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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 15451 matches for " soil tillage "
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Effects of Five Years Adoption of No-Tillage Systems for Vegetables Crops in Soil Organic Matter Contents  [PDF]
Carlos E. P. Lima, ítalo M. R. Guedes, Juscimar da Silva, Flávia A. Alcantara, Nuno R. Madeira, Agnaldo D. F. Carvalho, Mariana R. Fontenelle
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/as.2018.91009
Abstract: Vegetables productions systems are done normally with intense soil tillage causing a strong decline of soil quality. Use of conservation systems can be an alternative to recover this quality. In order to evaluate the effects of such systems on soil organic matter, an experiment has been conducted in randomized blocks design and factorial scheme 3 × 2: three soil management systems (no-tillage; reduced tillage and conventional tillage) and two cover crops (maize single; and intercropping maize with gray velvet bean—Stizolobium niveum); and repeated measures over time. Soil samples were collected before the implementation of the experiment and at the end of each crop cycle until the fifth crop cycle. Carbon associated with humic substances is also determined in 0 - 5 cm, 5 - 10 cm and 10 - 30 cm at the end of the last crop cycle. The SOM content was higher in RT (48.34 g·kg-1) than in the CT (39.48 g·kg-1) at the end of the fifth crop cycle. SOM content in NT (44.92 g·kg-1) was statistically equal to RT and CT, during the same period. In 0 - 5 cm, carbon contents associated to the humic substances present the same behavior of SOM contents in 0 - 10 cm. Probably these results are associated with the capacity of each system to improve superficial contents of SOM stable fractions. It follows that the conservation systems used are alternatives to the cultivation vegetables in order to improve soil organic matter contents.
Quantitative Behaviour of Guar (Cymopsis tetragnolobus L.) to Various Tillage Systems and Mulches and Soil Physical Properties  [PDF]
M. ShahidIbni Zamir, Muhammad Aamir Khan, Mazhar Hussain, Ihtishamul Haq, M. Kamran Khan, Qamaruz Zaman, Usman Afzal, Naveed Islam, M. Asim, Ihtisham Ali, Husnain Khan, Khalid Iqbal
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.77099
Abstract: A field study was conducted to evaluate the effect of organic mulches and tillage practices on growth, yield of cluster bean and soil physical properties. Experiment was comprised of two factors: A (Tillage), B (Mulches). Factor A was assigned to main plot and consisted of two treatments (Minimum tillage and Conventional tillage). Factor B was assigned to sub plot and consisted of four treatments (no mulch, wheat straw mulch, grass clipping mulch and saw dust mulch). The mulching materials were partially incorporated in the field after germination of crop. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement having three replications. Control treatment was kept for comparison. All other agronomic practices were kept standardized and consistent for all the treatments. Data regarding growth and yield components were collected and analyzed statistically by fisher analysis of variance and treatment significance was measured by significant difference test at 5% probability level. The factors, tillage and mulches significantly affected growth, yield, yield parameters and soil physical properties. Maximum plant population (31.7 m2), plant height (159 cm), branches per plant (18.9), cluster per plant (15.88), grains per pod (7.3), 1000-grain weight (34.6 g), grain yield (1.9 t•ha-1), biological yield (9.91 t•ha-1) and harvest index (19.15) was recorded in conventional tillage comparative to minimum tillage. Mulches also affected grain yield, and maximum grain yield was recorded in wheat straw mulch (1.88 t•ha-1) followed by grass clipping mulch (1.81 t•ha-1) and saw dust mulch (1.76 t•ha-1) while minimum grain yield was recorded in control without mulch application (1.67 t•ha-1). Tillage and mulches interactively affect pH, soil organic matter contents, electrical conductivity and
Effects of Tillage Practices on Soil Properties under Maize Cultivation on Oxic Paleustalf in South Western Nigeria  [PDF]
Bola A. Senjobi, Olufunmilayo T. Ande, A. E. Okulaja
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2013.33019

