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Triterpenoid saponins from Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown
Farias, Mareni R.;Pértile, Roberto;Correa, Melissa M.;Almeida, Maria Tereza R. de;Palermo, Jorge A.;Schenkel, Eloir P.;
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-50532010000500023
Abstract: two saponins were isolated from the leaves of lippia alba. their structures were established using one- and two-dimensional nmr spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. these new compounds were elucidated as 3-o-β-d-glucopyranosyl-28-o-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?3)-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?4)-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl)-16α,23-dihydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid, named as lippiasaponin i (2) and as 3-o-β-d-glucopyranosyl-28-o-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?3)-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?4)-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?3)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl)-16α,23-dihydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid, named lippiasaponin ii (3).
Variabilidad fitoquímica y repercusión antinutricional potencial en especies del género Albizia
García,D.E; Medina,María Gabriela; Ojeda,F; Humbría,J; Domínguez,C; Baldizán,A; Toral,Odalys;
Pastos y Forrajes , 2007,
Abstract: by means of the analyses of main components (mca), automatic classification (aca) and simple variance (anova), the spectrum of variations of the chemical composition of eleven species of the albizia genus (a. berteriana, a. caribaea, a. cubana, a. falcata, a. kalkora, a. lebbeck, a. lucida, a. procera, a. saman, a. semani and a. odoratissima), established in the arboretum of the eepf “indio hatuey” in matanzas, cuba, was studied. the bromatological indicators evaluated were: cp, ndf, p, k, na, ca, mg, ash and soluble carbohydrates (sch); while the concentrations of total polyphenols tp, protein precipitable tannins (ppt), condensed tannins (ct), alkaloids (alk), saponins (sap) and non-alkaloidal nitrogen salts (nans) described the phytochemical particularities. a high variability was detected for the first three components in the bromatological and phytochemical indicators (71,19 and 81,95%, respectively). the aca allowed to identify four groups in both cases. the variables that better accounted for the variance were the contents of k, ca, ash, sch, tp, ppt and ct. it is concluded that, independently from the fact that the species showed particular characteristics in their proximal composition, all of them presented an acceptable bromatological composition. the trees may be divided according to their essentially polyphenolic (a. berteriana, a. cubana, a. falcata, a. kalkora and a. lucida) or saponinic characteristics (a. caribaea, a. procera and a. saman), with high concentrations of phenols and sap (a. odoratissima), or the presence of low contents of these latter metabolites (a. lebbeck and a. semani). from the nutritional point of view a. lebbeck, a. semani, a. caribaea, a. procera and a. saman constitute the best choices for feeding ruminants, and only a. lebbeck and a. semani show potentialities for monogastric animals.
Saponinas triterpênicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)
Hamerski, Lidilhone;Carbonezi, Carlos Alberto;Cavalheiro, Alberto José;Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva;Young, Maria Cláudia Marx;
Química Nova , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-40422005000400009
Abstract: the present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-o-b-d-quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-o-b-d-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-o-b-d-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-o-b-d-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. from the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-o-rutinoside was obtained. the structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1d and 2d nmr spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds.
Neuroprotective effect of panax notoginseng saponins and its main components  [PDF]
Xumei Wang, Shaoxia Wang, Limin Hu
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2014.41002
Abstract:

Stroke is the third leading cause of death and the first cause of adult disability in industrial countries [1]. It is charicaterized by hemiplegia, hemianopsia, aphasia, mouth askew and sever sequelae. It is considered that an ischemic disease without any specific treatment method and few effective drugs such as tPA (human tissue-type plasminogen activator) and Edarovone with specific therapeutic window will cause a lot of disadvantages if being used inaccurate. Root of Panax notoginseng (PN) which is one of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), was first found in “Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica” around 200 AD. Panax notogineng saponins(PNS) is a multi-components mixture containing ginseng and saponins as the most important bioactive components which are commonly used in clinical treatment. Also, ginseng and saponins form the main components of many herbal medicines in the market, e.g., Xueshuantong injection [2], Xuesaitong injection [3], Xuesaitong soft capsule [4] and so on. The main monomers of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are Ginsenoside-Rb1, Gensenoside-Rg1, Gensenoside-Re, Gensenoside-Rd and Panax notoginseng saponins-R1 [5]. In this review, we found some important points as well as shortcomings that require special consideration. We therefore highlighted the advances in neuro-protection of PNS and its main monomers in the area of experimental research.

