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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1508 matches for " starch substrates. "
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Bioconversion of cassava starch by-product into Bacillus and related bacteria polyhydroxyalkanoates
Krueger,Cristhiane L; Radetski,Claudemir M; Bendia,Amanda G; Oliveira,Ida M; Castro-Silva,Marcus A; Rambo,Carlos R; Antonio,Regina V; Lima,André O.S.;
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology , 2012,
Abstract: background: unlike petroleum-based synthetic plastics, biodegradable biopolymer generation from industrial residue is a key strategy to reduce costs in the production process, as well as in the waste management, since efficient industrial wastewater treatment could be costly. in this context, the present work describes the prospection and use of bacterial strains capable to bioconvert cassava starch by-product into biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoates (phas). results: the first step of this study was the bacterial competence screening which was conducted with 72 strains covering 21 bacillus and related species. the microorganism growth in a medium with a starch substrate was measured by an innovative mtt assay, while the ability of the bacteria to secrete amylase and produce pha was evaluated by the nile red dye method. based on growth and potential for pha production, four isolates were selected and identified as bacillus megaterium by 16s rrna sequencing. when cultivated in hydrolyzed cassava starch by-product, maximum production reached 4.97 g dry biomass/l with 29.7% of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) (characterized by ftir). conclusions: mtt assay proved to be a reliable methodology for monitoring bacterial growth in insoluble media. selected amylolytic strains could be used as an alternative industrial process for biodegradable plastics production from starchy residues, reducing costs for biodegradable biopolymer production and wastewater treatment operations.
Evaluation of Breeding Substrates for Cocoa Pollinator, Forcipomyia spp. and Subsequent Implications for Yield in a Tropical Cocoa Production System  [PDF]
Michael Adjaloo, Ben Kwaku Branoh Banful, William Oduro
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.42027
Abstract: A comparative study was carried out to determine the most suitable substrate for breeding of midges (Forcipomyia spp.) and the implications for pollination and yield in a typical cocoa production system in the forest ecological zone of Ghana. For the field experiment, the typically available substrates in cocoa farms which were used as the treatments under cocoa trees were: 1) rotten cocoa leaf litter; 2) rotten cocoa pod husks; and 3) rotten banana pseudostem. The untreated cocoa trees served as control. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design with three replications. For the laboratory experiment, the design was completely randomized design with four replications. The objective was to determine which substrate best supported breeding of the midges. The rotten banana pseudostem substrate recorded the highest population (7680) of Forcipomyia spp. after 56 days of observation. The cocoa pod husk and cocoa leaf litter recorded populations of 5226 and 1920, respectively. Similar observations were recorded in the level of pollination of the cocoa trees treated with rotten banana pseudostem (95.78%), cocoa pod husks (89.05%) and cocoa leaf litter (68.42%). Application of all substrates to the cocoa tree resulted in a 77% mean reduction in flower abortion as compared to the control. Fruit abortion, on the other hand, was significantly greater in trees treated with rotten banana pseudostem (73.7%) and rotten cocoa pod husks (71.3%) than in trees treated with rotten cocoa leaf litter (54.3%). Application of banana substrate explained 88% of the variation in cherelle production (fruit set) whereas cocoa pod husks and cocoa leaf litter accounted for 71% and 94%, respectively, of the variation in cherelle production. The study concluded that although cocoa leaf litter resulted in average increases in midges population and subsequently not too high
Effect of Carbon-Nitrogen Ratios of Lignocellulosic Substrates on the Yield of Mushroom (Pleurotus pulmonarius)  [PDF]
Michael Omofowa Osunde, Akinyemi Olayinka, Christina Dunah Fashina, Nkem Torimiro
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105777
Mushrooms are fungi that are unique in the recycling of plant biomass through decomposition in the process of which they also serve as food for man. These functions are carried out through the extracellular digestion of plant biomass with a consortium of enzymes. This study examined the effect of carbon-nitrogen ratios (C/N) of three lignocellulosic substrates, namely, corncob (C/N 120:1), sawdust (C/N 325:1) and waste paper (C/N 400:1) on the yield of Pleurotus pulmonarius. The experimental design was factorial laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Tissue culture was made on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) which was transferred to boiled sorghum grains for spawn making. The substrates were pasteurized and then inoculated with P. pulmonarius. Substrates were pasteurized (immersed in hot water for 3 hours) and inoculated with P. pulmonarius. Proximate analysis of the fruiting bodies was done to determine crude protein, crude fat, moisture content, dry matter, ash, crude fiber and carbohydrate. Carbon-nitrogen (C/N) ratio of the substrates was also determined. Corncob has C/N ratio of 120:1. The yield performance of corncob was the highest for weight (86 ± 0.01 g), length of stipe (3.55 ± 0.04 cm) and diameter of pileus (7.3 ± 0.07 cm). Means separation by least significant difference (LSD) showed that the yield parameters for corncob were statistically different from other substrates used. The proximate analysis of dried P. pulmonarius showed that corncob had a protein content of 17.37% ± 0.80% and moisture content of 0.69% ± 0.01% respectively, while sawdust and corncob had crude fibre contents of 1.79 ± 0.02 and 1.79 ± 0.01 respectively. Conclusively, having an idea of the carbon-nitrogen ratio of the substrate to be used for mushroom cultivation, manipulating the nutritional composition of mushrooms can be enhanced by enriching the growth substrates/media.
