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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4166 matches for " signal transduction "
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Comparative gene expression analysis in stems of Dolichos purpureus and Arabidopsis thaliana  [PDF]
Haiyan Yan, Xumin Wang, Yanan Chu, Kang Dai
American Journal of Molecular Biology (AJMB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajmb.2012.21008
Abstract: The outermost layer epidermis of a plant stem plays an important role in protection and environment-sensing. The mechanisms of sensing and response to the environment through the stem epidermis remain unclear. Here we report enriched expression of genes involved in stress resistance and signal transduction functions in the stem epidermis of both D. purpureus and A. thaliana by cDNA cloning and QPCR in D. purpureus and by analysis using dataset from a genome-wide comparison with cDNAs differentially expressed between the epidermis and inner parts of top and base stem in A. thaliana. Among 188 cDNAs from the stem epidermis of D. purpureus, 13% and 17% were related to signal transduction and defense respectively. Most of them were up-regulated more in the stem epidermis than the inner stem, as well as in A. thaliana. Also, the distribution of the numbers and specificities of up-regulated genes related to signal transduction and regulatory networks in the epidermis and inner stem revealed the possibility of positional differences in regulation. The results revealed the importance of the epidermis in signal transduction and plant defence.
Peptide primary messengers in plants
Ligeng Ma,Daye Sun
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2001, DOI: 10.1007/BF03182819
Abstract: The peptide primary messengers regulate embryonic development, cell growth and many other activities in animal cells. But recent evidence verified that peptide primary messengers are also involved in plant defense responses, the recognition between pollen and stigma and keep the balance between cell proliferation and differentiations in shoot apical meristems. Those results suggest that plants may actually make wide use of peptide primary messengers, both in embryonic development and late life when they rally their cells to defend against pathogens and insect pests. The recent advance in those aspects is reviewed.
Toxins–Useful Biochemical Tools for Leukocyte Research
Susana Cubillos,Johannes Norgauer,Katja Lehmann
Toxins , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/toxins2040428
Abstract: Leukocytes are a heterogeneous group of cells that display differences in anatomic localization, cell surface phenotype, and function. The different subtypes include e.g., granulocytes, monocytes, dendritic cells, T cells, B cells and NK cells. These different cell types represent the cellular component of innate and adaptive immunity. Using certain toxins such as pertussis toxin, cholera toxin or clostridium difficile toxin, the regulatory functions of Gαi, Gαs and small GTPases of the Rho family in leukocytes have been reported. A summary of these reports is discussed in this review.
Towards an understating of signal transduction protein interaction networks
Dowluru SVGK Kaladhar,Potladurthi Chandra Sai,Padmanabhuni V Nageswara Rao,Amajala Krishna chaitanya
Bioinformation , 2012,
Abstract: Protein network analysis has witnessed a number of advancements in the past for understanding molecular characteristics for important network topologies in biological systems. The signaling pathway regulates cell cycle progression and anti-apoptotic molecules. This pathway is also involved in maintaining cell survival by modulating the activity of apoptosis through RAS, P13K, AKT and BAD activities. The importance of protein-protein interactions to improve usability of the interactome by scoring and ranking interaction data for proteins in signal transduction networks is illustrated using available data and resources.
Calcineurin signalling mechanisms in myocardial hypertrophy
Jian-Chun Wang,Yong Zhao,Jian-Hua Shao
老年心脏病学杂志(英文版) , 2010,
Abstract: Calcineurin dephosphorylates multiple serine residues near the N terminus of NFAT proteins enabling them to translocate from cytoplasm to nucleus, where they activate a subset of hypertrophic response genes. Transgenic mice over-expressing a constitutively active form of calcineurin or NFAT3, developed obviously hypertrophy and heart failure or sudden death proving its pathogenic role. Here we used literatures on MEDLINE (2000-2011), systematically reviewed the new development of calcineurin signaling pathway in myocardial hypertrophy.
