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Distribution and Detection of Cowpea Viruses Infecting Cowpea in Uganda  [PDF]
Martin Orawu, John Obuo, Robert Omadi
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.65062
Abstract: Cowpea viruses are economically important diseases of cowpea in the major growing areas of Uganda and have inflicted negatively on food security, nutrition and income for many households. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and identity of viruses infecting cowpea in the growing districts of Uganda. Surveys were conducted in the field of grown cowpea, and virus symptoms were recorded on the basis of virus incidence and severity in the districts of Apac, Lira, Pader and Kumi. Symptomatic virus leaf samples were also collected from the same fields surveyed for serological test for detection of virus types using antibodies to cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV), cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CPCMV), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and cowpea chlorotic mosaic virus (CCMV) in double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Results showed that there was the highest percentage of incidence and severity in Kumi (85.4% and 13.8%, respectively) with the lowest percentage of incidence and severity observed in Apac (55.9% and 4.7%, respectively). Serological test revealed the presence of CABMV, CPMMV, CPSMV and CMV in the leaf samples as the major virus types in the surveyed districts. However, CPCMV, CPMV and CCMV were not detected in the leaf samples surveyed in the cowpea growing districts. Serological test also revealed that among the virus types detected, single and multiple virus types occurred in the plant samples. The highest single virus type occurring in the plant samples was CPMMV (11.6%) and the lowest was CABMV (1.8%). The virus types namely CMV, CABMV, CPMMV and CPSMV occurred in combinations with proportion of 7.1% in the infected plant samples. Therefore, this information obtained on the virus types provides an opportunity for breeders to develop cowpea variety with multiple resistance genes to control several virus types infecting cowpea.
Comparación de la infección por Trypanosoma cruzi en ni?os menores de 10 a?os de la V Región, Chile. 1982-1995
Melendez,Francy; Bachler,Germán; Colvin,Angélica; Mejías,Gerado; Gutiérrez,Cristian; Rojas,Antonio; García,Alejandro; Contreras,M. del C.; Schenone,Hugo; Lorca,Myriam;
Boletín chileno de parasitología , 2000, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-94022000000100008
Abstract: evaluation of desinsectation programs carried out in the two health services from the v region, was undertaken by comparing serologic prevalences of t. cruzi in age groups exposed to the risk of infection in rural areas during the antivectorial campaign activities. (1982 vs 1995). thus, were studied 2,193 blood samples from children under 10 years of age, proceeding rfrom six chagasic endemic provinces in which antitriatomic domiciliary insecticide sprayings had been performed. indirect hemagglutination and elisa tests were carried out to each of the blood samples. a total de 42 (1.9%) children resulted positive. as in five counties no positive case were detected in the last five years it is possible to assume that vector trasmission of t. cruzi should have been interrupted in them. when comparing prevalences existing in 1982 with the present ones, it is possible to observe a 63.5% of reduction of transmission in the v region, been this reduction higher in the aconcagua health service with 79.6% and lower in the vi?a del mar - quillota health service with 55.6%. according to these results, comparison of prevalence of t. cruzi infection in children less than 10-year-old in diverse periods, allows evaluate the vectorial control of triatoma infestans programs
Comparative study of haemagglutination inhibition, Agar gel precipitation test, Serum neutralization and Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for detection to avian influenza viruses  [PDF]
Shahid Faraz, Muhammad Abubakar, Mohammad Farooque, Sarfaraz Ali Fazlani, Ghluam Hussain Jaffar
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.22016
Abstract: The sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility of the serological tests for detection of avian in-fluenza viruses were carried-out by using Ham- agglutination inhibition (HI), Agar gel precipita-tion test (AGPT), and Enzyme linked immu-nosorbent assay (ELISA) and Serum neutraliza-tion test. The geometric mean titre (GMT) of hae- magglutination inhibition antibodies recor- ded as log2 indicated that the post vaccination titres in the field were on higher side i.e., 7.9 for H7 and 5.9 for H9. The correlation between HI titre and AGPT affirmed that for the AGPT test need high antibody titre for positive reaction. The pooled sera were also used to correlate the se-rum neutralization test and enzyme linked im- muno-sorbent assay. The serial two fold dilute- ons were tested for the serum neutralization ac- tivity and concluded that the HI titre log2 4 pro-vided 100% protection, than 52% and 45% pro-tection in 1:2 and 1:4 dilution was recorded, respectively. Similarly, the ELISA test showed positive results up to 1:16 HI titre, i.e. log2 4 and confirmed the linear relation between these two serological tests. In HI test, the concentration of antigen can influence the result. It also needs careful preparation of concentration of eryth-rocyte suspension. Agar Gel immuno-diffusion is basically a qualitative test as it can not de-termine the quantity of antigen or antibody with the help of this test. It lacks the level of sensi-tivity as offered by other test. If serum neutrali-zation test is performed on a pooled serum sam- ples, then it could lead to a false conclusion on antibodies status. ELISA is most sensitive, spe-cific and accurate as compare to all other sero-logical tests.