A study was conducted to determine the effect of tillage practices on soil properties under maize cultivation in savanna ecosystem of South Western Nigeria. The tillage systems evaluated were zero, convectional and traditional tillage systems. The results showed that there is a significant difference in soil parameters and crop morphologies at p < 0.05 among the tillage systems. The traditional tillage system resulted to the most favorable soil environment, for crop growth and best performance of crop followed by conventional and no-tillage system in the area are studied respectively. The significant difference in yields adduced to lower bulk density, higher water holding capacity and porosity which increased plant root proliferation and optimal utilization of soil nutrients under tilled methods. Hence tillage methods have the capability to increase production while no-tillage is better under long term production for sustainable land use.

Effect of tillage systems on soil properties, humus and water conservation  [PDF]
Teodor Rusu, Ioan Pacurar, Marcel Dirja, Horea Mihai Pacurar, Ioan Oroian, Smaranda Adina Cosma, Marinela Gheres
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.45B007

Human action upon soil by tillage determines important morphological, physical-chemical and biological changes, with different intensities and evaluative directions. Nowadays, it is internationally accepted the fact that global climatic changes are the results of human intervention in the bio-geo-chemical water and material cycle, and the sequestration of carbon in soil is considered an important intervention to limit these changes. Carbon sequestration in soil is net advantageous, improving the productivity and sustainability. The more the organic content in soil is higher the better soil aggregation is. The soil without organic content is compact. This reduces its capacity to infiltrate water, nutrients solubility and productivity, and that way it reduces the soil capacity for carbon sequestration. Organic matter is an extremely important constituent of soils and is vital to many of the hydrological, biological and chemical reactions required for sustaining plant life. We present the influence of conventional plough tillage system on soil, water and organic matter conservation in comparison with an alternative minimum tillage system (paraplow, chisel plow and rotary harrow). The application of minimum tillage systems increased the organic matter content 0.8% to 22.1% and water stabile aggregate content from 1.3% to 13.6%, in the 0 - 30 cm depth, as compared to the classical system. For the organic matter content and the wet aggregate stability, the statistical analysis of the data showed, increasing positive significance of minimum systems. While the soil fertility and the wet aggregate stability were initially low, the effect of conservation practices on the soil features resulted in a positive impact on the water permeability of the soil. Availability of soil moisture during the crop growth resulted in better plant water status. Subsequent release of conserved soil water regulated proper plant water status, soil structure, and lowered soil pene-trometer resistance.