Starch Based Bio-Plastics: The Future of Sustainable Packaging  [PDF]
Ravindra V. Gadhave, Abhijit Das, Prakash A. Mahanwar, Pradeep T. Gadekar
Open Journal of Polymer Chemistry (OJPChem) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojpchem.2018.82003
Abstract: Petroleum derived plastics dominate the food packaging industry even today. These materials have brought a lot of convenience and attraction to agro, food and packaging industry. These materials also have brought along with them problems relating to the safe-disposal and renewability of these materials. Due to the growing concern over environmental problems of these materials, interest has shifted towards the development and promoting the use of “bio-plastics”. Bio-plastic is a term used for sustainable packaging materials derived from renewable resources i.e. produced from agro/food sources, materials such as starch, cellulose, etc. and which are considered safe to be used in food applications. To enhance the mechanical properties, and water barrier properties, it can be blended easily with other polymer as well as nano fillers. The current paper is a review of the progress of research in starch based sustainable packaging materials.
Kinetic studies on recombinant stem bromelain  [PDF]
Muntari Bala, Maizirwan Mel, Mohamed Saedi Jami, Azura Amid, Hamzah Mohd Salleh
Advances in Enzyme Research (AER) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aer.2013.13006
Abstract: Stem bromelain is a plant thiol protease with several industrial and therapeutic applications. This current work presents kinetic studies of recombinant bromelain (recBM) expressed in Escherichia coli BL21-AI on foursynthetic substrates, N-α-carbobenzoxy-L-alanyl-p-nitrophenylester (ZANPE), N-α-carbobenzoxy-L-arginyl-L-ar-ginine-p-nitroanilide (ZAANA), N-α-carbobenzo-xy-L-phenylalanyl-L-valyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanili-de (ZPVANA) and L-pyroglutamyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine-p-nitroanilide (PFLNA). Hydrolytic activities of recBM at various pH and temperature conditions were compared to that of commercial bromelain (cBM). Both enzymes demonstrated high activities at 45o C and pH 5 - 8 for recBM and pH 6 - 8 for cBM. recBM showed marginally lower Kmand slightly higher kcat/Kmfor ZAANA, ZANPE and ZPVANA in comparison to cBM.trans Epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido {4- guanidino}butane (E-64) severely affected recBM and cBM hydrolysis of the synthetic substrates by competitive inhibition with Kivalues of 3.6 - 5.1 μM and 5.5 - 6.9 μM for recBM and cBM, respectively. The evaluated properties of recBM including temperature and pH optima, substrate specificity and sensitivity to inhibitors or activators, satisfy the requisites required for food industries.

Ultrastructural Analysis of in Vitro Adherence and Production of Acid Proteases by Clinical Isolates of Candida parapsilosis Sensu Stricto Following Growth in the Presence of Keratinous Substrates from Human Source  [PDF]
Ana Flávia L. Specian, Luciana Furlaneto-Maia, Célia G. T. J. Andrade, Marcia Cristina Furlaneto
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2013.38A001

Candida parapsilosis is an increasingly important human pathogen. However, little is known about its potential to cause disease. The aims of the present study were to analyse the production of acid proteinases by clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis in the presence of different keratinous substrates from human sources (stratum corneum, nail and hair) and to verify the capability of yeast cells to adhere and grow as biofilm on these substrates. By scanning electron microscopy, it was observed that all C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates adhered to the keratinous substrates. For the isolate recovered from onychomycosis, the cell population attached to stratum corneum and hair keratin consisted mainly of blastoconidia. Differently, on nail keratin, pseudohyphae production was observed. Overall, there was a loose association between yeast cells and keratinous substrates. However, on stratum corneum, flocculent extracellular material was seen

Extratores aquosos para a caracteriza??o química de substratos para plantas
Abreu, M?nica Ferreira de;Abreu, Cleide Aparecida de;Sarzi, Isabele;Padua Junior, Alceu Linares;
Horticultura Brasileira , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-05362007000200011
Abstract: substrates used to grow plants have different origins and compositions and can be organic, mineral or synthetic materials. in the present work the effect of different water extracts (1:1.5; 1:2; 1:2'; 1:5; 1:5'; and 1:10) was evaluated and compared to saturated extracts for the determination of ph, electric conductivity, macro and micronutrients in commercially available products and some of their components. the results were compared to those with saturated extracts. nine substrates were evaluated, recommended for the cultivation of tobacco, coffee, flowers (2), forestry species, citrus and horticulture species (3), and eleven substrate components: carbonized rice hulls, peat, fiber peat, vermiculite, perlite, pinus bark compost (2), expanded clay, coir (coconut fiber), cork and 'xaxim' or 'samambaia-a?u' (dicksonia sellowiana). chemical analyses were made in the substrate extract solutions for the determination of ph, electrical conductivity (ec), and macronutrient and micronutrient concentrations. the ph and ec data showed the lowest coefficients of variation. the micronutrient concentrations in the water extracts were very close to the equipment detection limits. the macronutrient concentrations showed coefficients of variation ranging from 5.1% to 47.2%. the method using the ratio 1:2 was better to obtain the saturation extracts for either macro or micronutrients. in spite of that, for all the other water extracts studied good results were obtained in the evaluation of ph, ce and macronutrientes in the tested samples.
