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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8456 matches for " salt sensitivity methodology "
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A comparison between sphygmomanometer-based and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in acute salt loading and depletion protocol
Paiva, Carlos Eduardo;Aguiar, Andréia Fernanda Carvalho Leone;Nobre, Fernando;Coelho, Eduardo Barbosa;
Clinics , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1807-59322011000500010
Abstract: introduction: ambulatory blood pressure monitors have been used in salt loading and depletion protocols. however, the agreement between measurements made using ambulatory blood pressure monitors and those made with the sphygmomanometer has not been evaluated. objective: the objective of this study was to compare the concordance of the two methods of blood pressure measurements in protocols of acute salt loading and depletion. method: systolic blood pressure was measured using a sphygmomanometer at the completion of salt infusion (2 l nacl 0.9%, 4 h) and salt depletion (furosemide, 120mg/day, p.o.) in 18 volunteers. using the pearson correlation coefficient (ρ), these readings were compared with the mean systolic blood pressure measured using the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring device during the following periods: 4 h of saline infusion and 12 h of salt depletion; 4 h of saline infusion and the last 6 h of salt depletion; 12 h of salt loading and the last 6 h of depletion; 12 h of salt loading and 12 h of depletion. salt sensitivity was defined by a difference in the systolic blood pressure between salt loading and salt depletion greater than 10 mmhg when measured with the sphygmomanometer, and the kappa analysis of concordance (k) was used with a significance level of p<0.05. results: only the blood pressure readings obtained using the ambulatory blood pressure device during 4 h of intravenous nacl and during 12 h of salt depletion showed a high correlation with the variation in the systolic blood pressure measured by the sphygmomanometer, with a full agreement with the salt sensitivity classification (p = 0.71; p = 0.001 and k=1). conclusion: in acute salt loading and depletion protocols, an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring device should be used to record the blood pressure during the 4-h interval of salt infusion and 12-h interval of salt depletion.
Evaluation of the research methodology in genetic, molecular and proteomic tests
Lumbreras,Blanca; Jarrín,Inmaculada; Hernández Aguado,Ildefonso;
Gaceta Sanitaria , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0213-91112006000500005
Abstract: introduction: advances in genomic analysis technologies have led to the development of new diagnostic tests with clinical application. therefore, as in other diagnostic fields, awareness of the methodological limitations of genetic investigation will facilitate the application of the results. methods: 44 articles which studied the diagnostic accuracy of genetic, molecular and proteomic tests, and published in jama, lancet, new england journal of medicine, cancer research y clinical cancer research from 2002 to june 2005 were analysed. 24 methodological criteria of the stard guide (standards for reporting of diagnostic accuracy) were applied. results: the mean number of methodological criteria satisfied was 9.8 (95%, ci 8.8-10.6), with the greatest deficiencies observed in the aspects related to the description of patient selection, 9 (20%), the treatment of indeterminate results, 5 (11%), and the determination of the technique's reproducibility, 6 (13%). in contrast, a high frequency was observed in the description of the reference standard, 39 (87%), and the method used, 28 (62%). discussion: the articles evaluated fail to fulfil many of the quality requirements laid out in the stard proposal, with the methodological quality being lower than in other diagnostic fields. the aspects most in need of improvement are those related to the description of patient selection and the determination of reproducibility. research and progress in new genetic-molecular technologies require improved fulfilment of the epidemiological and clinical standards which are already applied by other diagnostic fields.
A case-control study on the relationship between salt intake and salty taste and risk of gastric cancer
Wan-Guang Yang,Chuan-Bo Chen,Zhi-Xin Wang,Yu-Pei Liu
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2011, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v17.i15.2049
Abstract: AIM: To investigate the relationship between salt intake and salty taste and risk of gastric cancer. METHODS: A 1:2 matched hospital based case-control study including 300 patients with gastric cancer and 600 cancer-free subjects as controls. Subjects were interviewed with a structured questionnaire containing 80 items, which elicited information on dietary, lifestyle habits, smoking and drinking histories. Subjects were tested for salt taste sensitivity threshold (STST) using concentrated saline solutions (0.22-58.4 g/L). Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: Alcohol and tobacco consumption increased the risk of gastric cancer [OR (95% CI) was 2.27 (1.27-4.04) for alcohol and 2.41 (1.51-3.87) for tobacco]. A protective effect was observed in frequent consumption of fresh vegetable and fruit [OR (95% CI) was 0.92 (0.58-0.98) for fresh vegetable and 0.87 (0.67-0.93) for fruit]. Strong association was found between STST ≥ 5 and gastric cancer [OR = 5.71 (3.18-6.72)]. Increased STST score was significantly associated with salted food intake and salty taste preference (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: A high STST score is strongly associated with gastric cancer risk. STST can be used to evaluate an inherited characteristic of salt preference, and it is a simple index to verify the salt intake in clinic.