Comparison of Five Tillage Systems in Coastal Plain Soils for Cotton Production  [PDF]
Ahmad Khalilian, Michael A. Jones, Philip J. Bauer, Michael W. Marshall
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2017.710018
Abstract: Soil compaction management in the southeastern USA typically relies heavily on the practice of annual deep tillage. Strip tillage systems have shown considerable promise for reducing energy and labor requirements, equipment costs, soil erosion, and cotton plant damage from blowing sand. Replicated field trials were conducted for three years in South Carolina, to compare the performance of three different strip tillage systems to conventional tillage and no-till methods. A second objective was to investigate whether the frequency of deep tillage can be reduced by planting cotton directly using controlled wheel traffic into the previous year’s subsoiler furrow. Tillage treatments included: conventional tillage (disk-subsoil-bed), straight shank strip-till, bent-leg shank strip-till (Paratill), bent-leg shank strip till (Terra Max), and no-till. Deep tillage was performed in all plots the first year. In years two and three, the plots were split and half received annual deep tillage and the other half were not deep tilled either year. Tillage methods were compared side by side with and without irrigation. Deep tillage reduced soil compaction and increased taproot length and cotton yields than the no-till system. There was no difference in cotton lint yield between the strip-till systems and conventional tillage in either dry land or irrigated plots. Deep tillage increased cotton lint yields compared to no-till. There was no difference in lint yield between plots which were deep-tilled in all three years with those which had tillage operation only in first year of the test. Dry matter partitioning at first bloom was reduced in plant height, total dry weight, and leaf area in strip-till and no-till production systems compared to the conventional tillage system. The results suggest that all three strip tillage systems are equally effective for cotton production and that annual deep tillage is not necessary if controlled traffic is employed.
Influência dos sistemas de preparo nas propriedades químicas e físicas do solo
Falleiro, R. M.;Souza, C. M.;Silva, C. S. W.;Sediyama, C. S.;Silva, A. A.;Fagundes, J. L.;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-06832003000600014
Abstract: different tillage systems cause changes in the chemical, physical and biological attributes of a soil, requiring modifications in the requirements of fertilization and liming. the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of tillage systems on chemical and physical attributes of a soil, in a long-term experiment installed in 1985. since then, the soil has been cultivated with annual cultures and submitted to six tillage systems: no-tillage (sd), disc plow (ad), moldboard plow (aa), heavy disc harrow (gp), heavy disc harrow + moldboard plow (gp + aa) and heavy disc harrow + disc plow (gp + ad). the experimental design was in completely randomized blocks with four replications. samplings were collected after the culture of maize (crop 2001/02), at depths of 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm. soil samples were submitted to chemical and physical analyses and the averages compared by the tukey test. the tillage systems affected the chemical and physical attributes of a soil distinctly. greatest differences were observed between the sd treatment and the others. sd showed higher bulk density values than the other treatments, in the average of the three depths. in the 0-5 cm layer of sd, increments of the medium values of organic matter, ph, cation-exchange capacity, exchangeable calcium, exchangeable magnesium, exchangeable potassium and phosphorus available were observed; in relation to the other depths. the aluminum value was smaller in the sd treatment in the 0-5 cm layer than the others; at the depth 10-20 cm, this value was higher than the treatments ad, gp and gp + aa. treatments ad, gp, gp + ad and gp + aa showed higher values of exchangeable potassium than the treatments sd and aa, at the depth 0-5 cm. treatment sd presented values of available phosphorus superior to the other treatments, at the depth 0-5 cm and in the average of the three depths.
Growth and Development Responses of Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) to Changes in Physical and Hydrological Soil Properties Due to Minimum Tillage  [PDF]
Francesca Orlando, Marco Napoli, Anna Dalla Marta, Francesca Natali, Marco Mancini, Camillo Zanchi, Simone Orlandini
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2011.23038
Abstract: Minimum tillage is a soil conservation practice involving a reduction in soil disturbance and topsoil compaction, which could minimize environmental impact of the tobacco cultivation system. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the development and growth responses of Nicotiana tabacum and the changes in the physical and hydrological soil properties after the application of two different treatments: minimum tillage (MT) and conventional tillage (CT). MT did not cause any pronounced differences in the crop yield compared to CT, instead it positively affected the physical and hydrological soil properties and the plants’ vegetative growth. Under MT, the soil showed a higher structural stability than CT with significantly lower compaction values. With MT the soil showed a higher capacity to maintain and store water during the drought periods, evidenced by soil moisture values significantly higher than CT. Tobacco on MT showed a good response, significantly prolonging the vegetative growth stage which at harvest determined a higher stem height, greater number of leaves and longer internodes.
Corn and Soybean Rotation under Reduced Tillage Management: Impacts on Soil Properties, Yield, and Net Return  [PDF]
Krishna N. Reddy, Robert M. Zablotowicz, L. Jason Krutz
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.45A002

A 4-yr field study was conducted from 2007 to 2010 at Stoneville, MS to examine the effects of rotating corn and soybean under reduced tillage conditions on soil properties, yields, and net return. The six rotation systems were continuous corn (CCCC), continuous soybean (SSSS), corn-soybean (CSCS), soybean-corn (SCSC), soybean-soybean-cornsoybean (SSCS), and soybean-soybean-soybean-corn (SSSC). Field preparation consisted of disking, subsoiling, disking, and bedding in the fall of 2005. After the fall of 2006, the raised beds were refurbished each fall after harvest with no additional tillage operations to maintain as reduced tillage system. The surface 5 cm soil from continuous soybean had higher pH than continuous corn in all four years. Unlike pH, total carbon and total nitrogen were higher in continuous corn compared to continuous soybean. Delta 15N tended to be higher in continuous corn compared to continuous soybean. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) indicated minor changes in soil microbial community in relation to cropping sequence, however there was a significant shift in rhizosphere community depending on crop. Corn yield increased every year following rotation with soybean by 16%, 31%, and 15% in 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively, compared to continuous corn. As a result, net returns were higher in rotated corn compared with continuous corn. This study demonstrated that alternating between corn and soybean is a sustainable practice with increased net returns in corn.

