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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1326 matches for " schizophrenia "
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The Infection Hypothesis of Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review  [PDF]
Alexander M. Scharko
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2011.12007
Abstract: Objectives: The objective of this paper is to accomplish a systematic review of the infection hypothesis of schizophrenia. Methods: All English language publications from January 1989 to March 2010 as related to infection and schizophrenia were obtained. Each study selected for analysis must either deal with the direct infection of an individual and schizophrenia or maternal infection during pregnancy and the subsequent development of schizophrenia in the offspring. The primary outcome measure was the calculated odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Over 300 titles and abstracts were reviewed. Eight retrospective studies regarding in utero exposure were analyzed. Five nested case-controlled studies yielded an overall odds ratio of 3.58 (95% CI: 2.71 - 4.71) with a percent attributable risk of 6.3%. Three Scandinavian populational studies yielded an overall odds ratio of 0.62 (95% CI: 0.49 - 0.79). Twenty-six papers were identified as retrospective studies focused on linking evidence of past infection in individuals with history of schizophrenia. A total of 77 microorganisms were assessed with 18 (23.4%) showing a positive association with schizophrenia. But positive associations in a given trial were negative in other trials. Conclusions: Direct infection of an individual as a cause of schizophrenia is unlikely. Results were mixed regarding maternal infection, in utero exposure, and the later development of schizophrenia in the offspring and likely accounts for a modest proportion of those with schizophrenia, possibly 6%.
Human endogenous retroviruses: Their possible role in the molecular etiology of the schizophrenia  [PDF]
Raúl Alelú-Paz, Ignacio Iturrieta-Zuazo
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2012.21009
Abstract: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) represent footprints of previous retroviral infections. They are integrated within the human germ line and constitute approximately 8% of our genome. They have the potential to harm, given their capacity to alter the cellular metabolism, and could be involved in various pathological processes. This revision intends to highlight the importance of HERVs in health and disease, and the increasing interest of the scientific community in their biology. In this overview, we will present a brief summary of the structure and physiological function of HERVs and an analysis of their role in schizophrenia, a paradigm of mental illness, particularly stressing the importance of HERV research to explore the more basic mechanisms disrupted in this psychiatric condition.
Minocycline for Schizophrenia: A critical review  [PDF]
Tsuyoshi Miyaoka
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2012.224056
Abstract: Minocycline, an antibiotic of the tetracycline family, has been shown to display neurorestoractive or neuroprotective properties in various models of neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, it has been shown to delay motor alterations, inflammation and apoptosis in models of Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease. Despite controversies about its efficacy, the relative safety and tolerability of minocycline have led to the launching of various clinical trials. Previously, we reported the antipsychotic effects of minocycline in patients with schizophrenia. In a pilot investigation, we administered minocycline as an open-label adjunct to antipsychotic medication to patients with schizophrenia. The results of this trial suggested that minocycline might be a safe and effective adjunct to antipsychotic medications, and that augmentation with minocycline may prove to be a viable strategy for “boosting” antipsychotic efficacy and for treating schizophrenia. Recently, in randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials, the addition of minocycline to treatment as usual early in the course of schizophrenia predominantly improves negative symptoms. The present review summarizes the available data supporting the clinical testing of minocycline for patients with schizophrenia. In addition, we extend our discussion to the potential applications of minocycline for combining this treatment with cellular and molecular therapy.
The subgenual cingulate gyrus exhibits lower rates of bifurcation in schizophrenia than in controls, bipolar disorder and depression  [PDF]
Matthew R. Williams, Ronald K. B. Pearce, Steven R. Hirsch, Olaf Ansorge, Maria Thom, Michael Maier
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2012.24034
Abstract: The subgenual cingulate cortex has been found to be different in structure and function in mood and affective disorders compared to healthy individuals. Imaging studies have shown a decrease in function of the subgenual region in bipolar disorder and depression, with overall glial number shown to be decreased in these disorders. Decreases in subgenual grey matter in SZ have been observed also. In this neuropathological study upon formalin-fixed coronal brain sections we describe the morphological finding of de- creased frequency of subgenual cingulate crown bifurcation (p = 0.02) as compared to control, bipolar and depression cases. This suggests that the cingulate cortex in schizophrenia may be morphologically distinct in utero formation, potentially enabling an early identification of high-risk individuals.
