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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5208 matches for " scale "
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Neuroanatomical Basis of Glasgow Coma Scale—A Reappraisal  [PDF]
Sunil Munakomi, Bijoy Mohan Kumar
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2015.63019
Abstract: Glasgow coma scale is the most cited paper in neurosurgery. It has vast implications in the fields of neurology and neurosurgery. But lack of proper understanding in the neuro-anatomical basis of the score is the Achilles heel in proper utilization of the same. Herein we review the anatomical aspects behind each variable in the score. We also discuss common limitations of the score and highlight future directives to limit the same.
Psychometric Validation of Exercise Motivation for Health Scale (EMHS)  [PDF]
Chenghong Hu, Ami Kojima, Urusla Athenstaedt, Yoshiko Kato
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.510024
Objective: The main purpose of this study was to create a Japanese version of the exercise motivation for health scale (EMHS) and examine its psychometric validation. Methods: In study 1, participants were 532 Japanese residents (M = 42.82 ± 13.29, 275 males 257 females). A questionnaire (29 items) modified from the motivation for regulation of eating behavior scale (REBS) was completed. In study 2, participants were 679 (M = 42.82 ± 13.29, 296 males and 383 females aged between 20 - 85) Japanese residents. Well-being, social support, and stage of change in transtheoretical model (TTM) were used as criterion to test the validity of EMHS. Results: Study 1 reported that the principal component analysis (PCA) of the EMHS revealed good construct validity. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the 6 subscales ranged from 0.77 to 0.89. Study 2 indicated convergent and discriminant validity on relationship between well-being and stage of change. A relatively high compatibility (GFI = 0.91, AGFI = 0.87, CFI = 0.93, RMSEA = 0.08) was observed. Two significant differences between gender groups were found in the sample, a higher autonomous regulation on women, and a higher amotivation on men. Conclusion: The results suggested that the Japanese version of EMHS is reliable and valid, and can be used as a tool for measuring the motivation to exercise for health.
Pain Scale: When the Training Influences Its Use  [PDF]
Zaira Moura da Paix?o Freitas, Carlos Umberto Pereira, Débora Moura da Paix?o Oliveira
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2018.82011

The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge that nurses in the neonatal intensive care units (NICU) of a public birth center had about the use of the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) and to test how their scoring for NIPS changed before and after training. Thirty nurses applied the NIPS scale to newborns that were procedures considered painful. During the first and second evaluations, nurses diagnosed 30% infants as having pain and 70% infants as having an absence of pain. In the third and fourth evaluations, after the NIPS parameters had been explained, we observed an increase in the number of infants diagnosed with the presence of pain (65%). The results indicate the importance of formal training for the systemic evaluation of pain in newborns.

Micro-scale Dispersion of Air Pollutants over an Urban Setup in a Coastal Region  [PDF]
Srikanth Madala, A.N.V. Satyanarayana, V. Krishna Prasad
Open Journal of Air Pollution (OJAP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojap.2012.12007
Abstract: The dispersion is mainly governed by wind field and depends on the planetary boundary layer (PBL) dynamics. Accurate representation of the meteorological weather fields would improve the dispersion assessments. In urban areas representation of wind around the obstacles is not possible for the pollution dispersion studies using Gaussian based modeling studies. It is widely accepted that computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools would provide reasonably good solution to produce the wind fields around the complex structures and other land scale elements. By keeping in view of the requirement for the micro-scale dispersion, a commercial CFD model PANACHE with PANEPR developed by Fluidyn is implemented to study the micro-scale dispersion of air pollution over an urban setup at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam a coastal station in the east coast of India under stable atmospheric conditions. Meso-scale module of the PANACHE model is integrated with the data generated at the site by IGCAR under RRE (Round Robin Exercise) program to develop the flow fields. Using this flow fields, CFD model is integrated to study the micro-scale dispersion. Various pollution dispersion scenarios are developed using hypothetical emission inventory during stably stratified conditions to understand the micro-scale dispersion over different locations of coastal urban set up in the IGCAR region of Kalpakkam.
Experimental Study on a New Corrosion and Scale Inhibitor  [PDF]
Defang Zeng, Huan Yan
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.47077

The mixture consisted of benzotriazole (BTA), chitosan (CTS), polyacrylic acid and zinc salt has been investigated as a corrosion and scale inhibitor of A3 carbon steel in cooling water. The scale and corrosion inhibition efficiency was evaluated by static anti-scaling teat together with rotary coupon test. Compared with the phosphorus corrosion and scale inhibitor, the corrosion inhibition rate and scale inhibition rate of it increased respectively by 2.51% and 1.16%. As the corrosion and scale inhibitor is phosphate-free, it wont cause eutrophication, considering the product performance and environmental influence, the phosphate-free corrosion and scale inhibitor is superior to the traditional one.