Impact of Different Tillage Methods on Silty Loam Luvisol Water Content in Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Crop  [PDF]
K?stutis Romaneckas, Egidijus ?arauskis, Laura Masilionyt?, Antanas Sakalauskas, Vytautas Pilipavi?ius
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.43026

The regulation of water regime in the soil is the most important task in semi-humid climate with not even precipitation distribution conditions. Reduced or minimum tillage may change soil hydrological properties. The objectives of this study were to investigate the possibilities to manage soil water regime during the whole soil tillage system for sugar beet, which are especially sensitive for water deficit or abundance. Five field experiments were carried out at the Experimental Station of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture (Aleksandras Stulginskis University since 2011) (54°52'N, 23°49'E) during 1995-2010. The soil of the experiments was silty loam Luvisol. In this study we highlighted the reduction of primary soil tillage from deep annual soil ploughing to shallow ploughing, deep and shallow cultivation and no till, comparison of soil ploughing and subsoiling, presowing ploughed or unploughed soil tillage with different cultivators—S-tine, complex, rotary and others, soil compressing with Cambridge and spur rollers before and after sugar beet sowing investigations. According to the results of experiments, reduction of primary soil tillage conserved soil water. The highest storage of soil water in spring was observed in non-reversibly tilled or not tilled soil. Subsoiling led higher water infiltration rate, and top layer of subsoiled soil consisted less moisture content than ploughed. Sugar beet seedbed moisture mostly depended on soil tillage intensity and depth. Presowing rotary tilling was the top tillage method in the case of water preservation in ploughed or unploughed soil. Soil compressing with rollers mostly had negative or low influence on light loam Luvisol moisture content. Rolling with Cambridge roller effected on more rapid water transport from deeper to top sugar beet seedbed layers and higher evaporation rate.

Effects of Conservation Tillage on Total and Aggregated Soil Organic Carbon in the Andes  [PDF]
Marcela Quintero, Nicholas B. Comerford
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2013.38042

Many Andisols of the Andes have been disturbed by traditional potato-based rotation agriculture disrupting soil structure, water retention capacity and organic matter content. This study was undertaken to investigate the contribution of conservation farming technology or reduced tillage in potato-based rotations in the Colombian Andes in order to rehabilitate total and aggregated soil organic C in disturbed organic matter-rich Andisols. Soils were sampled from farms with 7-year of reduced tillage and farms with conventional farming practices. Ultrasound energy was applied to samples to disrupt aggregation and total soil C was determined in order to investigate the amount of carbon held inside the aggregates of different soil size classes. Results indicated that reduced tillage in potato-based crop rotations increased the soil C concentration and average C content in the whole profile (≈117 cm depth) by 50 and 33% (1636 t C ha?1 vs. 1224 t C ha?1), respectively, as compared to conventional farming practices. Carbon content increased 177% in the subsoil (A2 horizon, 78 -117 cm depth, from 215 to 596 t?ha?1), although most of the soil C was in the A1 horizon (between 0 -78 cm average thickness, 1097 t?ha?1). These increases show that reduced tillage enhances C stores in Andisols which are already high in organic matter. In addition, C in aggregates represented more than 80% of the total organic matter and it was positively affected by conservation practices. The C increase was preferential in the smaller macroaggregates (<2 mm). The aggregate dispersion energy curves further suggested that C increase was occurring in microaggregates within the smaller macroaggregate fraction. Data suggested that smaller macroaggregates can be used in these soils to evaluate the influence of field management practices on soil C sequestration.

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