Genomics of schizophrenia and pharmacogenomics of antipsychotic drugs  [PDF]
Ramón Cacabelos, Pablo Cacabelos, Gjumrakch Aliev
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.31008

Antipsychotic drugs are the neuroleptics currently used in the treatment of schizophrenia (SCZ) and psychotic disorders. SCZ has a heritability estimated at 70% - 90%; and pharmacogenomics accounts for 60% - 90% variability in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of psychotropic drugs. Personalized therapeutics based on individual genomic profiles in SCZ entails the characterization of 5 types of gene clusters and their related metabolomic profiles: 1) genes associated with disease pathogenesis; 2) genes associated with the mechanism of action of drugs; 3) genes associated with drug metabolism (phase I and II reactions); 4) genes associated with drug transporters; and 5) pleiotropic genes involved in multifaceted cascades and metabolic reactions. Genetic studies in SCZ have revealed the presence of chromosome anomalies, copy number variants, multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms of susceptibility distributed across the human genome, aberrant single-nucleotide polymorphisms in microRNA genes, mitochondrial DNA mutations, and epigenetic phenomena. Pharmacogenetic studies of psychotropic drug response have focused on determining the relationship between variation in specific candidate genes and the positive and adverse effects of drug treatment. Approximately 18% of neuroleptics are major substrates of CYP1A2 enzymes, 40% of CYP2D6, and 23% of CYP3A4. About 10% - 20% of Western populations are defective in genes of the CYP superfamily. Only 26% of Southern Europeans are pure extensive metabolizers for the trigenic cluster integrated by the CYP2D6 + CYP2C19 + CYP2C9 genes. Efficacy and safety issues in the pharmacological treatment of SCZ are directly linked to genetic clusters involved in the pharmacogenomics of antipsychotic drugs and also to environmental factors. Consequently, the incorporation of pharmacogenomic procedures both to drugs under development and drugs on the market would help to optimize therapeutics in SCZ and other central nervous system disorders.

The cytokine hypothesis: A neurodevelopmental explanation for the emergence of schizophrenia later in life  [PDF]
Julia Howard
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.48A2011

There is increasing evidence for the cytokine hypothesis, which states that exposure to elevated cytokines in utero due to maternal immune activation is a major risk factor for the development of schizophrenia later in life. This is supported by numerous epidemicologic studies that connect multiple infections with schizophrenia emergence. Furthermore, cytokines are critically involved in early neurodevelopment and deviations from the norm can result in abnormal neuroanatomy and brain chemistry. Animal models of schizophrenia also support the critical role of developmental neuroinflammation in predisposing the brain to anatomical and behavioral abnormalities. Although there is strong evidence for the critical role of cytokines, they most likely work with other contributing risk factors such as genetic predisposition. New evidence indicates that cytokine exposure in utero may prime the brain and that a second stressor during adolescence, referred to as a second hit, may activate existing developmental vulnerabilities resulting in the emergence of clinical schizophrenia. Further knowledge of these pathogenic processes and risk factors could be very instrumental in reducing risk and slowing emergence of schizophrenia.

Health Care Students’ Attitudes towards People with Schizophrenia—A Survey of Eight University Training Programs  [PDF]
Bengt Svensson, David Brunt, Ulrika Bejerholm, Mona Eklund, Amanda Lundvik Gyllensten, Christel Leufstadius, Urban Markstr?m, Mikael Sandlund, Margareta ?stman, Lars Hansson
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2014.44038
Abstract: Background: Discrimination and stigmatization of people with mental illness are a global and complex phenomenon and there is evidence that negative attitudes and discrimination are also prevalent among health care staff and health care students. Methods: Attitudes towards people with schizophrenia among 1101 students in eight different university programs providing training for work in the health care and social sectors were explored, using a cross-sectional design. Results: In five of the eight training programs the majority of the students’ perceived people with schizophrenia as a danger to others. In several aspects police students were found to hold more negative attitudes than students from other programs. Students with previous experiences of work in mental health services and students knowing a person with schizophrenia showed more positive attitudes. Discussion: In order to decrease negative attitudes and prejudices towards people with schizophrenia among students, it is essential that the training includes personal contact with people with experience of being mental illness.
