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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 721 matches for " saturation "
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Analysis of the interaction between [Ru(phenanthroline)3]2+ and bovine serum albumin  [PDF]
Laura Luzuriaga, María Fernanda Cerdá
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2012.23033
Abstract: The interaction of compounds with potential use as pharmaceutical with a carrier protein as serum albumin is of great importance in their biodistribution. Albumin offers different sites for binding metallic compounds. Using a combination of spectropho-tometric and electrochemical techniques, the interaction between [Ru(phen)3]Cl2 (phen = phenantroline) and bovine serum albumin was evaluated. In particular, it was possible to calculate an apparent binding constant (Kb) of 4.4 × 103 (for concentrations expressed in M) for the main interaction site of the protein. A number of ca. 40 molecules of Ru-phen per molecule of BSA under saturation conditions, and a positive cooperative behavior towards association from the protein were found.
Limits of Biotechnological Innovation  [PDF]
Kenneth Dimitri Satyagraha Fernald, Tamar Cheka Weenen, Kelsey Jean Sibley, Eric Claassen
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2013.43020
Abstract: During the past two decades the biopharmaceutical industry has been facing an innovation deficit, characterized by increasing research & development costs and stagnant productivity. From its inception, biotechnology has been expected to counter this deficit by its revolutionary science-based approach to drug discovery. For this study we gathered patent and product data related to the technological development of the first two biotechnologies: recombinant DNA technology and monoclonal antibody technology. We studied the technological lifecycles of these technologies in terms of scientific discoveries and inventions as well as product innovations. Results indicate that over the years inventions related to these technologies have simultaneously become less radical and less valuable. Furthermore, our analysis shows that these biotechnologies have reached a stage of technological limit or saturation, which may be followed by an innovation cliff. Now, more than ever, it is crucial to examine new strategies and opportunities for value creation, capturing, and delivery, within the biopharmaceutical industry.
Analysis Magnetization Current of Harmonic Phenomena and Power Factor as Indicators of Core Saturation at Transformer 3-Phase  [PDF]
Erwin Dermawan, Deni Almanda, Laelatus Zahro, Anwar Ilmar Ramadhan, Ery Diniardi
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2016.45001
Abstract: Saturation is a condition in which the magnets are fully transformer cores and generate maximum magnetic flux. Some parts affect the resilience and create distortions that can harm the heart. Core saturation can also increase the temperature and magnetization current transformer. In this study, we proposed a measurement method to obtain the necessary parameters to calculate a reliable indicator of the state of the transformer core saturation. The main effects of nonlinear flow in the transformer core are saturation, eddy current and hysteresis. In saturation, the core transformer is as a source of generating harmonic currents, some of which will flow directly to the primary and secondary windings. The method is based on the magnetization current, the phenomenon of harmonics and power factor is evaluated by measuring the no-load current at three-phase transformer, with a high magnetic flux density imposed. Measurements were taken at each phase of the transformer core. The transformer is connected to a variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF) as a voltage source and the investigation carried out at various flux densities. The results showed that the magnetization current and harmonic phenomena increased significantly when the high magnetic flux density and vice versa injected with power factor declined sharply. This phenomenon can be used as an indication of saturation of the 3-phase transformer core.
Estimation of the Degree of Saturation of Shallow Soils from Satellite Observations to Model Soil Slips Occurred in Emilia Romagna Region of Northern Italy  [PDF]
Valentino Roberto, Montrasio Lorella, Chiara Quintavalla
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2010.12008
Abstract: For the development of alert systems for soil slip occurrence, it is important to evaluate the degree of saturation of shallow soils (Sr) over wide areas. Taking into account the possibility to estimate spatial and temporal variation of soil moisture using remote sensing techniques, a possible correlation between Sr and the daily output of a sequential data assimilation system called ACHAB (Assimilation Code for HeAt and moisture Balance) has been studied. ACHAB is based on integrated use of remotely sensed land surface temperature (LST) and common data on meteorological forcing such as air temperature, wind-speed and incident solar radiation. The aim of this study is to understand if it is possible to use ACHAB output (a daily value of evaporative fraction for the whole Italian territory) to define the parameter Sr that could be introduced in a simplified model for the description of soil slip triggering mechanisms on territorial scale.