Designing a Scale to Assess Family Nursing Practice among Public Health Nurses in Japan  [PDF]
Noriko Toyama, Kayoko Kurihara, Mineko Muranaka, Kokoro Shirai, Kiyoko Kamibeppu
Health (Health) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/health.2017.97074
Background: The promotion of family nursing by public health nurses (PHN) presupposes an accurate assessment of the family nursing support they already provide. However, as there is no assessment tool for this purpose, this study aimed to develop a scale to assess family nursing currently provided by PHN. Methods: We developed the Family Nursing Practice Scale (FNPS) for PHN based on the results of a previous study. The content validity of the FNPS was established through discussion with three other researchers. A pilot study was conducted to confirm face validity. To confirm reliability and validity, an anonymous, self-reported questionnaire was sent to PHN working in municipal offices. The statistical analyses included the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO), Barlett’s Test of Sphericity, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), Cronbach’s alpha, correlation coefficient and t-test. Results: Seven hundred fifty-four PHN participated in this study. Cronbach’s alpha of FNPS was 0.94. The KMO measure was 0.948, and Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity was p < 0.01. Two factors together accounted for 63.2% of the variance in EFA. No items were excluded because of low loadings. Construct validity was confirmed through comparison with categories from a previous study. The correlation coefficient of FNPS and selected items of the Practice of Breastfeeding Support Scale was r = 0.56 (p < 0.01). The result of the t-test showed that the FNPS score of PNH who had received training in family nursing was significantly higher than that of PHN who had not (t = -2.0; p < 0.05). Conclusion: The reliability and validity of the FNPS were confirmed. The FNPS comprised 15 items and two factors. The score for “Active support for the family” was lower than “Support given with awareness of the family’s situation.” The findings of this study strongly suggested that the FNPS would be effective in clarifying the current state of family nursing provided by PHN and factors related to this activity and thus greatly assist the efforts of PHN to promote family nursing.
Fading Channels Parametric Data Simulation Supported by Real Data from Outdoor Experiments  [PDF]
Azra Kapetanovic, Mohamed A. Zohdy, Redhwan Mawari
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2017.83008
Abstract: Optimizing the estimates of received power signals is important as it can improve the process of transferring an active call from one base station in a cellular network to another base station without any interruptions to the call. The lack of effective techniques for estimation of shadow power in fading mobile wireless communication channels motivated the use of Kalman Filtering (KF) as an effective alternative. In our research, linear second-order state space Kalman Filtering was further investigated and tested for applicability. We first created simulation models for two KF-based estimators designed to estimate local mean (shadow) power in mobile communications corrupted by multipath noise. Simulations were used extensively in the initial stage of this research to validate the proposed method. The next challenge was to determine if the models would work with real data. Therefore, in [1] we presented a new technique to experimentally characterize the wireless small-scale fading channel taking into consideration real environmental conditions. The two-dimensional measurement technique enabled us to perform indoor experiments and collect real data. Measurements from these experiments were then used to validate simulation models for both estimators. Based on the indoor experiments, we presented new results in [2], where we concluded that the second-order KF-based estimator is more accurate in predicting local shadow power profiles than the first-order KF-based estimator, even in channels with imposed non-Gaussian measurement noise. In the present paper, we extend experiments to the outdoor environment to include higher speeds, larger distances, and distant large objects, such as tall buildings. Comparison was performed to see if the system is able to operate without a failure under a variety of conditions, which demonstrates model robustness and further investigates the effectiveness of this method in optimization of the received signals. Outdoor experimental results are provided. Findings demonstrate that the second-order Kalman filter outperforms the first-order Kalman filter.
Wavelet-based ECG data compression optimization with genetic algorithm  [PDF]
Tsung-Ching Wu, King-Chu Hung, Je-Hung Liu, Tung-Kuan Liu
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.67092

With a direct impact on compression performance, optimal quantization scheme is crucial for transform-based ECG data compression. However, traditional optimization schemes derived with signal adaption are commonly inherent with signal dependency and unsuitable for real-time application. In this paper, the variety of arrhythmia ECG signal is utilized for optimizing the quantization scheme of wavelet-based ECG data compression based on a genetic algorithm (GA). The GA search can induce a stationary relationship among the quantization scales of multi-resolution levels. The stationary property facilitates the control of multi-level quantization scales with a single variable. For this aim, a three-dimensional (3-D) curve fitting technique is applied for deriving a quantization scheme with linear distortion characteristic. The linear distortion property can be almost independent of ECG signals and provide fast error control. The compression performance and convergence speed of reconstruction quality maintenance are also evaluated by using the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database.

Determinants of Economies of Scale in Large Businesses—A Survey on UE Listed Firms  [PDF]
Massimiliano Celli
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2013.33031

This article aims at giving a contribution to the issue of the determinants of economies of scale in large businesses. After the economies of scale definition, the study identifies and analyzes the economies of cost that, according to most of the well-established literature, contribute jointly to originate the phenomenon at stake. Then, the study analyzes the information collected through specially created questionnaires from a sample of businesses listed on regulated European markets. The aim of the questionnaires is to verify if such companies obtain economies of scale in their productive processes and, if so, to identify which of the cost economies previously analyzed are actually achieved. Finally, the article analyzes data and information obtained through the questionnaires and draws some conclusions. Specifically, the study tries to overcome a one-way and sole interpretation of the economies of scale phenomenon in favour of distinction in economies of scale of II level (“in the strict sense”) and economies of scale of I level (“generic”).

Toward to Measure Narcissistic Personality in Cyberspace: Validity and Reliability  [PDF]
Chih-Hung Chou, C. K. Farn
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.615196
Abstract: Behavior in Internet world is closely related to narcissistic personality. Internet is a necessary part of life for young: therefore, the discussion of narcissistic behavior and the implicit personality traits within Internet world has become an important issue for understanding the psychology and behavior of teenagers. Currently, well-developed narcissistic personality scales exist for academic use; however, the plausibility of applying them in Internet world still lacks systematic proof. Thus, our study developed a narcissistic personality scale focused on online behavior based on college students sampled in Taiwan, and tested the construct validity of the scale through confirmatory factor analysis. The results show that the Online Narcissistic Personality Inventory (ONPI) developed in our study is composed of seven facets and that all facets have good internal consistency; factor analysis of the seven-factor model shows good model fit. The results show that the ONPI can be applied for assessing narcissistic personality in online environments for college students.
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