Protective Effects of Saponin Mixture, Isolated from Astragalus monspessulanus subsp. monspessulanus on Tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide—Induced Oxidative Stress in Isolated Rat Hepatocytes  [PDF]
Magdalena Spasova Kondeva-Burdina, Viktor Bratkov, Rumyana Lubomirova Simeonova, Vessela Bisserova Vitcheva, Ilina Nikolaeva Krasteva, Petranka Krumova Zdraveva
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.66085
Abstract: Saponin mixture, obtained from Astragalus monspessulanus subsp. monspessulanus (Fabaceae) was investigated for possible protective effect on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH)-induced cytotoxicity using primary isolated rat hepatocytes. The cells were isolated by two-stepped col-lagenase perfusion. Liver damage was induced by one hour incubation with t-BuOOH (75 μmol·L-1) and discerned by decreased cell viability, increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage into the medium, increased production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and depletion of the cell protector glutathione (GSH). Cell pre-incubation with the saponin mixture (1 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL) significantly (p < 0.05) ameliorated t-BuOOH-induced liver damage, judged by preserved cell viability, decreased activity of LDH, decreased MDA production and restoration of GSH. The effect was concentration-dependent, more pronounced in the highest concentration and comparable with those of silymarin, used as a positive control. The observed cytoprotective effect could be explained by the influence of the saponins on the mitochondrial function, disturbed by t-BuOOH toxic metabolites.
Toxicolological Test of Saponins from Sapindus mukorossi Gaerth  [PDF]
Menghao Du, Sumei Huang, Jinping Zhang, Jingwen Wang, Lisong Hu, Jingmin Jiang
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2015.57067
Abstract: The study has been carried out to investigate acute oral toxicity, acute dermal toxicity in SPF rats and dermal irritation in rabbits. The result shows: 1) acute oral toxicity test shows that LD50 of saponins from Sapindus mukorossi is 9260 mg/kg (95% confidence interval is 6360 - 13,500 mg/kg) and 7940 mg/kg (95% confidence interval is 4890 - 12,900 mg/kg); 2) acute dermal toxicity test shows that LD50 of saponins from Sapindus mukorossi is more than 5000 mg/kg in both female and male Wistar rats; 3) dermal irritation test in rabbits shows that the average score of dermal irritation per day of each rabbit is zero after 14 days of continuous dermal irritation. According to the classification standard of toxicity in “Hygienic Standard for Cosmetics” (2002 version), the sample is classified as “practical nontoxic” and “non dermal irritation”. Thus, we can conclude that the saponin extraction from S. mukorossi Gaerth is safe for cosmetics.
Preliminary Evaluation of New Quinoa Genotypes under Sandy Soil Conditions in Egypt  [PDF]
Amr S. Shams
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/as.2018.911100
Abstract: Field trial was carried out at Ismailia Research Station, Ismailia Governorate, Egypt to evaluate some quinoa genotypes under arid environment of sandy soil for identifying its agronomic potentiality, chemical composition and economic opportunity. Nine quinoa genotypes including six Peruvian varieties (Amarilla Marangani, Amarilla Sacaca, Blanca de Junin, Kancolla, Salcedo INIA and Rosada de Huancayo) and three new accessions (QS14, QS16 and QS17-2) were compared in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results revealed that quinoa proved success in sandy soil with suitable grain yield under Egyptian conditions. QS17-2 accession stays only from 115 to 120 days in the field according to environmental factors and treated as short duration accession, while growth duration of the four varieties; Blanca de Junin, Kancolla, Salcedo INIA and Rosada de Huancayo, as well as, accessions of QS14 and QS16 were moderate. Amarilla Marangani and Amarilla Sacaca varieties had the longest duration genotypes. Amarilla Sacaca and Amarilla Marangani varieties, as well as, QS17-2 accession gave the highest grain yield compared with the other genotypes. The highest protein content in quinoa grains was 13.60%, which recorded from QS17-2 accession, while the lowest value (10.75%) was recorded by Blanca de Junin variety. Moreover, Salcedo INIA variety had the lowest saponins content in quinoa grains (0.07%) while QS16 accession recorded the highest content (0.22%). The economic evaluation gave a clear indicator of the lower farm prices of quinoa grains in Egypt (US$ 1000/ton), which gives a comparative advantage to Egypt in the MENA region for quinoa exportation.
