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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 54998 matches for " soil analysis "
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Evaluation of Seismic Behavior in Building Tube Structures System with Respect to Dense Soil-Structure Interaction Effect  [PDF]
Moreteza Deiranlou
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2015.54041
Abstract: The perceiving local site effects on strong ground motion are particularly important for the mitigation of earthquake disasters as well as future earthquake resistant design. The primary objective of this study is to investigate seismic behavior of building tube structure system with respect to dense soil-structure interaction (sand dense and very hard clay soil with a thickness greater than 30 m). For this purpose, the studied building in this paper is placed over two other different modeled soil types and results of seismic behavior of building for three soil types are compared with each other. Through response spectrum analyses, influence of different sub-soils (dense and loose soil) was determined on seismic behavior of 40-storey building reinforced concrete (RC) with tube in tube structure system and performance of each model was assessed in terms of shear lag behavior, overall and critical (maximum) story drifts. Results illustrate that loose soils amplify seismic waves and increase building drifts and shear lag behavior.
Spatial Analysis of Leptospira in Rats, Water and Soil in Bantul District Yogyakarta Indonesia  [PDF]
Hadi Sumanta, Tri Wibawa, Suwarno Hadisusanto, Anik Nuryati, Hari Kusnanto
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2015.51004
Abstract: Leptospirosis is a potential threat to public health. An increasing number of people infected with Leptospira were reported in Bantul District, Yogyakarta special region with a case fatality rate (CFR) of 7.8%. Infected areas in the district have increased from 2 to 15 sub districts. Leptospirosis is caused by Leptospira bacteria and spread by direct contact with infected rodents and indirect contact through contaminated water or soil. Leptospira in rats, water and soil were detected using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The sites of sampled materials were geocoded using Global Positioning System (GPS). Spatial analysis was used to predict the spread of Spira. This study aims to perform the mapping, clustering, and predicting the spread of Leptospira in Bantul Yogyakarta Indonesia. Data were collected from three sub-districts: Sedayu, Sewon and Bantul. The result showed that 38.04% from 368 samples were Spira positive. There were four significant clusters of infection spread source. Spira is predicted to spread in, and out from, Bantul District.
Isogeometric Analysis of Soil Plasticity  [PDF]
Alex Spetz, Erika Tudisco, Ralf Denzer, Ola Dahlblom
Geomaterials (GM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/gm.2017.73008
In this paper we present numerical simulations of soil plasticity using isogeometric analysis comparing the results to the solutions from conventional finite element method. Isogeometric analysis is a numerical method that uses nonuniform rational B-splines (NURBS) as basis functions instead of the Lagrangian polynomials often used in the finite element method. These functions have a higher-order of continuity, making it possible to represent complex geometries exactly. After a brief outline of the theory behind the isogeometric concept, we give a presentation of the constitutive equations, used to simulate the soil behavior in this work. The paper concludes with numerical examples in two- and three-dimensions, which assess the accuracy of isogeometric analysis for simulations of soil behavior. The numerical examples presented show, that for drained soils, the results from isogeometric analysis are overall in good agreement with the conventional finite element method in two- and three-dimensions. Thus isogeometric analysis is a good alternative to conventional finite element analysis for simulations of soil behavior.
Soil Analysis as a Pedagogical Strategy in High School with PBL Methodology  [PDF]
Cristiane Heredia Gomes, Natália Borges Pinheiro, Isabel Cristina Teixeira da Silva, Vanessa Fagundes Siqueira, Cássius Fernandes Mirapalhete, Rafael Lima Dessart
Creative Education (CE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.96068
Abstract: This study aims at discussing the implementation of Problem Based Learning (PBL) in activities carried out in a first grade high school class. The analysis of soil was used as a didactic tool capable of facilitating student teaching and learning, and as a way for understanding the environment that surrounds them, aiming at achieving three main goals: to acquire knowledge, to develop skills, and attitudes. During the activities,?it was noticed a great student involvement with the activities, especially in the practical ones. In that sense, it was concluded that it is important to work with active methodologies, which are able to increase interest and motivation in the students. Thus, through a thematic approach,?it is possible to raise students’ critical awareness.
