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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1216 matches for " starch. "
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Starch Based Bio-Plastics: The Future of Sustainable Packaging  [PDF]
Ravindra V. Gadhave, Abhijit Das, Prakash A. Mahanwar, Pradeep T. Gadekar
Open Journal of Polymer Chemistry (OJPChem) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojpchem.2018.82003
Abstract: Petroleum derived plastics dominate the food packaging industry even today. These materials have brought a lot of convenience and attraction to agro, food and packaging industry. These materials also have brought along with them problems relating to the safe-disposal and renewability of these materials. Due to the growing concern over environmental problems of these materials, interest has shifted towards the development and promoting the use of “bio-plastics”. Bio-plastic is a term used for sustainable packaging materials derived from renewable resources i.e. produced from agro/food sources, materials such as starch, cellulose, etc. and which are considered safe to be used in food applications. To enhance the mechanical properties, and water barrier properties, it can be blended easily with other polymer as well as nano fillers. The current paper is a review of the progress of research in starch based sustainable packaging materials.
Influence of Phase Behavior and Miscibility on Mechanical, Thermal and Micro-Structure of Soluble Starch-Gelatin Thermoplastic Biodegradable Blend Films  [PDF]
Emad Ali Soliman, Masakazu Furuta
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.511115
Abstract: Polymer blends of cold water soluble starches (amylose or amylopectin soluble starch) with gelatin were prepared using solvent casting method. The solid state miscibility and polymer-polymer interactions between the constituent polymers were studied by fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorirmetry (DSC), light optical microscopy (OP) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), whereas the thermal stability of the blends was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Furthermore, tensile and water vapor barrier properties of the blends were assessed. The obtained results exhibited that gelatin was more miscible with amylose soluble starch than with amylopectin soluble starch. Moreover, enhancing mechanical and water barrier properties of amylose soluble starch/gelatin blends were more pronounced than those of amylopectin soluble starch/gelatin blends. Generally, tensile strength (TS) and Elongation percentage (E) of the blend films were found to be gradually increased with increasing the proportion of gelatin. Nevertheless, increasing starch proportion was in favor of decreasing water vapor permeability (WVP). At equal proportions of starch and gelatin (1:1), TS was raised up to 8.69 MPa for amylose soluble starch/gelatin blend films while it raised up to 4.96 MPa for amylopectin soluble starch/gelatin blend films, and so on E was increased to its maximum by ~179.6% for soluble amylose starch/gelatin blends while it was increased to ~114.5% for amylopectin soluble starch/gelatin blends. On the other hand, WVP was significantly decreased to be 6.46 and 12.09 g·mm/m2·day·kPa for blends of amylose and amylopectin soluble starches, respectively.
Synthesis, Characterization and Utilization of Starch Hydroxypropyl Sulphate for Cationic Dye Removal  [PDF]
Aly A. Hebeish, Amal A. Aly
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2014.43024
Abstract: The best conditions for synthesis of starch hydroxypropyl sulphate as per the dry method were firstly established. This was done through a thorough investigation into factors affecting the synthesis including concentrations of both the NaOH catalyst and the 2-hydroxy-3-chloropropyl sulphate along with duration and temperature of the reaction. The resultant newly synthesized 2-hydroxy-3-chloropropyl sulphate was then reacted with starch to obtain starch hydroxypropyl sulphate ultimately. After being characterized by making use of IR spectroscopy analysis and scanning electronic microscope, the starch hydroxypropyl sulphate samples were submitted to evaluation for cationic dye removal using Methylene Blue (MB). Cationic dye removal was studied under a variety of conditions. Factors involved encompass initial dye concentration, duration, sulphur %, pH and adsorbent dose. 100% dye removal could be achieved under certain conditions which were described in the text.
Alginate Reinforced Chitosan and Starch Beads in Slow Release Formulation of Imazaquin Herbicide—Preparation and Characterization  [PDF]
Lami A. Nnamonu, Rufus Sha’Ato, Ikenna Onyido
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2012.38081