Understanding the Etiology and Treatment Approaches of Schizophrenia: Theoretical Perspectives and Their Critique  [PDF]
Minjeong Kim
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2016.64030
Abstract: This paper reviewed genetic, neurodevelopmental, and neurobiological perspectives to understand the etiology and relevant treatment approaches of schizophrenia. Although genetic and neurodevelopmental theories provide a substantial contribution to the etiology of schizophrenia, neurobiological one has its dominant stance in which it can explain causative mechanisms of schizophrenia, identify targets for treatment, and predict outcomes well. According to the neurobiology, onset and course of schizophrenia are well supported by the alterations in neurotransmitters such as dopamine or serotonin. Based on this mechanism, antipsychotics have been widely used as one of the treatment approaches for schizophrenia. By following up the degree of patients’ responses to antipsychotics, treatment outcomes could be evaluated or predicted. Although neurobiology seldom provides information about identification or prevention of risk factors about schizophrenia compared to genetic and neurodevelopmental approaches, it has well-established scientific foundations, ability to guide treatment, applicability across age and culture, and usefulness as a research framework.
Philosophical and Ethical Perspectives on How We Could Know Recovery from Schizophrenia and Their Impact on Knowledge Development  [PDF]
Minjeong Kim
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2017.71003
Abstract: This paper discussed various philosophical and ethical perspectives on how to know recovery from schizophrenia. According to the empirical approach, recovery can be measured by objective and standardized tools which evaluate the severity of psychiatric symptoms or levels of social and vocational functioning. These measurements have minimum scores or sets of criteria of what recovery looks like, so this approach may be useful to evaluate patient’s treatment outcomes by healthcare providers. On the contrary, phenomenological approach stands qualitative research methods to understand an individual’s subjective, lived, or unique experiences while he or she lives with schizophrenia. Historical perspective holds that a point of view on recovery has been changed from negative to positive as our social perspectives for schizophrenia changes. Feminist perspective suggests that recovery can be understood by exploring female’s subjective experiences like successful marriage life or having responsibility for children. Ethical perspectives regarding the meaning of recovery were also addressed. Each philosophical and ethical perspective guides different research methodology and methods. Therefore, to employ appropriate methodology and methods, understanding philosophical and ethical backgrounds would be important.
On the Relationship between Mind and Language:Teaching English Vocabulary to Schizophrenics  [PDF]
Abdolmajid Hayati, Khaled Shahlaee
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.25065
Abstract: Undoubtedly mind is the most complicated member of human being and respectively a small breakdown in whatever processes undergone will cause great difficulties for the beholder. One of the most serious psychological impairments is known as schizophrenia which severely distorts thought and action (Hockenbury & Hockenbury, 2004). The present study is set out to investigate the capability of patients with schizophrenia in doing different vocabulary tasks on second language and retaining them for a period of time. Eight male patients diagnosed with schizophrenia of different types were selected from two mental centers to participate in the study. They were invited to attend a class for 16 sessions in 8 weeks and do vocabulary tasks including matching words to the pictures, filling the blanks, word association, crossword puzzle, and word finding. A test was administered right after the period and the retest was administered 16 days later. The study illustrated that there is no significant relationship between age and learning vocabulary items by patients suffering from schizophrenia. More, schizophrenics showed different capabilities in doing vocabulary tasks, and they also showed different impairments in their attempt to learn foreign language words. They also found some of the tasks demanding as they become more cognitively difficult.
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