The Effect of Antimony Substitution on the Magnetic and Structural Properties of Fe0.75–xSi0.25Sbx Alloys  [PDF]
Imaddin A. Al-Omari, M. R. Anantharaman
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2012.22011
Abstract: The results of the investigation of the magnetic and structural properties of the alloy system Fe0.75–xSi0.25Sbx, where x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, and 0.25 synthesized by mechanical alloying followed by heat treatment are described. The x-ray diffraction reveals that all samples crystallize in the DO3-type cubic phase structure. Substituting Fe by Sb led to a decrease in the lattice constant and the unit cell volume. The magnetic properties are investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer and show that all the samples are ferromagnetically ordered at room temperature. The Curie temperature is found to decrease linearly from (850 ± 5) K for the parent alloy to (620 ± 5) K for the alloyith x = 0.25. The saturation magnetizations at room temperature and at 100 K are found to decrease with increasing the antimony concentration. The above results indicate that Sb dissolves in the cubic structure of this alloy system.
Static Reservoir Modeling Using Well Log and 3-D Seismic Data in a KN Field, Offshore Niger Delta, Nigeria  [PDF]
Lukumon Adeoti, Njoku Onyekachi, Olawale Olatinsu, Julius Fatoba, Musa Bello
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2014.51011

This study focuses on the application of 3D static model using 3-D seismic and well log data for proper optimization and development of hydrocarbon potential in KN field of Niger Delta Province. 3D Seismic data were used to generate the input interpreted horizon grids and fault polygons. The horizon which cut across the six wells was used for the analysis and detailed petrophysical analysis was carried out. Structural and property modeling (net to gross, porosity, permeability, water saturation and facies) were distributed stochastically within the constructed 3D grid using Sequential Gaussian Simulation and Sequential Indicator Simulation algorithms. The reservoir structural model show system of different oriented growth faults F1 to F6. Faults 1 and Fault 4 are the major growth faults, dipping towards south-west and are quite extensive. A rollover anticline formed as a result of deformation of the sediments deposited on the downthrown block of fault F1. The other faults (2, 3, 5 and 6) are minor fault (synthetic and antithetic). The trapping mechanism is a fault assisted anticlinal closure. Results from well log analysis and petrophysical models classified sand 9 reservoir as a moderate to good reservoir in terms of facies, with good porosity, permeability, moderate net to gross and low water saturation. The volumetric calculation of modeled sand 9 horizon reveals that the (STOIIP) value at the Downthrown and Ramp segment are 15.7 MMbbl and 3.8 MMbbl respectively. This implies that the mapped horizon indicates hydrocarbon accumulation in economic quantity. This study has also demonstrated the effectiveness of 3-D static modeling technique as a tool for better understanding of spatial distribution of discrete and continuous reservoir properties, hence, has provided a framework for future prediction of reservoir performance and production behavior of sand 9 reservoir. However, more horizontal wells should be drilled to enhance optimization of

Complex Protective Coatings for Graphite and Carbon-Carbon Composite Materials  [PDF]
V. I. Zmij, S. G. Rudenkyi, A. G. Shepelev
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2015.610090
Abstract: The objective of this review is to present the results on the production techniques, process parameters and compositions of heat-resistant coatings for graphite and carbon-carbon composites. The data reported concern the resistance of such protective coatings in air at temperatures up to 2273 K and in the high-speed flows of oxidizing gas media taking place in the spacecraft equipment. Coatings of this type, generally, have a multilayer structure based on the refractory compounds such as carbides, borides, silicides of transition metals and oxides with a high melting temperature. An efficient heat-resistant coating for carbon-based materials should be composed of three layers from which each fulfills its own function. The paper presents a new complex method for formation of heat-resistant coatings on the carbon-based materials. The method combines the vacuum-activated diffusion saturation in the presence of a liquid-phase and self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) simultaneously.