Dinámica de nutrientes en la fase vegetativa del cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.), en respuesta a salinidad con NaCl
Flórez,Sandra L.; Miranda,Diego; Chaves,Bernardo;
Agronomía Colombiana , 2008,
Abstract: the effect of three concentrations of nacl (0, 30 and 60 mm) on the behavior of mineral ions in lulo plants was evaluated in leaf tissue, leachates and substrates of the culture. the experiment was realized in a plastic greenhouse located in bogotá (2,556 masl, 15.6 °c mean temperature and 61% relative humidity). two-months old lulo plants (solanum quitoense var. quitoense) were transplanted in pots with the following substrates: bleached peat (klassman?), sand and soil mixture, peat and sand at a 3:1:1 (w/w) ratio; also, an additional treatment (soil) with fertirrigation. as a basic fertilization, a slow liberation fertilizer with minimum salinity effect was applied. an inverse relation was observed between the concentrations of nacl and the magnitude of growth changes of plants. the height was diminished between 4% and 16% in plants grown in peat and mixture, and 65% for plants in sand. plants in blond peat diminished their leaf area between 14 and 17% and 65% for plants in sand. the dry mass decreased between 38 and 50% for plants in peat. the content of leaf nutrients was affected by nacl concentrations. in leachates, ca2+, k+ and mg2+ ions increased their concentrations in the organic substrates (peat and mixture). the n concentrations in substrates increased compared to the initial sampling, the same occurred with na, whereas ca2+, k+ and mg2+ decreased their concentrations.
Ovipositional substrates used by Calyptrate Diptera in Tijuca forest, Rio de Janeiro
D'Almeida, Jose Mario;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1994, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761994000200027
Abstract: twenty seven species of calyptrate muscoids were reared from a forested area of rio de janeiro (tijuca forest). substrates for obtaining flies were beef liver, fish, mouse, frog, shrimp, snail carcasses, human faeces, banana and papaya fruits. the most frequent species found were: fannia sp. (subgroup pusio) (49.9% on shrimp). hemilucilia flavifacies (95.0% on liver). phaenicia eximia (49.4% on mouse), synthesiomyia nudiseta ( 100.0% on fish), ophyra aenescens (100.0% on shrimp), oxyvinia excisa (100.0% on faeces), euboettecheria collusor (52.4% on faeces) and pattonella intermutans (61.0% on frog).
Biomassa de mudas de pepinos híbridos conduzidos sob ambientes protegidos
Costa, Edilson;Leal, Paulo Ademar Martins;Gomes, Viviane do Amaral;Machado, Daniel;Jara, Murillo César de Souza;
Bragantia , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87052010000200017
Abstract: the study of vegetable productionn the state of mato grosso do sul, particularly at the pantanal region, is important for the development and sustainability of the local commercial and small farmers that live around cities. in this context experiment was developed with cucumber seedlings production, studying the accumulation of aerial and roots biomass of the aladdin f1, nikkey, safira and nobre f1 hybrids in different cultivation environments and substrates. the experiment was carried out in 2007 using three environments of cultivation: (a1) greenhouse; (2) nursery screen with sombrite? and (a3) nursery screen with aluminet?. three substrate compositions were used, s1 (50% soil + 50% coconut fiber), s2 (50% soil + 50% sawdust) and s3 (50% soil + 50% organic compost). the responses of the cucumbers hybrids in terms of seedlings mass depended on the substrate and environment of cultivation. the substrate "soil and coconut fiber" increased biomass accumulation of the hybrids when used the greenhouse and nursery with monofilament screen. the substrate "soil and organic compost" showed greatest biomass in the nursery with aluminet?. the 'safira' hybrid accumulated more root biomass in screened environment and substrate "soil and coconut fiber". the 'nikkey' hybrid accumulated more root biomass in the nursery with aluminet? and substrate "soil and coconut fiber", with no differences from "soil and sawdust" substrate. the 'aladdin f1' and 'nobre f1' hybrids accumulated similar root biomass in the environments, and the 'aladdin f1' had higher accumulation with the substrates "soil and organic compost" and "soil and coconut fiber", while the 'nobre f1' had higher accumulation in the "soil and coconut fiber" substrate with no differences from "soil and sawdust".
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