An experimental rat model of salt-sensitive hypertension; biochemical and morphological parameters and sympathetic nervous system
L.I. Somova,M.L. Channa,M.S. Khan
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v70i1.744
Abstract: The objective of the study was to outline the characteristics of the development of hypertension and some neurohumoral, haematological and morphological factors contributing to development of high blood pressure in a genetic model of salt-sensitive rat. Characteristics of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats, as compared to their Dahl salt-resistant (DR) controls were as follows: 1) DS rats display higher blood pressure and lower heart rate compared to DR rats as early as 1 month of age at weaning). They gradually develop hypertension at 2 months of age, irrespective of diet. Low-Na diet (0.5%NaCl) does not prevent hypertension but delays its development and ameliorates it. High Na-diet (8 % NaCl) exacerbates hypertension. 2) DS rats have retardation in body weight gain. They develop mild hypochromic anaemia. 3) After 2 months of Na loading (3 months of age), DS rats express significantly increased Na and water retention and increased plasma volume by 15 % compared to 2.8 % increase in DR rats on high-Na diet. 4) DS rats showed renal parenchymal lesions, more pronounced after Na-loading, focal atrophy of cortical tubules, mesangial matrix expansion and glomerulosclerosis. Consistent with high blood pressure were changes in renal arterioles, fibromuscular proliferation, deposition of fibrinoid material in intima. 5) Sodium loading produced increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and sodium restriction reduced SNS responsiveness.
Optimization of Osmotic Drying Parameters for Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)  [PDF]
Birendra Kumar Mehta, Sanjay Kumar Jain, Gyanendra Prakash Sharma, Vishvambhar Dayal Mudgal, Radha Charan Verma, Anila Doshi, Hemant Kumar Jain
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.330186
Abstract: Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effect of brine concentration (10% - 20%) solution temperature (35℃ - 55℃), and duration of osmosis (30 - 60 min) with respect to water loss (WL) and salt gain (SG). The solu- tion to sample ratio of 5/1 (w/w) was used. The Box-Behnken design of three variables and three levels including seventeen experiments formed by five central points were used for optimizing input parameters. Linear, quadratic and interaction effects of three variables were analyzed with respect to water loss and solid gain. For each response, second order polynomial models were developed using multiple regression analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was per- formed to check the adequacy and accuracy of the fitted models. The response surfaces and contour maps showing the interaction of process variables were constructed. The optimum operating conditions were: solution temperature 44.89℃, brine concentration of 16.53 per cent and duration of osmosis of 47.59 min. At this optimum point, water loss and salt gain were predicted to be 44.55 per cent and 2.98 percent respectively.
Application of Response Surface Methodology for studying the effect of processing conditions on the biochemical and quality characteristics of cassava fish (Pseudotolithus sp.) during fermentation
Anihouvi VB,Afoakwa EO,Sakyi-Dawson E,Ayernor GS
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Response surface methodology and central composite rotatable design for K=/3 was used to study the combined effect of fermentation time, salt concentration and type of salt on halophilic bacteria counts (HBC), pH, moisture, protein, total volatile nitrogen (TVN) and thiobarbituric acid number (TBA) during processing of cassava fish into Lanhouin. The fermentation conditions (fermentation time, salt (NaCl) concentration, type of salt) were used as the independent variables for a Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). Regressionmodels were developed to predict the effects of the processing parameters on the studied indices. Significant interactions were observed between all the factors with high regression coefficients (87.5-97.2%). Fermentation duration and portion of solar salt in salt mixture led to increases in TVN and TBA contents, while significantdecreases were observed for moisture, pH and protein of the fermenting fish. Contrary, increasing the concentration of sodium chloride salt and the ratio of pure salt added during fermentation caused significant (P<0.05) increase in protein and subsequent decreases in TVN and TBA, suggesting that salting treatments canbe used in combination with fermentation time to improve the nutritional and biochemical qualities of Lanhouin.
Optimization of Parameters for the Production of Lipase from Pseudomonas sp. BUP6 by Solid State Fermentation  [PDF]
Panichikkal Abdul Faisal, Erandapurthukadumana Sreedharan Hareesh, Prakasan Priji, Kizhakkepowathial Nair Unni, Sreedharan Sajith, Sasidharan Sreedevi, Moolakkariyil Sarath Josh, Sailas Benjamin
Advances in Enzyme Research (AER) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aer.2014.24013
Abstract: Solid-state fermentation (SSF) holds tremendous potentials for the production of industrially significant enzymes. The present study describes the production of lipase by a novel rumen bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. strain BUP6 on agro-industrial residues. Pseudomonas sp. strain BUP6 showed higher lipase production when grown in Basal salt medium (BSM) supplemented with oil cakes. Initially, five different oil cakes (obtained after extracting oil from coconut, groundnut, cotton seed, gingelly or soybean) were screened to find out the most suitable substrate-cum-inducer for the production of lipase. Among them, groundnut cake supported the maximum production of lipase (107.44 U/gds). Box-Behnken Design (BBD), followed by response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the culture parameters for maximizing the production of lipase. Using the software Minitab 14, four different parameters like temperature, pH, moisture content and incubation time were selected for the statistical optimization, which resulted in 0.7 fold increase (i.e., 180.75 U/gds) in production of lipase under the optimum culture conditions (temperature 28°C, pH 5.9, moisture 33% and incubation 2 d). Thus, this study signifies the importance of SSF for the production of industrially-significant lipase using agro-industrial residues as solid support.