Current Methods of Human and Animal Brucellosis Diagnostics  [PDF]
Ekaterina A. Smirnova, Andrey V. Vasin, Nurlan T. Sandybaev, Sergey A. Klotchenko, Marina A. Plotnikova, Olga V. Chervyakova, Abylai R. Sansyzbay, Oleg I. Kiselev
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2013.33026
Abstract:

Brucellosis is an urgent infectious disease of livestock and wild animals and the commonest human zoonosis. Diagnosis of brucellosis is rather complicated and it has to be obligatorily confirmed by laboratory testing. Direct bacteriological and molecular methods and indirect serological tests are used for brucellosis diagnostics. The choice of the diagnostic tools depends on the overall epidemiological situation in the region and the objectives of the study: validation of the diagnosis, screening (monitoring), cross-sectional studies or confirmation of brucellosis-free status of the region. The review describes current bacteriological, serological and molecular methods, routinely used for the diagnosis of brucellosis in humans and animals. The perspectives of brucellosis diagnostics are also discussed.

Comparison of Two Protocols of Agar Gel Immunodiffusion (AGID) Used to Diagnose of Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA)  [PDF]
Maria do Rosário Oliveira da Cunha Beltr?o, Cid Aristóteles de Siqueira Alencar, Adriana Soares Leite, Leonardo Tavares Freitas, Julianne Cortizo Gonzalez, Vania Lucia de Assis Santana, Hélio Cordeiro Manso-Filho
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2015.57023
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to compare two protocols of Agar Gel Immunodiffusion (AGID) that can be used to diagnose Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA). Different volumes of reagents and support for agar gel were used, as recommended by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA) and the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Equidae sera samples (n = 1000) were tested using a national commercial kit and different volumes (i.e. 25 μL—MAPA and 50 μL—OIE) of reagents and standard sera. Antigen was used as recommended by MAPA. The results were assessed by two operators, 48 hours after beginning the test. At the end of the experiment, a Kappa index of 1 was obtained by the operators, for the interpretation of the results and for the different volumes of reagents used. Similar results of agreement (Kappa index = 1) were obtained when using slides or Petri dishes as support for the agar gel. In both cases, an almost perfect agreement was achieved, suggesting that the use of different supports does not affect the results. These findings indicate that both protocols (MAPA and OIE) can be used to diagnose EIA.
