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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 21650 matches for " soil gas "
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Effect of Gas Flaring on Soil and Cassava Productivity in Ebedei, Ukwuani Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Morrison Ifeanyi Atuma, Vincent Nduka Ojeh
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.410121
Abstract:

The threat to human, fauna and flora life posed by pollution due to gas flaring cannot be over-emphasized. Gas flared often resulted in some environmental degradation, one of such influence is soil pollution and poor crop yield. This study examined the effect of gas flaring on soil and cassava productivity in Ebedei, Ukwuani LGA, Delta State. For the purpose of data collection, five (5) experimental sites were systematically selected around the flare site in Ebedei and a control site at Obiaruku. Soil samples were collected at surface 0 - 10 cm and 10 - 20 cm at distance of 50 m, 100 m, 150 m, 200 m and 250 m apart respectively away from the bund wall of the flare. The data generated were analysed using multiple regression and paired t-test analyses. The study revealed that the soils found in Ebedei have high composition of sand and soil temperature and are acidic. The soil electrical conductivity, Phosphorous, Nitrogen, Potassium and Sodium were very low. More so, the yield of cassava increases with a corresponding increase in distances from flare site. The first hypothesis revealed that there is significant variation in soil nutrients as distance increases from gas flare sites. This is evident from F value of 234.99 which is greater than the critical table value of 4.39. Furthermore, as flare distance increases, so also the organic carbon, electrical conductivity and Nitrogen increase. The second hypothesis revealed that there is a significant difference in cassava yield at gas-flared area and the non-flared area which is evident at t (6.032) is greater than the critical table (1.895) at P < 0.05. It is therefore recommended that Government and FEPA should enact environmental Policies and revisit and review existing

GC/MS: A Valid Tool for Soil Gas Hydrocarbons Speciation  [PDF]
Laura Clerici, Emanuela Mongini, Pasquale Robles, Pierluisa Dellavedova, Maria Antonietta De Gregorio
International Journal of Analytical Mass Spectrometry and Chromatography (IJAMSC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijamsc.2015.33007
Abstract: This work describes an alternative method based on GC/MS technique with SCAN-ion approach for speciation of hydrocarbons contained in soil gas matrices and sampled on solid sorbent tubes (coconut shell charcoal).
Profit Analysis by Soil Carbon Sequestration with Different Composts and Cooperated with Biochar during Corn (Zea mays) Cultivation Periods in Sandy Loam Soil  [PDF]
Joung Du Shin, Yong-Su Choi, Jae-Hoon Shin
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2016.53012
Abstract: Despite the ability of biochar to enhance soil fertility and to sequester soil carbon, its potential reduction of green house gas emissions and profit analysis with different organic composts and cooperated with biochar for crop cultivation have been a few evaluated. This study was conducted to estimate their greenhouse gas emission reduction and profit analysis by soil carbon sequestration with different organic composts and cooperated with biochar application during corn cultivation periods. For the experiment, the treatments were consisted of aerobic digestate of swine wastes (AD), pig compost as the control (PC), cow compost (CC) and pig compost cooperated with 1% biochar (PC + 1% biochar). The soil texture used in this study was sandy loam, and application rates of chemical fertilizer were 190-39-221 kg·ha-1 (N-P2O5-K2O) as recommended amount after soil test. The soil samples were periodically taken at every 15 day intervals during the experimental periods. It was observed that soil carbon sequestration by AD, CC and PC + 1% biochar application was estimated to be 429 kg·ha-1, 2366 kg·ha-1, and 3978 kg·ha-1, and their CO2-e emission reductions were estimated to be 0.16 tones for AD, 0.87 tones for CC, and 14.58 tones for PC + 1% biochar per hectar for corn cultivation periods. Their profits were estimated at $14.58 for lowest and $451.90 for highest. In Korea Climate Exchange, it was estimated to be $115.20 per hectar of corn cultivation with PC + 1% biochar. So, the price of CO2 per hectar for corn cultivation with PC + 1% biochar was high at 16.8 times relative to cow compost treatment only. For the plant growth response, it was observed that plant height and fresh ear yield were not significantly different among the treatments. Therefore, these experimental results might be fundamental data for assuming a carbon trading mechanism exists for biochar soil application in agricultural practices.
