares, Ant?nio Gilberto Ferreira
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.24050
Abstract: Coffee brings many health benefits due to its chemical constituents. Based on this information, it is essential to know the main chemical compounds from coffee granules; the intermolecular interaction among the coffees compounds and the molecular components homogeneity. In this study six types of roasted commercial coffee were evaluated by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), employing carbon-13 (13C) and hydrogen (1H) nucleus. Carbon-13 was analyzed applying high field NMR techniques, such as: magic angle spinning (MAS); magic angle spinning with cross-polariza- tion (CPMAS) and magic angle spinning with cross-polarization and dipolar dephasing (CPMASDD). The hydrogen was evaluated via relaxation times. Proton spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame was deter-mined through the carbon-13 decay, during the variable contact-time experiment, using high field NMR. Proton spin-lattice relaxation time was determined through the inversion-recovery pulse sequence, using low field NMR. Considering all NMR results, it was concluded that the major coffee compounds are: a) triacilglycerides, which constitute the mobile region in the granule coffee and b) Carbohydrates such as: polysaccharides and fibers that belong to the rigid domain. These constituents belong to different molecular mobility domain, although they have strong intermolecular interactions due to the granule organization.
Rapid Transport of Biomolecules along Frictionless Wavy-Rough Interfaces  [PDF]
Kwang-Hua Chu
Open Journal of Biophysics (OJBIPHY) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojbiphy.2013.32016

There are many types of almost frictionless and very rapid flows of complex molecules in nature. One example is the almost frictionless nature of the protein channel aquaporin-1. Nearly frictionless transport of complex biomolecular fluids along a membrane composed of wavy-rough nanoannuli was investigated by using the verified Eyrings transition-state approach (cf. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 112, 2008, pp. 3019-3023.), together with a boundary perturbation approach, which has been successfully adopted to study the selective transport of polymeric matter in confined nanodomains. The critical parameters related to the rapid or nearly frictionless transport of biomolecules were identified to be directly relevant to the possible phase-transition temperature after selecting specific activation energies and activation volumes for fixed confined (cylindrical) geometry as well as small wavy corrugations along the interface. Our results can also make the membrane composed of aligned wavy-rough nanotubes a promising mimic of protein channels for transdermal drug delivery and selective chemical sensing.

Discussion of Function of Church and State in Public Education in the U.S.  [PDF]
Fang Wang
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.29047
Abstract: Religion in relation to public education has been a topic of keen interest in the U.S. It has two components: one deals with the theme of religious content in the curriculum and the other concerns fringe benefits to nonpublic schools. And, where the State stands, the decisions and measures made by the U.S. Supreme Court concern religious matters in public schools.
Severe Labial Agglutination Release in a Postmenopausal Woman  [PDF]
Rebecca James, Anne Sammarco, David Sheyn, Sangeeta Mahajan
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2014.414114
Abstract: Labial agglutination occurs when the labia minora have become fused in the midline through either filmy or dense adhesions, forming a raphe. This condition is typically seen in pre-pubertal girls; however, there have been cases reported in the literature of labial agglutination in postmenopausal and reproductive aged women. Labial agglutination has been associated with local irritation and inflammation in the setting of a hypoestrogenic state. Topical treatment is usually recommended prior to manual separation. However, some postmenopausal women have been refractory to conservative management, and surgery may then be required. We present a case of a 79-year-old Caucasian gravida 3 para 3 who was referred for treatment refractory labial agglutination for 3 years. The patient’s complaints included a small trickle escaping from the introitus during urination and the sensation of little urinary control. The patient underwent an exam under anesthesia. Gentle blunt dissection with a lacrimal dilator easily separated the labia minora down the visible midline fusion line (raphe). Bimanual exam then revealed a 12-week-sized enlarged uterus confirmed on ultrasound to be an 8 × 8 × 7 cm irregular mass concerning for uterine cancer. Proceeding to an operative release of severe labial agglutination can relieve patient discomfort and frustration when estradiol therapy has failed. In addition to alleviating symptoms, releasing labial agglutination can also provide the gynecologist access to critical screening procedures such as cervical cytology or a bimanual exam, all of which could lead to a diagnosis or pre-cancerous or cancerous lesions.
New Law-Making and Regulatory Welfare Trade-offs  [PDF]
Noralv Veggeland
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2011.22009
Abstract: The contemporary regulatory state has developed as a result of both new legislation and political struggles that accompanied an increasingly globalized world and the economic crisis in the 1970-1980s. The answer to this development was the reforms collectively known as New Public Management (NPM) which promoted the privatization and marketization of the public sector, and thereby the creation of the new regulatory state. The regulatory-state formation in Europe was affected extensively by the formation of the European Union and its administrative traditions and welfare-state models. Path-dependent developments influenced the achievements which have been described as innovative, that is, regulatory innovation. Socio-economic goals are linked to three distinct policy choices, which have been characterized by trade-offs. The trade-offs occur because it is difficult to pursue successfully all three goals simultaneously. In Scandinavia the trade-off and new law-making achieved as a regulatory innovation the much-lauded mechanism of “flexicurity”, that is, the combination by law of the flexible market with social security.
Implementation of Lean Service with Value Stream Mapping at Directorate Airworthiness and Aircraft Operation, Ministry of Transportation Republic of Indonesia  [PDF]
Zulfa Fitri Ikatrinasari, Erlana Ichsan Haryanto
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2014.74026