Hiperinsulinemia y sensibilidad a la Sal
Hoffmann,I; Baldonedo,R; Roa,M; Leandro,G; Aponte,L; Franklin,M; Palermo,C; Cubeddu,R; Jiménez,E; Cubeddu X,L;
Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica , 2002,
Abstract: coronary artery disease is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. early detection and correction of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors is mandatory for disease prevention. a program was develop for the early diagnosis and treatment of factors known to increment the risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic disease in apparently healthy subjects. ion this report, we present data for the first 153 individuals evaluated. we investigated the association of salt sensitivity with other cardiovascular risk factors, and in addition, determined which factors predicted salt sensitivity. the comparison of salt sensitive subjects (ss) with salt resistant subjects (sr) demonstrated that ss are older, heavier, have higher blood pressure and triglyceride levels and lower hdl-cholesterol, as well as a lesser level of physical activity. the prevalence and severity of salt sensitivity in hyperinsulinaemic and in glucose intolerant individuals was also investigated. there was no difference in the distribution of salt sensitivity among groups (hyper and normo insulinaemic), glucose tolerant (fasting glucose < 110 mg/dl; 2 hours post oral load < 140 mg/dl) and glucose intolerant and/or diabetic subjects. reducing salt intake from 316 ± 13 to 26 ± 3 mmol/day, produced similar decreases in blood pressure in hyper- and normoinsulinaemic and in glucose tolerant and glucose intolerant and/or diabetic subjects. in addition, no correlation was found between the magnitude of blood pressure increase induced by high salt and insulin or glucose levels, either fasting, 2 hours post glucose load or calculated as the area under the curve following a 75 gr. glucose load. in conclusion, our results suggest that insulin and glucose levels do not determine the increase in vascular reactivity induced by increases in salt intake.
Evolution of blood pressure from adolescents to youth in salt sensitivies: a 18-year follow-up study in Hanzhong children cohort
Mu Jianjun,Zheng Shuhui,Lian Qiufang,Liu Fuqiang
Nutrition Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-11-70
Abstract: Background Essential hypertension mostly originates from children. Salt Sensitivity (SS) is regarded as the intermediate phenotype of essential hypertension. The present study investigated the effects of salt-sensitivity on evolution of blood pressure (BP) and development to hypertension from adolescents to youth. Methods A baseline survey was carried out in 4,623 adolescents aged 6-15 years old in Hanzhong rural areas in 1987, 310 of whom(mean 9.2 years) were randomly recruited for determination of salt sensitivity using the tests of oral saline load and furosemide sodium-volume depletion. SS was diagnosed in 101 subjects while 209 were determined as non-salt-sensitive (NSS). We made a 18-year followed-up of the cohort in 2005. Results The response rate for surviving baseline adolescents was 71.9%. At follow up, BP in youth with baseline SS was higher than that in NSS (SBP:122.9 ± 13.1 VS 117.3 ± 12.4, P < 0.01; DBP: 78.2 ± 10.4 VS 74.7 ± 10.8, P < 0.05). Longitudinal analysis of 18-year BP evolution, subjects in SS had greater Systolic BP change than subjects in NSS(19.6 ± 12.714.7 ± 12.2, P < 0.01). The incidence of hypertension in salt sensitive group was higher than that in NSS group (15.5% VS 6.3%, RR = 2.34, P < 0.05). Conclusion Our findings indicate that adolescents with higher BP salt-sensitivity have a higher rate of incident hypertension in youth. Salt sensitivity could be at high risk predisposing to development of hypertension from adolescents to youth.
Quick Clay Development and Cation Composition of Pore Water in Marine Sediments from the Ariake Bay Area, Japan  [PDF]
Phanny He, Masami Ohtsubo, Hiroshi Abe, Takahiro Higashi, Motohei Kanayama
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2014.56054

By analyzing the cation composition of pore water in the soil samples of Ariake Bay sediments, the present study assesses the development of quick clay by leaching in both the original and seawater-saturated soil samples. Divalent cations were dominant in the pore water of the original soil sample, whereas Na+ was the major cation in that of the seawater-saturated soil sample. The cation proportion in the pore water for both soil samples remained the same after leaching. The difference in pore water cation composition between the original and seawater-saturated soil samples affected how their geotechnical properties changed through leaching. The undisturbed shear strength of both soil samples remained almost the same, but a large disparity between the soil samples was observed in the remolded shear strength: it remained almost the same in the original soil sample after leaching. Hence, sensitivity was not increased and quick clay was not formed. However, in the seawater-saturated soil sample, the remolded shear strength decreased to a great extent, and quick clay with a sensitivity exceeding 700 developed. The lack of development of quick clay in the original soil sample is attributed to the dominance of divalent cations in the pore water, and the development of quick clay in the seawater-saturated soil sample is ascribed to the dominance of Na+ in the pore water.

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