Study on Geometric Factors Influencing Saturation Flow Rate at Signalized Intersections under Heterogeneous Traffic Conditions  [PDF]
B. G. Savitha, R. Satya Murthy, H. S. Jagadeesh, H. S. Sathish, T. Sundararajan
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2017.71006
Abstract: The main objective of intersection design is to facilitate the convenience, comfort, and safety of people traversing the intersection by enhancing the efficient movement of road users. The intersections on urban roads in India generally cater to heterogeneous motorized traffic, along with slow-moving traffic including pedestrians. It is therefore necessary to consider saturation flow for mixed traffic conditions to evaluate the overall operation of signalized intersections. A proper traffic model must consider varying characteristics of all the road users to effectively design and efficiently manage signalized intersections. This paper presents the results of the study on analyses of saturation flow rate conducted at signalized intersections with mixed traffic conditions in the city of Bangalore, India. Studies were carried out at 15 signalized intersections in the city of Bangalore with varying geometric factors such as width of road (w), gradient of the road (g), and turning radius (r) for right turning vehicles. Saturation flow rate computed as per Highway Capacity manual (HCM: 2000), Indonesian highway capacity manual (IHCM), and IRC SP: 41-1994 was compared with the field observations. The geometric factors, which affect the saturation flow, have been considered in this study and accordingly a new model has been proposed for determining saturation flow. It has been shown that by the introduction of the suggested adjustment factors in this paper, the saturation flow rate can give better picture of the field conditions, especially under heterogeneous traffic conditions of an urban area.
A Method of Calculating Saturation for Tight Sandstone Reservoirs: A Case of Tight Sandstone Reservoir in Dabei Area of Kuqa Depression in Tarim Basin of NW China  [PDF]
Jun Tang, Yi Xin, Deyang Cai, Chengguang Zhang
Open Journal of Yangtze Oil and Gas (OJOGas) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojogas.2018.31003
Abstract: The tight sand reservoir in Dabei Area has been the main block of exploration and development of natural gas inTarimBasin. Because of low porosity and fracture development, there exist errors in calculation of reservoir saturation. According to micro-resistivity image logging and acoustic full-wave logging, the reservoir fractural effectiveness is quantitatively evaluated; the result indicates that the reservoir with Stoneley wave permeability is greater than 0.2 × 10-3μm2; the reservoir connection is good. If the FVPA is greater than 0.055%; the fractures are developed. A new matrix saturation model is established based on the conductive pore water in consideration of the influence of low porosity. After modeling and analyzing the effect of porosity and its occurrence on the cementation index, the method for saturation calculation in Kuqa Area is established: the newly established dual porosity model is for fracture developed reservoirs, and the model based on the conductive pore water is for fracture less-developed reservoirs. By comparing the results of saturation in mercury injection experiment from coring section, precision of the calculation method is proven.
New Methods to Calculate Water Saturation in Shale and Tight Gas Reservoirs  [PDF]
Arash Kamari, James J. Sheng
Open Journal of Yangtze Oil and Gas (OJOGas) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojogas.2018.33019
Abstract: The determination of water saturation is a key step for the reservoir characterization and prediction of future reservoir performance in terms of production. The importance of water saturation has been further identified when the reservoirs refer to rocks with low porosity and permeability such as shale and tight formations. In this communication, two advanced artificial intelligence strategies consisting of least square support vector machine (LSSVM) and gene expression programming (GEP) have been applied in order to develop reliable predictive models for the calculation of water saturation of shale and tight reservoirs. To this end, an extensive core and log data bank has been analysed from 12 wells of a Mesaverde group tight reservoir located in the largest Western US. The results indicate that the estimated water saturation data by the models developed in this study are in satisfactory agreement with the actual log data. Furthermore, new methods proposed in this study are useful for the characterization of shale and tight reservoirs and can be applied to the relevant software.
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