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trituberculatus and Scylla
paramamosain are important commercial culture crab species in China. Traditional
factory breeding of crabs depends on Artemia nauplius. The rising price of Artemia cysts has led to the decline of the economic benefit of the crab breeding factory. Factory crab breeding has been gradually replaced by pond breeding in recent years. E. sinensis and P.
trituberculatus have been bred mainly in ponds. Meanwhile, S. paramamosain is still mainly bred
in factories because of the crudeness of pond breeding. The research progress
on food organism utilization in the three species of commercially bred crabs was reviewed in this paper. In the workshop seeds production, rotifer and Artemia nauplii were necessary in the early stages from zoea I to zoea II
in the three crab species. Adult artemia, minced fish and shellfish were fed to
the larvae in the later zoea stages from zoea III to Megalopa. The rising of the
price of artemia eggs made people find other feed organism to
replace artemia. Copepods have been used
in crab seeds production
The present study was carried out to evaluate the survival rate of four tropical legume seeds submitted to different periods of ruminal incubation simulated by in vitro and in situ fermentation. The species studied were butterfly pea, stylosanthes, archer and perennial soybean. Four Holstein dairy cows fistulated in rumen were used in the in situ stage. A completely randomized design was used, in a 4 × 6 factorial arrangement (four species, six treatment periods) in the in vitro stage, with four repetitions. A completely randomized block design, arranged in a 4 × 6 factorial scheme (four species × six incubation periods), was used in the in situ stage, with four repetitions. The seeds (50 units of only one species at each repetition) were placed in erlenmeyer flask (250 mL) and were put in a 10 × 15 cm nylon bag in the in vitro stage. The times of incubation were: 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 and 144 hours and the time zero was estimated in the laboratory. The results demonstrate that, when submitted to ruminal incubation, due to their hard and impermeable teguments, legume seeds presented high resistance potential, and, thus, greater chances of germinating after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of
Silver nanoparticles in the form of silver based chemicals trace back their origin to time immemorial since the dilute forms of silver nitrate were used in place of antibiotics before they dominated the field of medicine. But, it has now become necessary to explore the anti-microbial properties of silver based chemicals again due to the microbes gaining resistance against the wide range of present day antibiotics. The advancements in the field of medicine and technology started to coalesce to combat the adaptability of microbes as they successfully become tolerant to antibiotics and it manifested in the form a current technology, Nanomedicine. Nanomedicine deals about the medicines at a nano scale to rarefy the intensity of medicine to unaffected tissues and reduce the volume of medicine used. In the present context, our attempt is to develop potential anti-microbial particles in the form of silver nanoparticles by using the biological phenomena which we call Green synthesis an eco-friendly approach to conventional chemical synthesis. The enzymatic machinery of the olive seeds has been exploited to produce silver nanoparticles and test their efficacy as antifungal agents before we characterized their physical properties using UV-Vis, TEM, and FTIR analysis. The efficacy of these particles as antagonists on fungal pathogen Aspergillus niger a causative agent of Aspergillosis in human beings and is promising and they have a lot of scope for the purpose and hope the technology leads the next generation of anti-microbials.