Abstract: In a bid to make slow release formulations of imazaquin, the herbicide was encapsulated in starch and chitosan beads reinforced with alginate. The beads were characterized using SEM, DSC and FTIR. Two types of formulations were made by extrusion into 0.25 M calcium chloride solution: chitosan/alginate (LNCI) and starch/alginate (LNSI) beads, and the third was by gelatinization of starch at 75?C (LNSI2). Findings showed highly porous spherical beads, the starch/alginate beads bigger and less porous than the chitosan/alginate beads with diameters of 2.53 ± 0.01 and 2.31 ± 0.01 mm; porosity of 57.58% ± 0.2% and 81.28% ± 0.2% and swelling of 34.91% ± 0.2% and 80.35% ± 0.2%, respectively. FTIR revealed a reduction in intensity of the carboxylate peaks of alginate and the peak at 1058 cm?1, present in the FTIR of the matrices, is shifted to lower wave-numbers in the formulations, signifying interactions between the formulation components that make for good slow release. The DSC thermograms of all formulations showed evidence of interaction of imazaquin carboxylate group with the N-atoms of the macromolecules, which is indicative of reduced crystallinity of imazaquin.
Synthesis of pH-Sensitive Hydrogel Based on Starch-Polyacrylate Superabsorbent  [PDF]
Mohammad Sadeghi, Fatemeh Soleimani
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2012.322038
Abstract: In this article, we synthesize of a novel starch-based superabsorbent hydrogel via graft copolymerization of mixtures of acrylic acid (AA) and 2-Hydroxy ethyl methacrylate (HEMA) onto starch backbones. The polymerization reaction was carried out in an aqueous medium and in the presence of ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator and N,N’-methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinker. The hydrogel structures were confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. Furthermore, the swelling of superabsorbing hydrogels was examined in solutions with pH values ranging between 1 and 13. It showed a reversible pH-responsive behavior at pHs 2 and 8. This on-off switching behavior makes the synthesized hydrogels as an excellent candidate for controlled delivery of bioactive agents. A proposed mechanism for hydrogel formation was suggested and the structure of the product was established using FTIR and SEM spectroscopies.
Environmentally Friendly Formulations of Trifluralin Based on Alginate Modified Starch  [PDF]
Ikenna Onyido, Rufus Sha’Ato, Lami A. Nnamonu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.39127
Abstract: In line with global efforts towards sustainable agriculture, the use of starch modified with alginate in the preparation of slow release formulations of the herbicide trifluralin was investigated. Trifluralin was encapsulated in starch-alginate beads, and the resulting slow release formulations (SRFs) characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Herbicide release from the SRFs was studied in water and compared to release of technical grade trifluralin. Three sets of formulations were made by extrusion into 0.25 M calcium chloride solution: starch/alginate (SSTRF), amylose starch/alginate (ASSTRF) and amylose starch/alginate/groundnut oil (ASTRGNO) beads, and the fourth was from gelatinized starch at 75?C (SSTRF2). The results showed highly porous spherical beads, the amylose/alginate beads bigger and less porous than the starch/alginate beads with diameters of 2.79 ± 0.01 and 2.37 ± 0.01 mm; porosity of 54.67 ± 0.2 and 60.59% ± 0.2% and swelling of 54.09 ± 0.2 and 61.22% ± 0.2%, respectively. All sets of beads exhibited reduced crystallinity of trifluralin. FTIR revealed a shift to lower wavelength of the carbonyl stretching vibrations from 1750 to 1725 cm–1 and a reduction in intensity of the carboxylate peaks of alginate, suggesting interactions between the formulation components that make for good slow release. 96% of technical grade trifluralin (TGTRF) was released into a 50:50 pH 6.5 Buffer/ Methanol aqueous medium in 24 hrs. However, for the starch/TRF formulation, SSTRF, only 9.33% herbicide was released after 24 hrs and 34.94% after 672 hrs (28 days). The amylose starch/TRF formulation released 13.61% herbicide in 24 hrs and 46.95% in 672 hrs, a 12% increase in release of TRF over the starch formulation. Encapsulation in starch produced 65% slow release of TRF and gelatinization achieved 84% retardation. Use of amylose starch as matrix caused 53.15% delay and addition of groundnut oil resulted in 80.87% retardation of TRF release. Encapsulation of TRF in starch/alginate beads is a veritable way of reducing negative environmental effects.
Efficient Extraction of Starch from Microalgae Using Ultrasonic Homogenizer and Its Conversion into Ethanol by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation  [PDF]
Chikako Asada, Keita Doi, Chizuru Sasaki, Yoshitoshi Nakamura
Natural Resources (NR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2012.34023
Abstract: To utilize starch and protein contained in microalgae as carbon and nitrogen sources for ethanol production, an extraction method, i.e. ultrasonic treatment using a homogenizer, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of extracted microalgae solution were studied using Chlamydomonas fasciata Ettl 437. 30 min of ultrasonic treatment gave the maximum extraction ratio of starch contained in microalgae, i.e. 93.8%, that corresponded to 0.408 g-starch/g-dry microalgae. SSF of the extracted solution obtained from ultrasonic treated microalgae at 30 min by glutase-AN and Saccahromyces cerevisiae AM12 provided 0.194 and 0.168 g-ethanol/g-dry microalgae with and without yeast extract, respectively, corresponding to 79.5 and 68.8% of theoretical ethanol yield.
Influence of Inorganic Salts on the Adsorption of Cationically Modified Starch to Fibers  [PDF]
Nejc Zakraj?ek
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.53030
Abstract:

The article is focused on the influence of inorganic salts on the adsorption of cationically modified starch to fibers. Results show that low concentrations of inorganic salts usually affect the process of adsorption in a positive way. Adsorption efficiency at higher concentrations, however, depends on the type of inorganic salts as well as the sequence of adding inorganic salts and starch to paper suspension.

A Comparative Retrospective Analysis of Mortality, Renal Dysfunction, and Incidence of Bleeding in Patients Receiving Hydroxyethyl Starch 130/0.4 (HES 130/0.4) or Albumin  [PDF]
Matthew Blackburn, Patrick Ratliff, Marintha Short
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery (OJTS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojts.2014.43014
Abstract:

Background: In June 2013, the FDA issued a Black Box Warning on synthetic colloids resulting from data indicating an increased risk of mortality, renal injury, and excess bleeding incidence in septic patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of mortality, incidence/severity of renal injury and bleeding in septic ICU patients, and patients undergoing CABG surgery who have received hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 or albumin. Methods: This was a retrospective, single center, cohort study conducted at a 433 bed tertiary care hospital in Lexington, Kentucky. Computer generated lists provided patients who received hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 or albumin during inpatient stay as either a sepsis patient in the ICU or post coronary artery bypass graft patient. All cause mortality was the primary endpoint and secondary endpoints included overall renal dysfunction, incidence of bleeding, and overall length of stay. Results: A total of 89 patients were evaluated that received albumin or hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 alone with either septic ICU or CABG diagnosis codes. There was no significant difference in all cause mortality (p = 0.64). Overall renal dysfunction showed no statistically significance between the two groups (p = 0.66). There was no statistically significant difference between the albumin or HES 130/0.4 arms with respect to bleeding (TIMI Minimal p = 0.57, TIMI Minor p = 0.69, TIMI Major p = 0.35). Patient who received albumin had a statistically significant longer hospital overall length of stay (p = 0.003). Conclusion: There was no difference between HES 130/0.4 and albumin in mortality, renal dysfunction, and bleeding in septic ICU and CABG patients. Patients receiving albumin had an increased overall length of stay. These findings suggest that hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 may be safe in the studied patient populations; however, further investigation into specific HES agents should be conducted.

Chemical, Starch Digestibility and Sensory Characteristics of Durum Wheat/Unripe Whole Banana Flour Blends for Spaghetti Formulation  [PDF]
Perla Osorio-Díaz, José J. Islas-Hernández, Edith Agama-Acevedo, Sandra L. Rodríguez-Ambriz, María E. Sánchez-Pardo, Luis A. Bello-Pérez
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.53033
Abstract:

Excess weight and obesity are serious public health problems, which should be addressed through encouraging the consumption of foods with high amount of low digestible carbohydrates. The objective of this study was to put together spaghetti that blends unripe banana whole flour (UBWF) and durum wheat of different levels and to evaluate their chemical composition, starch digestibility and sensory characteristics. Spaghetti with 15%, 30%, and 45% of UBWF and a control spaghetti (100% durum wheat flour) were put together. The protein content decreased (10.42% to 7.74%) as the UBWF level was increased in the composite, while the amount of ash (0.87% to 1.54%) and total starch (70.24% to 73.71%) increased. Spaghetti with 15% and 45% of UBWF had similar available starch content. The addition of UBWF increased the resistant starch content from 1.98% to 10.91%, and consequently the indigestible starch fraction (14.00% to 27.29%). Spaghetti with 30% of UBWF had good consumer acceptability and was ranked higher than the control sample.

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