The purpose of this paper is to apply value stream mapping (VSM) for enabling leanness in Directorate Airworthiness and Aircraft Operation, Directorate General of Air Transportation, Ministry of Transportation Republic of Indonesia. A current state mapping is made to determine the activities that provide value-added and non-value-added activities or waste. Weaknesses in the current state process mapping will be analyzed and improved in the future state mapping to obtain a better flow, faster and more efficiently. The reduction of total lead time, makes total cycle time decrease significantly, i.e. 69%, or from 94.5 to 29.5 days, while the process time is constant, i.e. 18 days. Future state mapping can reduce lead time and increase cycle time efficiency. Current State Mapping shows weaknesses/waste and is non value added. Current state shows quite a high lead time value, so that cycle time efficiency is low. The efficiency value is 0.112 and after future state mapping becomes 0.70. Lean service research in government organizations has been the first time done in Indonesia.

Attend to the “Small p” Stuff: State Policy Issues Affecting Cervical Cancer Efforts  [PDF]
Beth E. Meyerson, Carrie A. Lawrence, Jennifer S. Smith
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2014.48066

Background: States in the United States have primary public health authority. This is the case with cervical cancer, and yet little is known about state policy issues affecting the comprehensive public health response. This study identifies and explores state policy issues affecting cervical cancer efforts in the United States. Methods: Key informant interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of 15 professionals affiliated with cervical cancer prevention and treatment from national, state and local levels; across sectors: public, private and non-profit; and aspects of the work: screening, treatment and vaccine; program implementation, research, coalition work, and policy. Results: Identified policy issues were administrative and implementation oriented (“small p” policy issues). While participants recognized the importance of laws for vaccine or no cost screening access, the key policy issues preventing successful cervical cancer efforts involved 1) health system complexity; 2) general lack of state level policy, program and funding coordination; and 3) social and organizational cultural issues affecting the adoption of national recommendations and reinforcing program inertia. Conclusions: Understanding state policy issues in cervical cancer is critical for public health success. Dramatic reduction or even elimination of cervical cancer in the United States depends upon the policy work in the “little p” policy areas such as planning and health system organization to affect change. This will require greater leadership and coordination of state efforts across myriad programs. It will require health system improvements, and also the adoption of new practice and program behaviors to capitalize on available technology to reach underserved women.

Emotions of Gynecologic Cancer Patients Dealing with Permanent Colostomy: A Qualitative Interview Study  [PDF]
Gül P?nar, Ali Ayhan, Tevfik P?nar
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.46120

Purpose: This study was conducted to describe emotional state of colostomized patients with gynecologic cancer. Patients and Methods: The study employed a qualitative design from May to October of 2010, in a private university hospitals outpatient gnecologic oncology clinic in Ankara, Turkey. Content analysis with an inductive approach had been used to analyze 32 interviews that served as the data base for this study. Interview form that focused on what gynecologic cancer women felt to living with a colostomy. Results: Findings also reveal that gynecologic cancer patients with colostomy experience many uneasy feelings that affect their emotional state. The content analysis resulted in the development of two thematic units. The first we described as “To experience the consequences of stoma as a gynecologic cancer patients”. The second was “suffering experienced-being challenged the consequences of the stoma”, and the third was “promote self management-normalization of the new condition”. For the psychological support, family and friends’ support has been mentioned as the most important part that can release their anxiety. Conclusions: We concluded that a having stoma was difficult for the women. The emotional state of the women when they get colostomy was typically characterized by fear, and worry about their current process. Body image, self-esteem, social activity, sexuality were the aspects that most affected the patients. Nurses have very important role within holistic approach and empathetic interaction, for determining major problem areas.

Study of Nanomaterials under High Pressure  [PDF]
Madan Singh, Moruti Kao
Advances in Nanoparticles (ANP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/anp.2013.24048

A simple theory is proposed to predict the effect of pressure for study of volume expansion of nanomaterials. Different possible forms of equation of state are discussed with their correlations. Only two input parameters, namely, the bulk modulus and its first pressure derivative, are required for calculations. We have considered a wide variety of nanomaterials, such as, CdSe (4.2 nm), Fe-Cu (14 nm), y-Al2O3 (67 nm), y-Al2O3 (37 nm), Ni (20 nm), Fe (10 nm), CeO2 (cubic Fluorite phase) (15 nm), CeO2 (Orthorhombic Phase) (15 nm), CuO (24 nm) and TiO2 (rutile phase) (10 nm) to analyze the effect of pressure on them. The theoretical predictions for the given nanomaterials agree with

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