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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 783 matches for " spring "
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Acute and Severe Hypercalcemia in a Near-Drowning Victim  [PDF]
Tomoaki Takata, Akihisa Nakaoka, Kazuhiro Kato, Takeaki Fukui, Satoko Maeta, Chishio Munemura, Yoshikazu Murawaki
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.410075

An 80-year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of near-drowning in a hot spring. Besides hypoxia, serum calcium was extremely high at 15.5 mg/dL on admission. After the treatment with normal saline infusion, furosemide and calcitonin, the hypercalcemia was transient and didn’t recur during the course. The hot spring water contained much calcium, so his hypercalcemia was considered to be a result of calcium absorption mainly through the alveoli. In this case, we revealed that serum calcium rose within a short time after drowning, suggesting the necessity to measure the calcium concentration of the drowning fluid in a near-drowning victim.

Northwest Indian Ocean’s Spring Cooling  [PDF]
Kern E. Kenyon
Natural Science (NS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2014.610076

A major cooling down of the northwestern Indian Ocean’s surface, including the Arabian Sea, starts in May, according to a well-known world atlas of SSTs. This is before the southwest monsoon which usually begins in June. Also within one year, there are two surface temperature maxima and two minima, which is not typical for the northern hemisphere. A surface current, cooler than the surrounding water, crosses the equator in April and May heading north and east on the western side of the ocean. That proposal is consistent with the given SST information. The warmer surrounding water is then moved to east and south as a consequence. Since wind driving is not available for initiation, the relatively cool northeastward current is thought to be caused by a thermohaline force related to the unstable northward temperature gradient in the west, which is of constant sign right across the equator beginning in May: cool in the south monotonically increasing to warm in the north.

Effect of different fertilization on spring cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) production and fertilizer use efficiencies  [PDF]
Zhibin Guo, ChuanLong He, Youhua Ma, Hongbin Zhu, Feng Liu, Daozhong Wang, Li Sun
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/as.2011.23029
Abstract: Just after transplanting, the vegetable has difficulty in nutrients uptake. To explore the effect of different fertilization on spring cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) production and fertilizer use efficiencies, this experiment consisting of six treatments was implemented and divided into three groups: 1) no fertilizer (NF) and vegetable planting fertilizer (VPF); 2) conventional fertilizer (CF) and conventional fertilizer + vegetable planting fertilizer (CVPF); 3) reduced fertilizer application (RFA) and reduced fertilizer application + vegetable planting fertilizer (RVPF). The results of this experiment indicated that the yields of spring cabbage treated by VPF increased by 38.20% in VPF, 16.00% in CVPF and 20.40% in RVPF than their controls respectively. Additionally, the VPF helped improve the total and economic yields of the spring cabbage in all groups, and the economic benefits increased by 38.21% in VPF, 15.97% in CVPF and 20.42% in RVPF than their controls respectively. Finally, the VPF was of benefit to spring cabbage to exploit the soil nutrients and helped improve the chemical fertilizer use efficiencies. Therefore, it is an efficient, economical and ecological fertilization for vegetable production to apply chemical fertilizers in combination with VPF.
Static Electric-Spring and Nonlinear Oscillations  [PDF]
H. Sarafian
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2010.22011
Abstract: The author designed a family of nonlinear static electric-springs. The nonlinear oscillations of a massively charged particle under the influence of one such spring are studied. The equation of motion of the spring-mass system is highly nonlinear. Utilizing Mathematica [1] the equation of motion is solved numerically. The kinematics of the particle namely, its position, velocity and acceleration as a function of time, are displayed in three separate phase diagrams. Energy of the oscillator is analyzed. The nonlinear motion of the charged particle is set into an actual three-dimensional setting and animated for a comprehensive understanding.
Karst Groundwater Management through Science and Education  [PDF]
Fang Guo, Guanghui Jiang
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2011.13005
Abstract: In Southwestern China, karst covers an area of 540,000 km2, and supports a population of approximately 100 million people. This groundwater can easily become highly polluted without effective management. Sound management of karst areas requires the conscientious participation of citizens including homeowners, planners, government officials, farmers and other land-use decision makers. Lingshui Spring was a good example. A series of educational materials were developed and delivered to the local government, residents, and students. A groundwater polluted accident was tracked as a natural tracer test in a spring to increase understanding of the vulnerability of the area’s karst aquifer. More than 200 people attended the communication and training course on groundwater protection and environmental justice law. Several efforts have appeared as a result, such as a proposal for Lingshui water resources protection that was put forward for the first time by Wuming county political consultative conference.
The Arab Spring: Do We Need a New Theory?  [PDF]
Hisham H. Abdelbaki
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.43020

The waves of the Arab Spring in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Yemen and Syria, and any other country that may follow, is considered a unique phenomenon worth studying in view of the pre and post revolution events and effects on all sectors of the national economy, as well as their interlocking effects on the global economy. The current research aims at studying the concepts of the Arab Spring, its causes and its most important consequences, as well as the ability of the current economic theory to interpret such events. The most important results of the research lies in the need for a new theory to explain the Arab Spring revolutions, the new theory should based on showing how important was the technological revolution in the field of communications, the use of violence against the rebels, and legitimate demands of rebels in continuation and success of the revolutions of the Arab Spring.

