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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11232 matches for " sex pheromone production "
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Circadian rhythms of sexual activities in moths: a review
Astrid T. Groot
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fevo.2014.00043
Abstract: The circadian rhythm of behavior has interested many researchers in the past decades, yet amazingly little is known on the evolution of natural variation in circadian rhythms of behavior. Most research has been focused on identifying the circadian clock genes that form an intricate clock network, which turns out to be more complex with every discovery. To understand the importance of circadian rhythms of behavior in speciation, genetic analyses should be conducted on intra- and interspecific allochronic differentiation of behaviors. Many moth species show specific daily activity rhythms in their sexual activities, some species being sexually active early at night, while others are sexually active late at night. This differentiation has been suggested to have arisen to minimize communication interference between closely related species, as co-occurring and closely related species with overlapping sex pheromone blends show a temporal differentiation in their daily sexual activities. However, the genetic differentiation of this allochronic separation has barely been examined in any species so far. In this review I summarize studies conducted on timing of sexual activities in moths, and which factors have been found to influence this timing, with the aim to identify the gaps and challenges, to unravel the possible contribution of allochronic differentiation of sexual activities in moth speciation.
Circadian rhythm of calling behavior and sexual pheromone production and release of the female Zeuzera leuconotum Butler (Lepidoptera: Cossidae)

LIU Jinlong,JING Xiaoyuan,YANG Meihong,ZONG Shixiang,LUO Youqing,FAN Lihu,LIU Hongxia,ZHANG Jintong,

生态学报 , 2013,
Abstract: 六星黑点豹蠹蛾Zeuzera leuconotum Butler(Lepidoptera:Cossidae)是一种重要的园林害虫。为研究利用其性信息素防控六星黑点豹蠹蛾,在光周期L∶D=14∶10、温度19—32℃、相对湿度75%—85%条件下,对雌蛾求偶行为进行了观察;采用腺体提取法和瓶内收集法分别制备了不同日龄在同一时辰、同日龄在不同时辰的雌蛾性信息素粗提物,然后测定雄蛾触角对各种性信息素提取物的触角电位反应;以雄蛾对腺体提取物的EAG值表示性信息素的产生量,对瓶内收集物的EAG值表示释放量,检测性信息素产生与释放的时辰节律。结果表明:雌蛾求偶均发生在暗期;雌蛾求偶率与日龄有关,其中2日龄雌蛾求偶率最高,平均为86.7%;不同日龄雌蛾求偶高峰期均在进入暗期4—6h期间;随着虫龄的增加,求偶高峰期前移。雌蛾羽化当晚体内即可产生性信息素,并且向体外释放,但量较少;2日龄雌蛾产生和释放的性信息素量最大;雌蛾腺体中性信息素含量从进入暗期后逐渐增加,在暗期5h含量最高,随后逐渐减少;雌蛾释放性信息素从暗期4h开始,至暗期6h释放量最大。通过林间处女雌蛾诱捕试验证明了六星黑点豹蠹蛾的求偶行为与性信息素产生和释放在时辰节律上具有一致性。
Chemical communication in isoptera
Costa-Leonardo, Ana M;Casarin, Fabiana E;Lima, Juliana T;
Neotropical Entomology , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2009000100001
Abstract: the semiochemicals produced by termites have been little studied compared to those of ants and bees. among the limiting factors are the cryptic habits of termites, together with the difficulty in maintaining many species in the laboratory. the semiochemicals of isoptera include trail, sex and alarm pheromones and a complex mixture of substances responsible for the recognition of nestmates. although little is known about the semiochemicals of termites, available data indicate a strategy of pheromonal parsimony in the chemistry communication of these insects, i.e., the same compound is sometimes secreted by different glands, different species and for different functions.
Synthesis and field evaluation of synthetic blends of the sex pheromone of Crocidosema aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in soybean
González, Andrés;Altesor, Paula;Alves, Leticia;Liberati, Paola;Silva, Horacio;Ramos, Juan;Carrera, Ignacio;González, David;Seoane, Gustavo;Rossini, Carmen;Castiglioni, Enrique;Gamenara, Daniela;
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-50532012005000072
Abstract: crocidosema (= epinotia) aporema (walsingham) (lepidoptera: tortricidae) is a bud borer that feeds on soybean and forage legumes. its economic importance is restricted to south america, where it can alternate throughout the year between forage and grain legumes. the sex pheromone of c. aporema females is composed of a 15:1 mixture of (7z,9z)-dodeca-7,9-dien-1-ol and (7z,9z)-dodeca-7,9-dienyl acetate. aiming at the development of a monitoring tool, it was synthesized both components of the pheromone and evaluated male captures in pheromone traps baited with different blends of synthetic pheromone, in an experimental soybean field in uruguay. the conjugated dienes were obtained from 2-pentyn-1-ol and 1,7-heptanediol, by oxidation of the former, wittig coupling and zn-catalyzed reduction of the triple bond. the 1:1 mixture was the most efficient in capturing males. the pheromone traps were attractive for up to 40 days, even with small septum loads (0.1 mg) and low population levels.
La biosynthèse des isopréno des chez les pucerons : une cible potentielle de nouveaux bio-insecticides ?
Vandermoten S.,Cusson M.,Francis F.,Haubruge E.
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement , 2008,
Abstract: Isoprenoid metabolism in aphids: a new target for bio-insecticides development? Currently, the control of aphids is largely dependent on the use of broad-spectrum chemical insecticides. Their adverse effects on the environment, combined with the ability of insects to quickly develop resistance to them, has prompted a search for alternative control products. One of the approaches currently under consideration involves the design of novel bio-rational insecticides targeting and disrupting specific biochemical processes in the insect. As a result of their high specificity, these pest control products generally present little risk to the environment, non-target organisms and human health. In the context of aphid control, isoprenoid metabolism and, more specifically, enzymes of the short-chain isoprenyl diphosphate synthases family constitute promising targets for the development of new control products. Indeed, in aphids, isoprenoid metabolism is associated with the production of mono- and sesquiterpenes, which are compounds playing important roles in the physiology of these insects.