Intra-Domiciliary Transmission of Chagas’ Disease in Rural Areas of Yucatan Mexico  [PDF]
Eugenia Guzman-Marin, Karla Y. Acosta-Viana, Marylin Puerto-Solís, Antonio Ortega-Pacheco, Matilde Jimenez-Coello
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2016.64024
Abstract: With the objective to describe the relationship between T. cruzi infection in humans and sinantropic reservoir and vectors in the rural conditions a study was performed in municipalities of the Yucatan state in Mexico. Blood samples from humans, dogs and opossum were taken from the households. Vectors were also collected and the infection and infestation indexes were calculated. Serum samples were evaluated by indirect hemagglutination (IH) and indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) to determine IgG antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was also performed in the samples taken from humans and reservoirs. Blood smears were performed in reservoirs. Sampled humans underwent to an electrocardiographic study to identify functional and conduction alterations of the heart. Household building characteristics were noted. A total of 367 blood samples were collected from people. The presence of IgG antibodies was 16.6% and 71.0% at PCR. Electrocardiographic studies revealed that 31% of patients seropositive to T. cruzi have a medical condition. 20.0% of dogs were seropositive and 68.5 positive to PCR. At the direct detection 13.6% resulted positive. In opossum 29.1% were seropositive and 72.9% positive to PCR. A total of 269 triatomineos were captured and 52.7% were infected with T. cruzi. The infection and infestation index were 52.4% and 60.8% respectively. The presence of adult vectors and their nymph’s were more frequently found in households made with wattle roofs (45.2 and 73.9 % respectively) than other kind of building materials. Electrocardiographic abnormalities found in positive persons were: Incomplete right bundle branch block (55%), tachycardia (35%), old myocardial infarction (5%) and incomplete block of the left bundle (5%). This work highlights the importance of comprehensive studies on the transmission of T. cruzi in the Yucatan where the link between human infection in synanthropic reservoirs and vectors is established. This information is important to design programs for the epidemiological surveillance and control to break the chain of transmission of the disease.
A field-study on Leptospira seroprevalence in dairy cows in four geographical areas in Sweden
Elisabeth Lindahl, Sofia Boqvist, Karin Artursson, Ulf Magnusson
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-53-53
Abstract: Around 150 blood samples were collected from five dairy farms from each region, making 610 samples in total, during December 2009. The samples were screened for L. kirschneri sv Grippotyphosa, L. interrogans sv Icterohaemorrhagiae, L. interrogans sv Canicola, L. borgpetersenii sv Sejroe and one domestic strain similar to sv Sejroe, called strain Mouse 2A using the Microscopic Agglutination Test. Six animals (1%) were seropositive for the strain Mouse 2A. Four of the positive samples were from the south-west region which also was the region with highest precipitation. There were no positive samples to any of the other serovars studied.The present data indicate that there is a low seroprevalence of Leptospira in Swedish dairy cows. These findings can be used as baseline data to investigate the effects of, for instance, climatic change or alterations in wildlife reservoir populations on the seroprevalence of Leptospira in the future.The zoonosis leptospirosis, which is of worldwide distribution, is caused by different pathogenic serovars belonging to the genus Leptospira [1] and is endemic in most tropical and temperate climates [2]. The bacteria thrive in humid and warm climate and outbreaks of leptospirosis increase during heavy rainfall and flooding [3]. Leptospirosis is therefore of particular interest for Europe in the context of climatic change and has been recommended for specific surveillance and control measures by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) [4]. Similarly, the European Centre for Disease Control (ECDC) is also pinpointing leptospirosis as an important infectious disease of particular interest in Europe [5].The severe pathogenic serovars Pomona in pigs and Hardjo in cattle have not been reported in Sweden [6]. However, in pigs reared outdoors, seroprevalences of 4 and 1% for sv Bratislava and sv Icterohaemorrhagiae have been found (Boqvist S, Eliasson-Selling L, Bergstr?m K, Magnusson U: Association between rainfall and temperature, and ser
High prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus-capsid antibodies in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive men: a serological study
Reinhard H?pfl, Anton Petter, Petra Thaler, Mario Sarcletti, Andreas Widschwendter, Robert Zangerle
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-3-6