Delineation of Protection Zones for the Main Discharge Area of the Gran Sasso Aquifer (Central Italy) through an Integrated Geomorphological and Chronological Approach  [PDF]
Francesca Biava, Mauro Consonni, Vincenzo Francani, Paola Gattinoni, Laura Scesi
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.619161
Abstract: The paper proposes a study for the delineation of protection zones in the main discharge area of the Gran Sasso aquifer (Central Italy). At this aim, starting from a detailed geological and hydrogeological reconstruction, the study was divided into the following phases: 1) development of a conceptual model of water flow in the study area; 2) creation of a 3D numerical model in order to simulate the groundwater flow in saturated conditions, both at the basin and at fine-scale; 3) flow path analysis through deterministic and stochastic approaches; 4) assessment of the aquifer vulnerability based on a geomorphological analysis of the catchment area. Conceptual and numerical models were then used to delineate protection zones for wells and springs with chronological criterion and geomorphological-structural criterion (based on the EPIK method). The results show that with a chronological approach protection zones are located along the main flow directions, corresponding to the areas surrounding wells and springs with high hydraulic conductivity values (faults and thrusts) within the satured zone. On the contrary, the geomorphological method has found some important protection zones also quite far from wells and springs, in areas characterized by quick infiltration processes. The protection zones delineated with the stochastic method were finally intersected by the vulnerability map obtained with the EPIK method, to take into account both filtration and infiltration processes. The results show the local vulnerability of the groundwater to the pollution, with protection zones extending 1 to 5 km towards northeast from springs and wells.
A Probabilistic Approach for Spring Recession Flows Analysis  [PDF]
Erick Carlier, Jamal El Khattabi
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology (OJMH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojmh.2015.52002
Abstract: Spring recession flows are analyzed from a Bayesian point of view. Two general equations are derived and it is shown that the classical formulas of recession flow are particular cases of both equations. It is shown that most of the recession equations reflect a non-Markovian process. That means that the groundwater storage exhibits a memory effect and that there is a nonlinear relationship between flow and storage. The Bayesian approach presented in this paper makes it possible to give a probabilistic meaning to recession flow equations derived according to a physical approach and can be an alternative to the study of complex reservoir for which the physical processes governing recession flow are unclear. Twelve spring recession flow series are analysed in order to validate the probabilistic approach presented in this paper and a conceptual model of storage-outflow is proposed.
Effect of Normalizing and Hardening on Mechanical Properties of Spring  [PDF]
O. R. Adetunji, P. O. Aiyedun, S. O. Ismaila, M. J. Alao
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2012.118074
Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of heat treatment (Normalizing and Hardening) on the mechanical properties of springs. The springs were made from mild steel rod having a diameter of 6 mm, a total of 15 springs were made. The springs were then subjected to various heat treatment processes which included; normalizing, hardening and tempering. The heat treated springs were then subjected to various test in other to determine their mechanical properties, these included; impact toughness test, hardness test and tension test. The normalized spring had more strength, was harder and was much tougher than both the annealed and as received springs. The water quenched springs were the hardest of all the heat treated springs, were very brittle and had the lowest percentage elongation. Their strength was also lower than that of the normalized and as received springs. The water quenched and tempered springs had better mechanical properties required for spring making, they had the optimum combination of hardness, strength and toughness when compared with the other heat treated springs.
Spring Water Qualitative Assessment in Mountainous Areas, Case Study: Soreq Catchment/Ramallah/West Bank  [PDF]
Hassan Jebreen, Marwan Ghanem
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.711069
Abstract: The hydrochemical characteristics of spring waters in the Soreq-Catchment were determined to identify pollutants in the springs. The ion concentrations were within the allowable WHO limits except two springs located within the center of the populated areas. The water of most of the springs is contaminated with fecal coliform and total coliform. The concentration of nitrate shows moderate values below the WHO limits. The springs in the study area show higher concentrations of heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Mn, As, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Al, Fe, and V) exceeding the permissible standards set by WHO (2007). Most springs in the study area are of water type (Ca-Mg-HCO3-). Piper’s classification ranges from normal earth alkaline water with prevailing bicarbonate and chloride in both seasons. Comparing the quality of spring water with standards for different uses proved that some springs are unsuitable for human drinking purposes.
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