Investigation of Some Effective Factors in the Efficiency ofPheromone Traps of Oak Leaf Roller Moth Tortrix viridana L. (Lep.: Tortricidae) in Kurdistan Province
H GHobari,H Goldansaz,H Askari
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2009,
Abstract: One of the most important pest in the Oak forest of Kurdistan province is Oak leaf roller moth, Tortrix viridana L. (Lep.: Tortricidae). Use of pheromone trap is one of the suitable methods for monitoring and controlling of the pest. In this work, three main factors which affect the efficiency of traps including trap type, pheromone dose and installation height trap were studied. Four types of trap including cylindrical, rectangular, delta and wing trap were tested. Capture efficiency of the traps, were installed in the middle, and top heights of the trees were compared. Three doses of pheromone 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mgr per trap were also compared. Results showed that there were significant differences among four types of traps. Cylindrical, rectangular and delta traps caught more number of moths than wing trap (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between two installation heights (P>0.05). However, a significant differences was observed among three doses (P<0.05), and the dose of 0.5 mg caught more moths than the other three doses. Therefore cylindrical traps containing 0.5mg of synthetic sex pheromone installed in the middle of the trees canopy may be recommended in the management program of the pest.
Molecular and neural mechanisms of sex pheromone reception and processing in the silkmoth Bombyx mori
Takeshi Sakurai,Shigehiro Namiki,Ryohei Kanzaki
Frontiers in Physiology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2014.00125
Abstract: Male moths locate their mates using species-specific sex pheromones emitted by conspecific females. One striking feature of sex pheromone recognition in males is the high degree of specificity and sensitivity at all levels, from the primary sensory processes to behavior. The silkmoth Bombyx mori is an excellent model insect in which to decipher the underlying mechanisms of sex pheromone recognition due to its simple sex pheromone communication system, where a single pheromone component, bombykol, elicits the full sexual behavior of male moths. Various technical advancements that cover all levels of analysis from molecular to behavioral also allow the systematic analysis of pheromone recognition mechanisms. Sex pheromone signals are detected by pheromone receptors expressed in olfactory receptor neurons in the pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea on male antennae. The signals are transmitted to the first olfactory processing center, the antennal lobe (AL), and then are processed further in the higher centers (mushroom body and lateral protocerebrum) to elicit orientation behavior toward females. In recent years, significant progress has been made elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the detection of sex pheromones. In addition, extensive studies of the AL and higher centers have provided insights into the neural basis of pheromone processing in the silkmoth brain. This review describes these latest advances, and discusses what these advances have revealed about the mechanisms underlying the specific and sensitive recognition of sex pheromones in the silkmoth.
Sex pheromone and period gene characterization of Lutzomyia longipalpis sensu lato (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Posadas, Argentina
Salomón, Oscar D;Araki, Alejandra S;Hamilton, James GC;Acardi, Soraya A;Peixoto, Alexandre A;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762010000700016
Abstract: lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. is the primary vector of leishmania (l.) infantum in the new world. in this study, male lutzomyia longipalpis specimens from posadas, argentina were characterized for two polymorphic markers: the male sex pheromone and the period (per) gene. the male sex pheromone was identified as (s)-9-methylgermacrene-b, the same compound produced by lu. longipalpis from paraguay and many populations from brazil. the analysis of per gene sequences revealed that the population from argentina is significantly differentiated from previously studied brazilian populations. marker studies could contribute to the understanding of the distribution and spread of urban american visceral leishmaniasis, thus aiding in the design of regional surveillance and control strategies.
Effects of Age and Temperature on Calling Behavior of Carob Moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, Zell. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) under Laboratory Conditions
M. Soofbaf,G. Nouri,S.H. Goldansaz,R. Asghari-zakaria
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The sexual calling behaviour of Ectomyelois ceratoniae, (zell.) was observed in the laboratory under 16L: 8D photoperiodic regime and three different constant temperatures, 20, 25 and 30°C. E. ceratoniae, females showed a broad late-scotophase peak of calling activity without any calling throughout the photophase. Most females started calling during the eclosion day on, regardless of the temperature. With increasing age, moths initiated calling significantly earlier at night and the mean time spent calling increased significantly on successive days of calling. There was an inverse relationship between mean time spent calling and mean onset time of calling (r = -0.8079, p<0.0001) and these parameters significantly affected by age and square of temperature.
Age and time related pheromone production in coffee leafminer Leucoptera coffeella Guérin-Méneville (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae)
Lima, Eraldo R.;Vilela, Evaldo F.;Della Lucia, Terezinha M. C.;Ataíde, Lívia M. S.;
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-50532008000800030
Abstract: this study was undertaken to access the pattern of sex pheromone production in glands of virgin females of leucoptera coffeella as an indirect measure of the calling behavior. the major compound, 5,9-dimethylpentadecane (1) was extracted from pheromone glands of virgin females to be used in two experiments. the first one investigated the effect of the pheromone production time by females (extracts of 10 females with age of two days were carried out at 2-hour intervals). the other experiment evaluated the effect of female age on pheromone production (10 females with age ranged from 1 to 5 days after emergence class were used). hexane extracts were made with 5 ng μl-1 of 5,9-dimethylheptadecane (2) as internal standard and analyzed by gc. females had the highest amount of pheromone at the last four hours in the dark and the two first hours in the light period. one-day old females produced the highest amount of pheromone in the glands.
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