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Context: Despite a high number of unwanted pregnancies in Kenya, contraceptive use among adolescents is very low. Establishing the nature of sexuality discussions is critical to determine perceptions and barriers affecting contraceptive use among adolescents. Methods: The study used systematic random sampling to collect data to examine sexuality information and knowledge that affect perception and barriers on contra-ceptive use among 1119 adolescents aged 15 - 19 years in Nairobi. The survey was conducted using the 2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey enumeration areas and projections based on the 1999 population census. Data were collected using structured interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) among adolescents, parents and teachers. Quantitative data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software while qualitative information was analyzed using iT Atlas. Results: Although teachers were identified as a primary source of sexuality information, they were poorly prepared to teach the subject. While the study found negative perceptions on sexuality education, most FGDs and IDIs supported the need for its integration in the school curriculum. Most adolescents who used con- traceptives had perceptions that their parents approved. Source of sexuality information, living arrangement and perceptions on contraceptives for unmarried adolescents were statistically associated with contraceptive use. Conclusion: The study showed that sexuality information from parents and teachers was biased against adolescents using contraceptives. There is need to address attitudes in discussing contraceptive use for adolescents by parents and teachers to enhance positive perceptions and increase contraceptive use by adolescents.
Introduction: Pregnancy is a time of profound changes in a woman’s
life. These changes can influence her sexual behaviour and the relationship
with her partner. The purpose of this article is to study sexual behaviour modification
before and during pregnancy in a cohort of healthy Spanish pregnant women. Methods: This is a prospective cohort
study in which 111 pregnant women took part. They completed a questionnaire
about their sexual habits before pregnancy and at 20, 30 and 38 weeks
(frequency of intercourse and orgasm, satisfaction with their relationships
and pain or discomfort). Results:
Intercourse frequency decreased progressively during pregnancy at all times
studied relative to pre-regnancy periods, to a significant degree (p < 0.0001),
accompanied by a reduction in sexual satisfaction. The incidence of orgasm
was lightly modified, except in the weeks before parturition in which it
underwent a notable decrease (p < 0.0001) with an increase in the rate of
hypoorgasmia/ anorgasmia from 19% pre-pregnancy to 43% at 38th week. Conclusions: The longitudinal
monitoring of this cohort permits the conclusion that during pregnancy,
sexual behaviour undergoes a general decline with respect to prepregnancy
levels. The differences vary depending on the sexual parameter considered,
with intercourse frequency being the most affected variable in contrast to
dyspareunia, which is the least affected.
Internal migration in China has introduced critical challenges to the education and health of migrant adolescents. The aim of this study was to explore the differences in sexual knowledge and attitudes among migrate and local adolescents. Survey research with a total of 616 adolescents in grades equivalent to US 10th and 11th grades including 113 migrants completed a selfadministered questionnaire. Misconceptions of adolescent physical development, sexual activity, marriage, birth control, sexually transmitted diseases and the probability of pregnancy were found in most of the migrant adolescents. Significantly lower attitudinal scores were found for the sub-scales of clarity of personal sexual values, understanding of emotional needs, social behavior, sexual responses; attitudes towards gender role, birth control, premarital intercourse, use of force in sexual activity, the importance of family and satisfaction with social relationship in migrant adolescents. Migrant adolescents have a low level of knowledge of sexual activities. The content of education programs should include engagement in sexual behavior to equip adolescents with unbiased and factual knowledge. The adolescents have a high demand for family support. School based sex education programs should involve the participation of parents to address these issues.