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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 13201 matches for " screening test "
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Efficacy evaluation of a test CINtec® p16INK4a in screening for cervical HPV infection  [PDF]
Pafumi Carlo, Leanza Vito, Carbonaro Antonio, Leanza Gianluca, Stracquadanio Maria Grazia, D'Agati Alfio
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2011.13020
Abstract: We submitted 437 patients with cytological alterations that suggest viral infections to HPV test. 154 patients (35.24%) resulted positive for HPV; among these, 128 (83.11%) with a low degree of infectivity, 19 (12.33%), with an average degree of infectivity and 7 (4.54%) with a high degree of infectivity).
Detection of Undiagnosed Prediabetes and Diabetes in Dental Patients: A Proposal of a Dental-Office-Friendly Diabetes Screening Tool  [PDF]
Susan Maples, Saleh Aldasouqi, Randie Little, Heather Baughman, Monica Joshi, Rama Salhi
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2016.61004
Abstract: Objective: This study was designed to develop a dental-office-friendly diabetes self-screening tool for diabetes mellitus (DM) and prediabetes (PreDM). Methods: Consecutive dental patients, aged 18 years or older, without history of DM or PreDM, completed a 14-question questionnaire without assistance. They subsequently underwent onsite finger-sticks for capillary blood collection for glycohemoglobin (A1c) measurement. Results: Of the total 500 patients who completed the study, 302 were women (60.4%) and 198 were men (39.6%), with a collective mean age of 47.8 (±16.8) years old. The prevalence of PreDM and DM was 19.2% and 1.2%, respectively. Predictors of PreDM or DM included age, >10% above ideal body weight, waist size above 40” for men or 35” for women, reported hypertension, reported abnormal lipids, tingling of hands or feet, and visual symptoms or conditions (blurring, cataracts, glaucoma). Conclusions: This study introduces a newly developed, user-friendly, PreDM and DM self-screening tool, abbreviated as DiDDO (Diabetes detection in the dental office). This screening tool requires no body weighing or BMI calculation (undesirable by dentists) nor laboratory tests or blood pressure measurement, allowing dentists to identify patients at moderate and high risk for DM/PreDM, and perform (or refer for) diagnostic A1c testing. This dental-office-friendly self-screening tool is proposed for validation in other dental populations.
An Exact Formula for Estimation of Age-Specific Sensitivity for Screening Tests  [PDF]
Ning Jia, Sandra J. Lee
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.517265
Abstract: There has been a growing interest in screening programs designed to detect chronic progressive cancers in the asymptomatic stage, with the expectation that early detection will result in a better prognosis. One key element of early detection programs is a screening test. An accurate screening test is more effective in finding cases with early-stage diseases. Sensitivity, the conditional probability of getting a positive test result when one truly has a disease, represents one measure of accuracy for a screening test. Since the true disease status is unknown, it is not straightforward to estimate the sensitivity directly from observed data. Furthermore, the sensitivity is associated with other parameters related to the disease progression. This feature introduces additional numerical complexity and limitations, especially when the sensitivity depends on age. In this paper, we propose a new approach that, through combinatorial manipulation of probability statements, formulates the age-dependent sensitivity. This formulation has an exact and simple expression and can be estimated based on directly observable probabilities. This approach also helps evaluate other parameters associated with the natural history of disease more accurately. The proposed method was applied to estimate the mammography sensitivity for breast cancer using the data from the Health Insurance Plan trial.
Batrouni K,Lucía; Piran A,Maria Fabiana; Eandi R,Mariana; Dasbul S,Graciana; Toledo E,Sergio;
Revista chilena de nutrición , 2004, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-75182004000300008
Abstract: the objective of this study was to determine the hematological iron status, in its different stages and their association with iron intake from different socioeconomic levels from the city of cordoba, argentina. iron intake was evaluated by a 24 hours recall survey and compared with the idr/98. in order to determine the stages of the iron deficiency, we applied the modified criterion of hillman (1996), combining three different screenings tests: serum ferritin, hemoglobin and erythrocyte protoporphyrin. in the total population studied there was a prevalence of 46 % with iron deficiency, 26% with anaemia by iron deficiency and 2 % iron deficiency without anaemia. iron deficiency was homogenous by social groups, whereas anaemia affected less children of low socioeconomic background. the 76% of the studied population consumed less iron than the recommendation, being affected average and low levels socioeconomic levels (p<0.05). the 70 % had low iron intake, they showed deficiency and anaemia, when we compared the idr with hemoglobin levels (p<0.05).
Agar diffusion tests with cefuroxime disks for predicting ceftriaxone susceptibility among isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae
Dias, Cícero A.G.;Kader, Ivonyr A.;d?Azevedo, Pedro;Superti, Silvana;Alves, Dirce;Olm, Gislaine;
Revista de Microbiologia , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0001-37141998000400016
Abstract: the performance of agar diffusion tests using disks of cefuroxime (30μg) for predicting ceftriaxone susceptibility in 33 isolates of streptococcus pneumoniae was studied. all 7 resistant isolates to ceftriaxone (mic 31.0 μg/ml) exhibited zones of inhibition <28mm. the procedure can be easily adapted to clinical laboratories.
