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Relationship Between Ball Kick Velocity and Leg Strength: A Comparison Between Soccer Players and other Athletes  [PDF]
Takanori Noguchi, Shin-ichi Demura, Yoshinori Nagasawa
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2012.23017
Abstract: This study compared soccer players with non-soccer players, with respect to the relationship between ball velocity due to an instep kick and various leg strengths. Ten young university soccer players and ten other athletes (non-soccer players) had their instep kick ball velocity (BV) measured with respect to isokinetic leg strength. The BVs from the soccer players were significantly greater than those from the non-soccer group. However, this group also had significantly inferior dorsiflexion strength of the ankle joint (low: low angular velocity), extension of the knee joint (low, middle, and the total value of the evaluation parameters of all angular velocities), and flexion of the hip joint (middle). Positive and significant correlations between BV and flexion and dorsiflexion strengths of the ankle joint (low), extension (low, middle, high, and total), and flexion of knee joint (low and total), extension (low, high, and total), and flexion (high) of the hip joint were found in the soccer group, but a significant negative correlation was found only between BV and hip joint flexion strength (middle) in the non-soccer group. In conclusion, soccer players have similar or inferior isokinetic leg strength in comparison to other athletes, but their BV is faster.
Differences in body components and electrical characteristics between youth soccer players and non-athletes  [PDF]
Seung-Min Yang, Won-Deok Lee, Ju-Hyun Kim, Mee-Young Kim, Junghwan Kim
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.56134

Many previous studies have focused on youth soccer player injuries without body component analysis compared to non-athletes. Only a few studies which have investigated body components of youth soccer players, and studies that look at electrical characteristics used by rheobase and chronaxie as well as body components are even scarcer. Therefore, we feel that there is a need for a study investigating objective clinical analysis of the body components (body structure and body composition) and electrical characteristics of both youth soccer players and non-athletes. Sixty subjects participated in our study, comprising of thirty youth soccer players and thirty non-athletes. The Inbody 520 was used to measure and analyze body composition and the Duo 500 was employed to measure electrical characteristics. It was observed that the soccer players showed markedly lower total impedance compared to the non-athletes. In both legs, it was particularly noted that there were significant differences between the right and left sides. The soccer players showed a higher skeletal muscle mass and lean/ideal lean × 100% compared to the non-athletes. Furthermore, the soccer players had a lower rheobase and higher chronaxie. A comparison of the genders showed a similar pattern. In this study, we were able to separate the differences in body components and electrical characteristics between the subject groups using a systemic approach. Future studies on diverse types of athletes would contribute further to the development of clinical physiotherapy and sports rehabilitation.

Concrete Compressive Strength Estimation by Means of Nondestructive Testing: A Case Study  [PDF]
Yuri Danilo Lopes, Leandro Vanalli, Vladimir José Ferrari
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2016.64043
Abstract: Estimation of the mechanical properties of concrete in an existing structure is possible with the results of surface hardness and ultrasound tests (nondestructive tests (NDTs)). For both the use of correlation curves is necessary, it is established between NDT and the results of the compressive strength of test specimens or extracted from structure. The objective of this study is to produce correlations between the results of surface hardness and ultrasound NDTs and the compressive strength of the structural concrete in the bleachers of a soccer stadium in the city of Cianorte, which is located in the northwest part of the state of Paraná, Brazil. This concrete structure, which is approximately 26 years old, has some defects, such as corrosion, concrete segregation and cracks. Concrete spalling in one of the slabs has recently raised some concern. Another significant issue is the absence of records regarding concreting of the bleachers’ structure. Therefore, mapping the reinforcement was initially performed according to the results of a surface hardness test, as recommended by standard [1]. An ultrasound test was simultaneously performed according to standard [2] for the same points employed in the surface hardness test. The concrete specimens were extracted according to the recommendations of standard [1] to determine compressive strength, perform the NDT and construct the correlation curves for the results. A total of 26 concrete specimens were obtained from all structures of the bleachers. From the methodology and the results of the study, highly reliable equations were obtained from the correlation curves among the compressive strength of the concrete specimens and the values of the surface hardness index and the ultrasound wave propagation velocity.