Teruhiko Aoyagi,Yoshihiro Ishikawa,Hitosh Oshikawa,Koichiro Kinugawa
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2002,
Abstract: Various substances have been introduced in relation with cardiac hypertrophy almost always with controversy in their roles in signal transduction. Those controversies may attribute to the diversity of cardiac hypertrophy. We previously showed that calcineurin was activated in physiological left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) induced by voluntary exercise training, but not in decompensated pressure-overload LVH. In the current study, we advanced our search for the differences between the voluntary exercise-induced LVH and the pressure-overload LVH into several other hypertrophy-related substances including caveolin. Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following three groups: 10 weeks of voluntary exercise (EX), sedentary regimen (SED), and 4 weeks of ascending aortic constriction (AC). The EX rats voluntarily ran 1.6±1.1 km/day in the specially manufactured cages resulting in LVH (24 % increase in left ventricular weight per body weight ratio). Myocardial tissue homogenate of the EX rats revealed different characteristics in signal transduction of hypertrophy from that of the AC. The EX rats had normal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ATPase mRNA level and normal myosin heavy chain isozyme pattern assessed by RNA protection assay, while AC rats had decreased SR Ca2+ATPase mRNA level and increased beta myosin heavy chain mRNA level. Myocardial caveolin-3 protein levels assessed by Western blotting increased in the EX rats but decreased in the AC rats. The voluntary exercise-induced LVH differed in signal transduction from the decompensated pressure-overload LVH. Caveolin-3 was induced in the voluntary exercise-induced LVH, while it was decreased in the decompensated pressure-overload LVH
Study of Celastrol on Akt Signaling Pathway and Its Roles in the Apoptosis of K562 Cells  [PDF]
Xiaonan Wang, Qing Wu, Xu Yang, Liansheng Zhang, Yiping Wu, Yanwen Shu
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2011.24062
Abstract: The purpose Celastrol, the main active compound of the Celastrus genus plants, belonging to Celastraceae, has recently marked antitumour potency on solid tumours of various derivations, Methods: We demonstrate here that Celastrol also present powerful antileukaemic potency through both growth arrest and apoptosis induction in K562 cells, which was accompanied by typical apoptotic morphological and sharp decreased expression of phosphorylation level of Caspase family members and Akt signaling pathway related proteins were determined by western blot before and after celastrol treatment, and further the effect of AKT signaling pathway on celastrol-induced-apoptosis was analyzed. However, in vitro treatment with Celastrol resulted in significantly reduced expression of phophorylation of Akt, Survivin and Bcl-2 significantly in K562 cells. Results: 25 nmol/L WORT (PI3K-Akt inhibitor) can significantly augmented cell apoptosis induced by Celastrol in K562 cells in dose-dependent manner, Moreover, most Caspase3,8,6 were activated in K562 cells during Celastrol treatment, 50 µmol/Lz-VAD-fmk (Caspase inhibitor) can to enhance the apoptosis induced by Celastrol. Discussion: These results suggest that the fact that Akt signaling pathway might act as new targets of Celastrol, correlates well with the sensitivity to Celastrol, as well as the rate of apoptosis induced by Celastrol, Mechanisms that regulate Akt signaling pathway may be provide novel opportunities for drug development.