Agar diffusion tests with cefuroxime disks for predicting ceftriaxone susceptibility among isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae
Dias Cícero A.G.,Kader Ivonyr A.,d?Azevedo Pedro,Superti Silvana
Revista de Microbiologia , 1998,
Abstract: The performance of agar diffusion tests using disks of cefuroxime (30μg) for predicting ceftriaxone susceptibility in 33 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae was studied. All 7 resistant isolates to ceftriaxone (MIC 31.0 μg/ml) exhibited zones of inhibition <28mm. The procedure can be easily adapted to clinical laboratories.
Relationship between Positive Glucose Screening, Obesity and Pregnancy Outcome in the Absence of Gestational Diabetes: A Retrospective Cohort Study  [PDF]
Kassam Mahomed, Sharleen Young, Ibinebo Ibiebele, Jane V. Hoare
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2014.49074

Background: Currently pregnant women with abnormal glucose screening test (GCT), performed at 26 - 28 weeks gestation with a subsequent normal glucose tolerance test (GTT) receive routine care. Could these women be at risk of adverse pregnancy? Objective: Compare rate of caesarean section (CS), induction of labour (IOL), macrosomia, admission to special care nursery and neonatal hypoglycaemia. Designs: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Ipswich Hospital, Ipswich, Queensland. Participants: Pregnant women having had the test at the hospital laboratory. Methods: Charts review of outcome measures including induction of labour, caesarean section, macrosomia, RDS and short-term neonatal morbidity. Results: We reviewed 882 charts (441 cases and 441 controls). There was a higher IOL rate among cases 21.1% versus 16.6% (OR and 95% CI 1.45; 1.03 - 2.06) and a higher CS rate, 30.4 versus 23.6 (OR and 95% CI 1.41; 1.05 - 1.91). Compared to women with BMI 18.5 - 24.9, women with BMI of 30 and above had a significantly higher IOL rate (47.1% versus 22.6%), higher CS rate (47.2% versus 25.7%) and higher rate of macrosomic baby (79.2% versus 4.2%). There were more women amongst the cases who were older, smoked, had a BMI 30 and above and had previous history of GDM. After adjusting for maternal age, BMI and smoking status, there was still an increased odds of CS, IOL and macrosomia, but this did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: Abnormal glucose screening test in the

Patterns and Trends in Diagnostic Tests Used for Detection of Colorectal Cancer after Screening with the Immunochemical Fecal Occult Blood Test in Japan  [PDF]
Junta Yamamichi, Kahori Seto, Shiro Hinotsu, Koichi Nagata, Yasutoshi Kobayashi, Hisashi Urushihara, Koji Kawakami
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics (OJCD) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojcd.2015.53018
Abstract: According to the guidelines by the Japanese government, optical colonoscopy is the most strongly recommended diagnostic test after screening with the immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT), followed by double-contrast barium enema (BE) or sigmoidoscopy. Our study was to assess patterns and trends of colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnostic testing within 2 years after iFOBT. We analyzed both iFOBT results and claims data provided by employee health insurance societies in Japan from 2005 to 2010. 25,596 enrollees underwent iFOBT screening. The positive rate was 5.1%. 32.3% of those positive underwent diagnostic tests and 1.0% (12 patients) were confirmed as having cancer. The most common test was optical colonoscopy (77.2% of total tests), followed by BE (16.2%). From 2006 to 2009, the rate of optical colonoscopy for females increased from 55% to 82% and that of BE declined from 36% to 12%, while no significant changes were seen for males. Only one-third of those who tested positive underwent diagnostic test in the 2 years following screening iFOBT. As official guidelines for diagnostic testing of CRC recommend, optical colonoscopy is now the most commonly used diagnostic test after positive iFOBT result for enrollees in employee health insurance societies in Japan.
Isolated Rheumatic Pulmonary Valve Disease—Case Reports  [PDF]
Ramachandran Muthiah
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2016.56039
Abstract: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children and young adults worldwide and particularly developing countries continuing to experience a high incidence of this disease. The unexpected increase in the incidence of the disease in certain areas may explain the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of this disease. The key manifestation of RHD is the cardiac valvular abnormalities characterized principally by deforming the layered and avascular leaflet architecture due to inflammation and subsequent diffuse fibrosis. Mitral valve is mostly involved and pulmonary valve is rarely affected. Background of these case reports highlighted the increased incidence of rheumatic pulmonary valve disease in Thoothukudi region of India in Tamil Nadu state.
Diagnóstico de la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana Diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus
Infectio , 2006,
Abstract: hiv infection and aids, have been known, followed and controlled due to availability of diagnostic tests. an opportune diagnostic test in an asymptomatic patient might represent a good number of years with a high quality of life for an infected patient. hiv infection tests stands on the basis of the recognition of virus in a culture, or the presence of p24 antigen, the antibody response or detecting viral dna. currently, the available tests offer good specificity and sensitivity. after the pre-test assessment, diagnostic approach begins with a screening test that should be followed by a confirmatory test like western blot. in the case of children younger than 18 months, molecular tests are needed. a current review of the diagnostic methods is presented, showing not only the known advantages but also the disadvantages and limitations of these tests.
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