Interaction between Players during a Sequence of Small-Sided Soccer Games: Effect of the Game Compartment  [PDF]
Kais Ghattassi, Ahmed Graja, Jamel Halouani, Mohamed Amine Bouzid
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2017.74033
Abstract: It is well known that the interaction between athletes has a positive effect on performance. In a sequence of small-sided games,soccer players must analyze their interactions (interaction between forwards and defenders) to adjust their position and engage in the creation of opportunities to score a goal.The aim of this study wasto investigate the effect of interaction or relationship practices between players in football (forwards and defenders) through soccer small-sided games (SSG).Eighty soccer players (18.2?± 1.01 years, 1.80 ± 0.05 m and 75.0 ± 7.6 kg; mean ± SD)?were volunteered to performtwo sessions for four minutes with a recovery period of two minutes in a football court measuring 35 × 30m with small-sided?games.Participants were divided in eightgroupsandeachteam was composedof five players with three defenders and two forwards(3D + 2F) for the first team, and three forwards and two defenders (3F + 2D)for the second team.The first session consist
Applying Positive Psychology Principles to Soccer Interventions for People with Mental Health Difficulties  [PDF]
Bettina Friedrich, Oliver J. Mason
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2018.93023
Abstract: Adjunct exercise interventions for people with mental health difficulties have been shown to improve well-being while also increasing physical and social health. Soccer as a team sport is a particularly apt form of group-based exercise as it fosters social inclusion and communication skills potentially also across cultural and socio-economic barriers. We discuss how some exercise interventions such as those using soccer are potentially well-aligned with concepts from Positive Psychology such as Seligman’s five elements (PERMA) that determine “Eudaimonia” (a good life): Positive emotions (P), Engagement and Flow (E), Positive Relationships (R), Meaning (M), and Accomplishment (A). In the present study the perceived life improvements reported by participants of a London-based soccer intervention “Coping Through Football” (CTF) are analysed for content using these five elements. All but Meaning (M) could be identified clearly; Positive Relationship (R) and Accomplishment (A) were the most commonly reported components. The PERMA model offers a potentially highly relevant framework to measure changes in well-being in participants of adjunct physical exercise treatments in mental health. Further quantitative and qualitative evaluation using the PERMA categories has the clear potential to inform policy and funding decisions in the growing area of psychosocial interventions in public mental health.
Les?es nos jogadores de futebol profissional do Marília Atlético Clube: estudo de coorte histórico do campeonato brasileiro de 2003 a 2005
Palacio, Evandro Pereira;Candeloro, Bruno Moreira;Lopes, Aline de Almeida;
Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-86922009000100007
Abstract: introduction and objectives: several authors have investigated the incidence of injuries occurred in outdoor soccer games. however, just a few are concerned about the athletes' healing period or the financial damage due to this no-activity period. the purpose of this study was to assess, through a cohort study, the injured athletes' recovery period, facing it to the variables: age, position in game and injure pattern. methods: the medical reports of all professional soccer players of marília atlético clube who were injured during the brazilian soccer championship - 2nd division, from january/2003 to december/2005 were assessed, with a 24 months follow-up. results: athletes' mean age (sd) was 24.5 years (4.4 years); the most frequently injured athletes were: strikers (36.8), center-backs (26.6%), center-midfielders (20%), side-midfielders (10%) and goalkeepers (6.6%). the most frequent injuries were: muscular (46.8%), ligament (26.6%), bone (16.6%) and meniscal (10%); the strikers have shown a mean recovery period of 28 days (78.3 days), the center-backs 26.5 days (33.9), the center-midfielders 18.5 days (66.3), the side-midfielders 17 days (129.9) and the goalkeepers 47.5 days (17.6). conclusion: statistical analysis showed that there was no correlation between athletes' age and their healing period (p/ =/ 0.31); there was no statistical difference between the healing period among the five different athletes' positions (p/ =/ 0.49); there was statistical difference between the healing period and the injury pattern (p/
Turgut KAPLAN,Halil TA?KIN,Mehmet ALTIN,Nurtekin ERKMEN
Selcuk Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu Dergisi , 2008,
Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the state anxiety level of soccer players during thetournament according to the competitions. To the research, 22 amateur soccer playersparticipated in voluntarily, whose average age is 22,59±2,039(year) and average height is1,77±7,361 (m) and average weight is 70,18±7,544 (kg) and average sport age is 10,82±1,943from the soccer team of Selcuk University that takes place in league B among universities whichis in constitution of Federation of Turkey University Sports. The soccer league which isorganized by the Federation of Turkey University Sports includes leagues A, B and C. SelcukUniversity soccer team completed league B as the 1st and gained chance to play advancementmatches for league A. In the research, State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), which wasdeveloped by Spielberger and his friends, was used to determine the anxiety level of the soccerplayers.It has been determined that statistically there has been a meaningful difference among thestate anxiety points of the soccer players before and after the tournament, before and after the1st, 2nd and 4th matches during the tournament before and after the competitions.(P<0,05). Onthe other hand, a statistically meaningful difference hasn’t been determined among the stateanxiety points before and after the 3rd and 5th matches (P>0,05).In conclusion, it is being thought that the level of anxiety of the soccer players differsaccording to the importance of the competition and it is necessary to give psychological supportin the process before the competition.