Distinct Transforming Activity of ABL Family Tyrosine Kinase Oncogenes Is Induced by Their C-Terminal Domain*  [PDF]
Keiko Okuda, Hideyo Hirai
Open Journal of Blood Diseases (OJBD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojbd.2013.33A005
Abstract: The TEL/ARG oncogene is similar in structure to the TEL/ABL fusion found in human leukemia, however, we have demonstrated previously that the expression of TEL/ARG in Ba/F3 cells does not sustain strong activity of proliferation, whereas, that of TEL/ABL appeared to induce immediate cell proliferation. To study the molecular basis of the difference in the transforming activity of TEL/ARG and TEL/ABL, TEL/ARG mutants that swapped the kinase domain or C-terminus of ARG with the corresponding domain in ABL were generated, and each mutant was expressed in Ba/F3 cells. A TEL/ARG mutant containing the ABL kinase domain was similar to TEL/ARG in this study, but replacing the ARG C-terminal domain with that of ABL resulted in accelerated proliferation that was similar to that of TEL/ABL. When expressed in primary mouse bone marrow cells by retroviral transduction, spontaneous colony formation in methylcellulose culture was observed, in a fashion dependent on the C-terminal portion of ABL. These results indicate that distinct bio-phenotypes associated with these oncogenes are likely to be regulated by their C-termini, and the C-terminus of ARG contains a functional subdomain that impairs the growth signal induced by ABL family tyrosine kinase.
Failure of hCG/LH receptors to stimulate the transmembrane effector adenylyl cyclase in human endometrium  [PDF]
L. Bernardini, I. Moretti-Rojas, M. Brush, F. J. Rojas, J. P. Balmaceda
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.410126

The functional significance of the endometrial hCG/ LH receptors has been related to a rapid release of prostaglandins. However, as compared to gonads and myometrium, in-endometrium mechanisms of transmembrane signalling of the hCG/LH receptors are probably not conventional and remain unclear. Here we investigated, in vivo, the potential of hCG to interact with, and stimulate the membrane effector enzyme, adenylyl cyclase (AC), in human endometrium. Hormonal and nonhormonal activation of AC was tested in membrane fractions prepared from endometrial biopsies obtained from patients undergoing evaluation cycles for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH). AC activity was determined by the direct conversion of the substrate ATP into cAMP under unstimulated conditions and in the presence of the non-hormonal activators guanyl nucleotide and forskolin. Also AC activity was tested in the presence of hCG under conditions allowing maximal enzyme stimulation. Isoproterenol and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were included for comparison. Immunoblot analyses demonstrated the presence of hCG/LH receptors and Gsα protein and other members of the G protein family in the membrane fractions. Endometrial membranes also exhibited high levels of AC activity compared to luteal membranes used as control. Stimulation by GMP-P(NH)P alone was 196 ± 63 (n = 8) (pmol/mg/ min ± SD). Neither hCG nor isoproterenol showed stimulation of endometrial AC (210 ± 65, and 197 ± 53, respectively; n = 66 assays). But PGE2 stimulated the enzyme system significantly (264 ± 63, p < 0.05; n =

Comparative Expression Profiling of Lactogenic Hormone Receptor and It’s Signaling Molecules of Bovine Mammary Glands during lactation  [PDF]
Shinichi Yonekura, Honami Miyazaki, Yukako Tokutake
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2015.52013
Abstract: Milk synthesis is known to be modulated by peptide hormones such as prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Previous studies suggested that PRL and IGF-I acted directly on mammary epithelial cells and were involved in lactation. Meanwhile, GH is thought to be indirectly involved in lactation by stimulating the secretion of IGF-I. It is controversial as growth hormone receptors (GHR) is expressed in the mammary epithelial cells. In order to clarify whether GH acted directly on mammary gland tissue, we investigated the prolactin receptors (PRLR), IGF-I receptors (IGF-IR), and GHR as well as the gene expression levels of the downstream signaling molecule for each receptor in the mammary gland tissue of Holstein cows during different stages of lactation. The results revealed that the mRNA expressions of PRLR and IGF-IR were highest during early lactation, and the mRNA expression of the GHR was highest during mid-lactation. We also found that the expression profiling of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) genes was similar to that of the GHR gene. On the other hand, the expression profiling of the PRLR gene was similar to that of the SHP2 gene. These results suggest that GH acts on the mammary glands directly, milk synthesis and secretion are chiefly stimulated in mid-lactation, and the timing of the action is different for PRL and IGF-I.
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