Evaluation of Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous Extracts of Three Carica papaya Varieties Cultivated in Senegal  [PDF]
A?ssatou Alioune Gaye, Oumar Ibn Khatab Cisse, Bou Ndiaye, Nicolas Cyrille Ayessou, Mady Cisse, Codou Mar Diop
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2019.103021
Abstract: The aqueous extracts of different parts (old leaves (OL), young leaves (YL), peels (PE) and delipidated seed residues (DS)) of three varieties of papaya are studied. Extraction conditions are optimized: an extraction time of 20 minutes, a temperature of 70°C and a plant material/water mixture of 1% give the best yield of polyphenol. The amount of polyphenols, flavonoids, saponins and proanthocyanins of each aqueous extract was investigated. Antioxidant activities are measured using two different methods (DPPH and ABTS). The delipidated seeds (DS) of V1 have the highest total phenolic content (TPC = 72.56 ± 3.16 mg GAE/g) while they have the lowest total flavonoid content (TFC = 0.22 ± 0.01). With regard to saponins, the PE of V3 is much richer in saponins (194.03 ± 15.78 mg AeE/g) than all the other extracts studied. The OL of V2 and PE of V1 contain the most proanthocyanidins with very similar values of 2.51 ± 0.03 mg CE/g and 2.53 ± 0.34 mg CE/g respectively. The study of the antioxidant activities of the extracts showed a correlation between the amount of polyphenols and IC50. DPPH OL and YL V2, which are rich in polyphenols, have the lowest IC50 of 0.072 mg/ml and 0.080 mg/ml respectively, whereas for ABTS we have PE of V1 that is very rich in polyphenols which has the smallest IC50 value of 0.218 mg/ml.
5,6-Didehydroginsenosides from the Roots of Panax notoginseng
Jian-Bo Wan,Qing-Wen Zhang,Si-Jia Hong,Jia Guan,Wen-Cai Ye,Shao-Ping Li,Ming-Yuen Simon Lee,Yi-Tao Wang
Molecules , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/molecules15118169
Abstract: Two minor novel dammarane-type saponins—5,6-didehydroginsenoside Rd (1) and 5,6-didehydroginsenoside Rb1 (2)—were isolated from the dried roots of Panax notoginseng along with sixteen known saponins. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods.
Steroidal and triterpenoidal glucosides from Passiflora alata
Reginatto, Flávio H.;Kauffmann, Carla;Schripsema, Jan;Guillaume, Dominique;Gosmann, Grace;Schenkel, Eloir P.;
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-50532001000100003
Abstract: five glycosides were isolated from leaves of p. alata. the structures 1-5 were obtained through extensive spectral analyses as 3-o-b-d-glucopyranosyl-stigmasterol (1), 3-o-b-d-glucopyranosyl-oleanolic acid (2), 3-o-b-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?3)-b-d-glucopyranosyl-oleanolic acid (3), 3-o-b-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-b-d-glucopyranosyl-oleanolic acid (4) and 9,19-cyclolanost-24z-en-3b,21,26-trihydroxy-3,26-di-o-gentiobiose (5). comparison of the tlc profiles of the hydroethanolic extracts from leaves of other passiflora species found in the south of brazil (p. actinia, p. caerulea, p. edulis var. flavicarpa, p. elegans, p. foetida, p. misera and p. tenuifila) showed that only p. alata presented saponin accumulation.
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