Entertainment of the World Cup on China Professional Soccer Development

- , 2015, DOI: 10.19582/j.cnki.11-3785/g8.2015.01.019
Abstract: 摘要:世界杯落幕给我们提供了大量的成功经验,为我们的足球发展提供了依据。但是如何分析和理解成功经验的含义和作用,如何学习和借鉴世界杯带来的先进理念和技战术运用,是一件需要探讨的问题。本文从分析世界杯获胜球队的参赛经验和国际足联技战术调研报告入手,提出了如何认识当今足球发展的先进理念,如何学习先进的技战术打法,以及为足球发展奠定基础的青少年培养问题。为我国足球工作者理解世界杯、准确把握学习方向提供有益的借鉴。
Abstract:With the ending of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, we obtained a large amount of successful experiences which provide the basis for China soccer developmentHow to analyze and understand the connotation and effect from the successful experiences, and how to absorb and draw upon the advanced philosophy and the technique and tactical application, are questions needed to be discussedThis paper analyzed competition experiences of the winning teams and technique reports of FIFA, raised questions toward how to cognize the advanced philosophy in present soccer development, how to learn advanced tactics as well as how to lay the foundation for the development of adolescent football playersIt provided a useful reference for China soccer practitioners to understand the World Cup and grasp the study direction accurately
Perfil Antropométrico y Aptitud Física de árbitros del Fútbol Profesional Chileno
Fernández Vargas,Germán Esteban; Inácio da Silva,Alberto; Arruda,Miguel;
International Journal of Morphology , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022008000400019
Abstract: the objective of the current study was to analyses the state of the anthropometric profile and physical ability of referees of first category participants of professional chilean during the 2007 soccer season. the sample was formed by 11 main referees, allmale sex. the age was 34.54 + 4.76 years oíd, height 1.74 + 0.05 m, body mass 76.95 ±5.75kg and 25.14+ 1.18kg/m2of body mass índex (bmi). the variables of body mass, height, skinfolds, body girth and bone diameters were collected with the aim of estimating the body composition and determining the somatotype of the referees. the new group of physical tests from fifa determines to evalúate the referee first about his fitness to run quickly (6 ¥ 40 m) with a break of one minute and also to measure his ability of aerobic resistance in the second test. regarding to the data of body composition the result indícate that the fat percentage is 15.44 ± 2.81 % with an average somatotype of 3.81 - 5.67 - 1.57 classified in meso-endomorphic. the results show that the chilean referees covered in average 5.32 ± 0.02 the first test, meanwhile the second test all the referees covered easily distance of 4.000 m. the higher body fat in the professional referees can be a limitation of the physical performance during the game that could be controlled by advisement and fitness programs.
Somatotipo y Aptitud Física en árbitros Asistentes de Fútbol
Silva,Alberto Inácio da;
International Journal of Morphology , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022011000300020
Abstract: the aim of this study was to analyze the somatotype of assistant referees and examine its correlation with physical performance during fifa physical tests. study subjects were referees from the brazilian football confederation (cbf) and paranese football federation (fpf) who appeared before the physical evaluation committee of the fpf in order to submit to the physical fitness tests. the sample was comprised of 11 referees from the cbf and considered the elite of brazil, and 34 fpf referees who officiate at regional level in the state of parana. in order to determine body composition nine skin folds, nine body circumferences and four bone diameter measures were used. to assess variables related to physical fitness a battery of the following fifa physical tests were used: two runs of 50 meters and 12 minute running tests. data analysis of body composition indicated fat percentage of assistant referees from the cbf was 16.74±3.71%, and assistants of the fpf was 17.09±4.38%. there were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05). with regard to somatotype, cbf assistants were classified as meso-endomorph and fpf assistants as endo-mesomorph, in other words, cbf assistants group showed a higher predominant muscular component over fat. the difference between somatotypes was statistically significant (dds=2.22). in reference to the speed test the cbf assistant referees were faster than the fpf referees, the difference being statistically significant between results (p=0.0001). during a match, assistant referees perform a lesser physical effort than the main referee; their performance however was similar to the main referee in the physical tests.
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