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The aim of
this study was to determine the level of knowledge that nurses in the neonatal
intensive care units (NICU) of a public birth center had about the use of the
Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) and to test how their scoring for NIPS changed before and after training. Thirty nurses applied the NIPS
scale to newborns that were procedures
During the first and second evaluations, nurses
diagnosed 30% infants as having pain and 70% infants as having an absence of
pain. In the third and fourth evaluations, after the NIPS parameters had been
explained, we observed an increase in the number of infants diagnosed with the
presence of pain (65%). The results indicate the importance of formal training
for the systemic evaluation of pain in newborns.
The mixture consisted of benzotriazole (BTA), chitosan (CTS), polyacrylic acid and
zinc salt has
been investigated as a corrosion and scale inhibitor of
A3 carbon steel in cooling water. The scale and corrosion inhibition efficiency
was evaluated by static anti-scaling teat together with rotary coupon test.
Compared with the phosphorus corrosion and scale inhibitor, the corrosion inhibition rate
and scale inhibition rate of it increased respectively by 2.51% and 1.16%. As the corrosion and scale inhibitor
is phosphate-free, it won’t cause eutrophication, considering
the product performance and environmental influence, the phosphate-free corrosion and scale inhibitor is
superior to the traditional one.
a direct impact on compression performance, optimal quantization scheme is
crucial for transform-based ECG data compression. However, traditional
optimization schemes derived with signal adaption are commonly inherent with
signal dependency and unsuitable for real-time application. In this paper, the
variety of arrhythmia ECG signal is utilized for optimizing the quantization
scheme of wavelet-based ECG data compression based on a genetic algorithm (GA). The GA search can induce a
stationary relationship among the quantization scales of multi-resolution
levels. The stationary property facilitates the control of multi-level
quantization scales with a single variable. For this aim, a three-dimensional
(3-D) curve fitting technique is applied for deriving a quantization scheme
with linear distortion characteristic. The linear distortion property can be
almost independent of ECG signals and provide fast error control. The
compression performance and convergence speed of reconstruction quality
maintenance are also evaluated by using the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database.
This article aims at giving a contribution to the issue of the determinants of economies of scale in large businesses. After the economies of scale definition, the study identifies and analyzes the economies of cost that, according to most of the well-established literature, contribute jointly to originate the phenomenon at stake. Then, the study analyzes the information collected through specially created questionnaires from a sample of businesses listed on regulated European markets. The aim of the questionnaires is to verify if such companies obtain economies of scale in their productive processes and, if so, to identify which of the cost economies previously analyzed are actually achieved. Finally, the article analyzes data and information obtained through the questionnaires and draws some conclusions. Specifically, the study tries to overcome a one-way and sole interpretation of the economies of scale phenomenon in favour of distinction in economies of scale of II level (“in the strict sense”) and economies of scale of I level (“generic”).