Prioritization of Promising Wadi Wala Watershed (Southern Jordan) Using GIS-Based Morphometric Analysis and Multivariate Statistics  [PDF]
Yahya Farhan, Ali Anbar, Dalal Zreqat, Haifa Almohammad, Sireen Alshawamreh
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2018.82009
Abstract: GIS-based morphometric analysis was employed for prioritization of the Wadi Wala catchment, southern Jordan. Twenty three fourth-order sub-basins were prioritized based on morphometric analysis, then appropriate soil and water conservation measures were proposed. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Arc GIS were used to delineate watersheds and to extract the drainage networks, and other required thematic maps (elevation and slope). LANDSAT data was used to prepare land use/land cover map, and a soil map was digitized using Arc GIS software. Linear and shape parameters were computed to prioritize 23 sub-watersheds, and ranks were designated based on the calculated compound parameter (Cp). Sub-basins grouped under a high priority class are exposed to high erosion risk; thus, they are of high potential for applying soil and water conservation measures. The current study substantiates the capability of morphometric analysis method, and geospatial technology in watershed prioritization. The Discriminant Analysis (DA) employed validates the priority classes (high, moderate, and low priority) achieved based on morphometric analysis, where they found statistically distinct from each other. Thus, it can be concluded that prioritization based only on morphometric analysis method is consistent, reliable, and of high capacity using GIS platform. Priority map along with soil, land user/cover, and slope information will help decision makers to execute proper soil and water conservation programs in the rainfed highlands of Jordan.
Prioritization of W. Mujib Catchment (South Jordan) through Morphometric and Discriminant Analysis, GIS, and RS Techniques  [PDF]
Yahya Farhan, Dalal Zreqat, Ali Anbar, Haifa Almohammad, Sireen Alshawamreh
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2018.64009
Abstract: GIS and remote sensing were utilized for prioritizing the W. Mujib catchment. Fifty three fourth-order sub-watersheds were prioritized based on morphometric analysis of linear and shape parameters. ASTER DEM (v.2), topographical maps, and Arc GIS (10.1) software, have been employed to delineate the 53 sub-basins, to extract the drainage networks, and to compute the required basic, linear, and shape parameters, and to compile the necessary thematic maps such as elevation and slope categories. The land use/land cover map was generated using ERDAS Imagine (2015), LANDSAT 8 image, and supervised classification (Maximum Likelihood Method). Soil map was digitized using the Arc GIS tool. Each sub-basin is prioritized by assigning ranks based on the calculated compound parameter (Cp). The final score for each sub-basin is ascribed as per erosion threat. The 53 sub-watersheds were grouped into four categories of priority: very high (15 sub-basins, 28.3% of the total), high (17 sub-basins, 32% of the total), moderate (16 sub-basins, 30.2% of the total), and low (5 sub-basins, 9.5% of the total). Sub-basins categorized as very high and high priority (60.3% of the total) are subjected to high erosion risk, thus, creating an urgent need for applying soil and water conservation measures. The validity of the prioritized four groups was tested statistically by means of Discriminant Analysis (DA), and a significant difference was found between the four priority classes. A relatively complete separation exists between the recognized priority classes; thus, they are statistically valid, distinct, and different from each other. The present results intend to help decision makers pay sufficient attention to soil and water conservation programs, and to encourage tree plantation over the government-owned sloping land. Such procedures are essential in order to minimize soil erosion loss, and to increase soil moisture on farms, thus, reducing the impact of recurrent droughts and the possibility of flooding downstream.