Assessment of the Effects of Temperature, Precipitation and Altitude on Greenhouse Gas Emission from Soils in Lagos Metropolis  [PDF]
Rose Alani, Shakurideen Odunuga, Nkenie Andrew-Essien, Youpele Appia, Kolawole Muyiolu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2017.81008
Abstract: Significant pool of carbon is present in the biosphere as soil organic carbon (SOC). More carbon is stored in the soils which include peatlands, wetlands and permafrost than is present in the atmosphere. There are still controversies regarding the effects of climate change on global soil carbon stocks. This study seeks to: assess the effect of altitude, temperature and precipitation on the greenhouse gas emission from soil; and to examine the correlation between soil organic carbon and soil texture. With a total of 81 samples collected at 3 different depths (0 - 10 cm, 10 - 20 cm, 20 - 30 cm) from 27 locations in different regions of Lagos, the relation of soil organic carbon concentration to climate was investigated. Samples taken were analyzed for soil organic matter, soil organic carbon (SOC), and percentage of silt/clay/sand. The amount of carbon dioxide released was calculated. Temperature, precipitation and altitude were also taken into consideration. From the 27 locations topsoil had 8 locations of highest SOC contents; middle soil had 2 locations of highest SOC contents while bottom soil had 17 locations of highest SOC contents. SOC contents of top soil were linked with soil texture, vegetation type, temperature, precipitation, and altitude. The study showed that SOC increased with decrease in temperature, decrease in precipitation, and increase in altitude. Forest, shrubs and grassland types of vegetation, as well as soil depths also favour SOC contents. The study also showed that increase in temperature and altitude favours greenhouse gas emission from the soil. From our findings, SOC and climate change are greatly linked.
The Gas-Migration-Simulator (GAMS) - A new device for the simulation of soil gas migration processes
M. Schubert,M. Monnin,K. Freyer,H.C. Treutler
Geofísica internacional , 2002,
Abstract: Since natural soil conditions are hardly ever homogeneous, soil gas migration processes are difficult to investigate. The power of model calculations for describing or predicting soil gas migration processes is often limited. The Gas-Migration-Simulator (GAMS) has been developed to cope with this problem. The GAMS takes the form of a cylindrical box which can be homogeneously filled with a soil volume of 1.7 m3. The design allows a solely diffusive input of a gas phase into the base of the soil column. At the same time it allows determination of the gas exhalation rate. By providing a gas-tight crawling space immediately above the soil column and by adjusting a certain air pressure in this space the GAMS also permits the simulation of atmospheric high or low pressure fields, enabling the investigation of their influence on soil gas exhalation rate and soil gas migration. Quantitative irrigation of the soil surface and simulation of an adjustable groundwater table are also possible. To record time series of the relevant parameters, the GAMS is equipped with six layers of exchangeable probes at different depths. Recent research focuses on the migration of radon through the ground and its dependence on meteorological parameters. Special “Clipperton” probes have been used to record continuous time series of radon concentration of soil gas together with the temperature and the soil moisture content.
ESTIMATIVA DE VARIA??ES NO COEFICIENTE RELATIVO DE DIFUS?O DOS GASES NO SOLO COM BASE NA ANáLISE DA CURVA DE RETEN??O DA áGUA
Pereira, Antonio Augusto Alves;Cruciani, Décio Eugênio;
Ciência Rural , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782001000200009
Abstract: the aim of this study was to test the possibility of using water retention curves to assess increments in the relative coefficient of gas diffusion in the soil, ds/do, during the drainage process of inceptisol soil samples. we first used a water retention curve to obtain data on increments of air-filled pore space during the drainage of soil samples. the greatest increments were found for the matric tension interval of 0 to 20kpa. next, we studied ds/do increments during the drainage process, by measuring the diffusion coefficient of methane through the soil samples (ds) within a two-chamber diffusion cell. the ds values were measured from soil samples under 10kpa and 20kpa matric tension values in addition to an air dried sample (matric tension greater than 1500kpa). mean increments of air porosity and ds/do within the 0 to 20kpa matric tension interval were 100 times greater than increments within 20 to 1500kpa interval. we concluded that the interval of matric tension in which the greatest air porosity and ds/do increments occur, can be identified from the water retention curve.