Abstract: Sera from 168 HIV-positive men and 330 HIV-negative individuals (including 198 controls) were tested using a direct HPV-ELISA specific to HPV-6, -11, -16, -18, -31 and bovine PV-1 L1-virus-like particles. Serological results were correlated with the presence of HPV-associated lesions, the history of other sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and HIV classification groups.In HIV-negative men low risk HPV-antibodies were prevailing and associated with condylomatous warts (25.4%). Strikingly, HIV-positive men were more likely to have antibodies to the high-risk HPV types -16, -18, -31, and low risk antibodies were not increased in a comparable range. Even those HIV-positive heterosexual individuals without any HPV-associated lesions exhibited preferentially antibody responses to the oncogenic HPV-types (cumulative 31.1%). The highest antibody detection rate (88,8%) was observed within the subgroup of nine HIV-positive homosexual men with anogenital warts. Three HIV-positive patients had HPV-associated carcinomas, in all of them HPV-16 antibodies were detected. Drug use and mean CD4-cell counts on the day of serologic testing had no influence on HPV-IgG antibody prevalence, as had prior antiretroviral therapy or clinical category of HIV-disease.High risk HPV-antibodies in HIV-infected and homosexual men suggest a continuous exposure to HPV-proteins throughout the course of their HIV infection, reflecting the known increased risk for anogenital malignancies in these populations. The extensive increase of high risk antibodies (compared to low risk antibodies) in HIV-positive patients cannot be explained by differences in exposure history alone, but suggests defects of the immunological control of oncogenic HPV-types. HPV-serology is economic and can detect past or present HPV-infection, independently of an anatomical region. Therefore HPV-serology could help to better understand the natural history of anogenital HPV-infection in HIV-positive men in the era of antiretrovira
Anti-leptospirose agglutinins in equine sera, from S?o Paulo, Goias, and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, 1996-2001
Langoni, H.;Da Silva, A.V.;Pezerico, S.B.;De Lima, V.Y.;
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-91992004000300003
Abstract: equine leptospirosis can present a non-symptomatic form, an acute clinical form, or even develop chronically, causing reproductive alterations, such as abortion and recurrent uveitis. since the prevalence of leptospirosis in several countries and regions is widely reported, the objective of this study was to verify the prevailing equine leptospirosis in different regions of brazil. sera from 1402 blood samples from horses of different age, sex, breed, and purpose were examined. these samples came from southeastern and central west states of brazil. the method utilized was the microscopic agglutination test (mat), with 12 different leptospira serovars. from the sera tested, 754 (54%) were positive for one (385) or more (372) serovars. these results were higher when compared to national and international levels. the most commonly found serovars were icterohaemorrhagiae (37.01%), suggesting exposure to rodents, castellonis (16.97%), and djasiman (15.19%). there were significant differences of reagents between sexes, and a tendency toward higher positivity with age. distribution of sera-reagents related to aptitude showed a markedly higher value for work animals than for sporting ones. higher rates were found for animals with undefined breed. there were no significant differences related to regional origin. as an indication of multiple exposure, significant associations were observed between the following serovars: castellonis and djasiman; castellonis and grippotyphosa; castellonis and copenhageni; castellonis and icterohaemorrhagiae; castellonis and pomona; canicola and pomona; canicola and djasiman; djasiman and copenhageni; icterohaemorrhagiae and djasiman; icterohaemorrhagiae and pyrogenes; copenhageni and pomona. these results showed the necessity of further studies on the epidemiology of this disease in equines and its relationship to human illness.
Serological profile of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in apparently healthy dogs of the city of Botucatu, S?o Paulo State, Brazil
Langoni, H.;Modolo, J. R.;Pezerico, S. B.;Silva, R. C.;Castro, A. P. B.;Silva, A. V. da;Padovani, C. R.;
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-91992006000100012
Abstract: toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by toxoplasma gondii, a coccidian protozoan of worldwide distribution. the seroprevalence in canine population can be an alternative for measuring t. gondii urban spreading. a total of 780 blood samples from dogs were collected, during the yearly anti-rabies campaign, carried out by the department of veterinary hygiene and public health, school of veterinary medicine and animal husbandry (fmvz), s?o paulo state university, unesp, together with the county health authorities, in august 1999. using indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) for detecting antibodies anti-t. gondii in the sera samples, we observed that 258 dogs (33.1%) were positive. the associations between the serological results and the epidemiological variables were studied. statistically significant differences were not found regarding sex (32.2% male and 34.3% female reactors). dogs without a defined breed showed seropositivity statistically higher than the pedigreed group. the occurrence of infection was considered higher with age.
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