Decomposi??o de amostras de solos assistida por radia??o microondas: estratégia para evitar a forma??o de fluoretos insolúveis
Vieira, Edivan Carvalho;Kamogawa, Marcos Yassuo;Lemos, Sherlan Guimar?es;Nóbrega, Joaquim de Araújo;Nogueira, Ana Rita de Araújo;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-06832005000400007
Abstract: the use of pre-mixed nitric and hydrofluoric acids for the decomposition of samples containing high amounts of si can cause the precipitation of al(iii), ca(ii), fe(iii), and mg(ii) fluorides during digestion, reducing the total recovery of these elements. four procedures were applied to certified soil samples in an attempt to circumvent this problem. the most efficient procedure was based on microwave-assisted acid digestion decomposition of the samples, followed by separation of the residual silicate compounds. this fraction was solubilized using concentrated hf and the remaining fluoride ions were complexed by adding boric acid. this solution was mixed with the liquid phase of the acid digest. elemental analysis of the acid digests was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (icp-oes). the accuracy of the procedure was confirmed by applying it to samples provided by the international soil-analytical exchange (ise- wageningen agricultural university, netherlands) and to certified soil reference material from the national institute of standards & technology (nist, srm 2709). the following elemental recovery (%) was obtained: 100.0 ± 2.6; 99.5 ± 1.9; 108.5 ± 2.7; 94.6 ± 8.9; 92.2 ± 9.7; 95.7 ± 1.8; 96.7 ± 2.7; 95.2 ± 0.6; 103.6 ± 2.6 and 96.1 ± 1.6 for al, ba, ca, cr, cu, fe, mg, mn, v, and zn, respectively.
Amostragem de terra para fins de fertilidade em fun??o da ferramenta de amostragem
Rosolem, Ciro Antonio;Tozi, Thiago de Souza;Garcia, Rodrigo Arroyo;
Revista Ceres , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-737X2010000300018
Abstract: spade has been indicated in brazil as the best tool for soil sampling to evaluate soil fertility, but its use is time consuming. in the present study the results of five different tools including augers, tubes and a power driven screw were compared with trowel samples as to the time consumed to sample the soil and results quality. the average time to take 10 samples was evaluated by 6 different operators. to evaluate the sample results quality, 15 areas differing in soil type, management and fertility level were sampled. the samples were taken according to soil depth or taken from 0 to 20 cm as a standard sample in brazil. sampling with a trowel took 1.3 to 2.3 more time than soil sampling with the other tools. for soil organic matter, acidity, exchangeable al and available p all the tools can be used without difference in results quality. however, for the soil bases k, ca and mg results obtained with different tools were not comparable.
Soil Study of Woodland in Pirgulu State Nature Preserve of Azerbaijan
Resources and Environment , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.re.20120201.06
Abstract: Soil study was carried out in Pirgulu State Nature Preserve of Azerbaijan. In the preserve field studies were mainly realized for soils under woodland area. Due to the hectare, sections of soil have been done for taking soil samples. These samples were analyzed in lab condition, then according to the analysis results, current state of the preserve was determined. Finally new and first soil map of Pirgulu State Nature Preserve of Azerbaijan was established.
Robust Soil Quality Index for Tropical Soils Influenced by Agricultural Activities  [PDF]
Jesus Gabriel Rangel-Peraza, Edith Padilla-Gasca, Rosalía López-Corrales, Jaime Rochín Medina, Yaneth Bustos-Terrones, Leonel Ernesto Amabilis-Sosa, Abraham Efraim Rodríguez-Mata, Tomás Osuna-Enciso
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2017.64014
Abstract: The knowledge of the soil quality plays a vital role in the agricultural sector. Despite its importance, there is scarce scientific information concerning this regard. The objective of this research is to develop a methodology to identify and select the most appropriate indicators of Soil Quality Index (SQI) in a region with high agricultural activity. For its conformation, a descriptive statistical analysis and a Pearson correlation matrix were performed and the indicators that showed greater variation were identified using a Principal Components Analysis (PCA). A sensitivity analysis was carried out and the most sensible soil indicators of?SQI?were identified. This statistical procedure was also used to specify the weights of the indicators in?SQI. The variables resulting from the multiparametric statistical analysis were pH, organic matter, sodium, calcium, iron, zinc, cation exchange capacity and electrical conductivity. The robustness of the?SQI?obtained in this study was demonstrated through simulations carried out by the numerical optimization through simplex method. The Soil Quality Index range obtained (0.54 - 0.75) locates Culiacan Valley soils as moderate/high quality.
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