长期施肥对红壤性水稻土透气性的影响研究
The Effects of Long-Term Fertilization on Gas Permeability of Paddy Soil Derived from Quaternary Red Clay
 [PDF]

毕利东, 李方顺, 柳开楼, 陈丹
Hans Journal of Soil Science (HJSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.12677/HJSS.2014.24004
Abstract:
以红壤性水稻土长期定位试验为对象,采用田间调查结合室内测定方法研究不同施肥处理下红壤性水稻土的物理结构状况及其透气特征。结果表明:1) 与不施肥(Control)相比,长期单施氮肥(N)处理对土壤容重、孔隙率以及土壤透气性均无显著影响(p > 0.05);2)氮磷钾配施(NPK)以及2倍氮磷钾配施(2NPK)仅对土壤容重以及非毛管孔隙率影响显著(p < 0.05),但对土壤透气速率的影响未达显著水平(p > 0.05);3) 相关分析结果表明土壤透气速率与水稻产量存在显著相关关系,而有机肥无机肥配施(NPKOM)不仅能够显著降低土壤容重,增加土壤孔隙,同时还能改良土壤通透性。
In the present study, soil samples derived from quaternary red clay were taken and analyzed from long-term fertilization experiment under rice cropping systems. The purposes were to analyze the effects of long-term different fertilization managements on the soil structural characteristics and soil gas permeability. The results showed that: 1) compared with those of no fertilization control (Control), little impacts of soil bulk density, soil porosity and soil gas permeability were observed in the treatment N (p > 0.05); however, 2) application NPK and 2NPK significantly decreased soil bulk density and increase soil macropores (p < 0.05), but had little effect on soil gas permeability; at last 3) significant positive correlation was observed between soil gas permeability and rice yield, and application of NPK plus organic amendments (NPKOM) not only decreased soil bulk density and increase soil macropores, but improved soil gas permeability (p < 0.05).
Determina??o de pesticidas organoclorados em água de manancial, água potável e solo na regi?o de Bauru (SP)
Rissato, Sandra Regina;Libanio, Marcelo;Giafferis, Giselda Passos;Gerenutti, Marli;
Química Nova , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-40422004000500012
Abstract: this paper evaluates the presence of organochlorinated pesticides in the water supply system of the city of bauru, state of s?o paulo, brazil. soil samples were collected in agricultural areas and water samples at several points of the water source (river) and the distribution net. the results of the analyses of the water from the source were compared with the brazilian classification system for inland waters (conama/86) and the results of analyses of treated water were compared with brazilian standards for finished drinking water.
Determina o de pesticidas organoclorados em água de manancial, água potável e solo na regi o de Bauru (SP)
Rissato Sandra Regina,Libanio Marcelo,Giafferis Giselda Passos,Gerenutti Marli
Química Nova , 2004,
Abstract: This paper evaluates the presence of organochlorinated pesticides in the water supply system of the city of Bauru, State of S o Paulo, Brazil. Soil samples were collected in agricultural areas and water samples at several points of the water source (river) and the distribution net. The results of the analyses of the water from the source were compared with the Brazilian classification system for inland waters (CONAMA/86) and the results of analyses of treated water were compared with Brazilian standards for finished drinking water.
Permeability as an important parameter for radon risk classification of foundation soils
M. Neznal,M. Neznal
Annals of Geophysics , 2005, DOI: 10.4401/ag-3192
Abstract: Permeability of soils and rocks for gases is one of the main parameters for final radon risk classification of building sites. For the improvement of the method for radon risk classification it is recommended to complete in situ measurements of permeability and/or results derived from grain size analysis by an expert description of parameters of soils and rocks and their changes in vertical profile.
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