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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5694 matches for " rural areas "
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Assessment of the Determinants of Healthy Ageing among the Rural Elderly of North-Eastern Nigeria  [PDF]
Babatunji Abayomi Omotara, Shuaibu Jauro Yahya, Zara Wudiri, Mary Olubisi Amodu, John Samson Bimba, Jasper Unyime
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.76090
Abstract: Healthy ageing is a lifelong process optimizing opportunities for improving and preserving health and physical, social and mental wellness, independence, quality of life and enhancing successful life-course transition. In Sub-Saharan Africa, it is estimated that the number of elderly persons will rise from about 37.1 million in 2005 to 155.4 million in 2050. The elderly population in Nigeria is estimated at 4 percent and is expected to triple by the year 2020. The increasing number of the older population will increase the burden on the health resources. The objective of this study was to evaluate the determinants of healthy ageing among rural elderly in northern Nigeria in order to promote those that have positive correlation with healthy aging. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among 1600 rural elderly aged ≥60 years using interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire between June and July, 2011. Majority (53.8%) are 60 - 64 years, 24.6% >69 years, 72.4% are males while most are Muslims (85.6%) and 81. 4% are still married. Most are farmers (48.9%) while 73.6% have no formal education. 85.3% earn less than $100 monthly while 47.6% have no income. 93.5% do not take alcohol, 92.1% do not smoke and 89.8% are physically active. 83.1% have normal blood pressure (on examination), 88.3% normal blood glucose level (on examination). Diet, no smoking, high physical activity and adequate sleep are positively correlated with healthy aging (p < 0.05). Good health practices and family support should be sustained while special care for the aged should be established by the government.
Urban Effects on the Precipitation of Benin, Nigeria  [PDF]
S. I. Efe, A. O. Eyefia
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2014.31002

This study is designed to examine the urban effects on the precipitation of Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. This was to ascertain the differences within urban precipitation and urban-rural differences in precipitation. The study adopted a survey design in which data used for this study were generated from direct field measurement of precipitation for the period of one year. A total of 25 rain gauges were established in the various landuse types in existence in the city in line with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) standard for the collection of the precipitation amounts. Thirty-one years’ archival precipitation data were also extracted from the archive of the Nigerian Meteorological Agency Benin and Nigeria Institute of Oil Palm Research (NIFOR). Analysis of variance (ANOVA), paired t-test and trend analysis were used in this study. The result showed 2541 mm mean annual precipitation with 43% increase in precipitation in urban area over the country sides. Precipitation amounts differ significantly within the urban canopy from the high density areas to the natural parks. Rainfall in all months with double precipitation maxima is in the months of July and September, indicating the presence of August hiatus in the city, and it also showed that Fridays and Sundays are the wettest and driest days of the weeks. The study revealed that the precipitation of Benin-City is strong and heavy with 2311 mm and 2541 mm which has strong implications on hydrological cycle, properties and social-economic activities of the dwellers. It is therefore recommended that program on urban climatology should be initiated soon by the state and federal government of Nigeria.

The Relationship between Myopia and Ocular Alignment among Rural Adolescents  [PDF]
Li-Ju Lai, Wei-Hsiu Hsu, Chien-Neng Kuo, Rei-Mei Hong, Mei-Yen Chen
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.411094
Abstract: Purpose: The prevalence of myopia in school-age children and rural area in Taiwan has increased dramatically. The aim of this study was to explore the associated factors of myopia in rural ado-lescents. Methods: A cross sectional design with a rural junior high student was invited to partici-pate in this study. The relationship between refraction error (RE), spectacle fitting condition, and ocular alignment was determined by stereoacuity. The RE was determined using autorefractor. The ocular alignment was evaluated by cover-uncover test. Stereoacuity was measured by Titmus test. The examination about spectacle fitting included the lens power, lens transparency, pupil distance, frame size, and distortion of the frame. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the effect of the spectacle suitability and ocular alignment on the RE and stereoacuity. Results: The prevalence of myopia was 78% in a total of 338 adolescents, and the incidence of high myopia (≤-6 Diopter, D) accounted for 10.2%. Participant worn poor-fitting spectacles were found with more myopia (-3.95D vs -3.42D, p = 0.02). The exophoria or exotropia significantly increased RE (p < 0.01). The eye position was significantly associated with decreased steroacuity function (p = 0.03). Head position demonstrated to have a significant relationship with stereoacuity (p = 0.03). Conclusions: Good-fitting spectacles provided a good visual function and were associated with less RE condition. Exotrope showed a significant correlation with myopia and stereoacuity. The health care providers should be aware of the ocular alignment in myopic suffers.
Evidence of Specific Healthy Behaviors Positively Associated with General Life Satisfaction among Rural Adults  [PDF]
Ming-Shyan Lin, Po-Han Chen, Wen-Nan Chiu, Mei-Yen Chen
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2015.66015
Abstract: Background: Chronic diseases are the leading causes of death worldwide. Evidence suggests that infrequent adopting healthy behaviors correlated with many chronic diseases. Healthy behaviors can lead to a marked reduction of morbidity and mortality. Life satisfaction is an important parameter of well-being. Few studies have focused on the association between healthy behaviors and life satisfaction among adults in rural areas. Aim: To establish the determinant and modifiable lifestyle factors associated with life satisfaction among rural adults. Methods: We analyzed our previous health promotion program in a rural area in 2013 obtained from 27 villages (n = 8024) in Yunlin County, Taiwan. The assessment comprised one question assessing self-reported life satisfaction on a 5-point scale (dichotomous: low satisfaction/high satisfaction) and four domain-specific items of health-related behaviors (smoking, oral hygiene, exercise, healthy diet). Logistic regression was used to examine the association between health-related behaviors and life satisfaction adjusted for age, sex, and education. Findings: The mean age was 47.6 years (SD = 16.2), and 56.7% (n = 4551) of the participants were female. Participants with lower life satisfaction reported frequently perceived dissatisfaction with sleep quality (p < 0.001) and health status (p < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounding variables, the associated risk factors for lower life satisfaction were smoking (OR = 1.20, p = 0.006), less frequently adopted healthy behaviors including dental check (OR = 1.23, p < 0.001), infrequent teeth brushing (OR = 1.12, p = 0.022), infrequent use of dental floss (OR = 1.12, p = 0.028), infrequent consumption of a balanced diet (OR = 1.64, p < 0.001), insufficient vegetable intake (OR = 1.19, p = 0.001), insufficient water intake (OR = 1.14, p = 0.009), and infrequent regular exercise (OR = 1.26, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The findings showed that many adults did not adopt healthy habits in their life. This study identified significant unhealthy behaviors associated with lower life satisfaction, including cigarette smoking, unhealthy diet, poor oral hygiene, and physical inactivity. The enhancement of health promotion programs to improve life satisfaction through decreasing unhealthy habits is necessary for rural adults.
Exclusive Breastfeeding Practice and Its Factors in Rural Areas of Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Léon G. Blaise Savadogo, Bernard Ilboudo, Maurice Kinda
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2018.82006
Abstract: Background: The recommendation of the WHO and UNICEF is that all infants should be exclusively breastfed up to 6 months of age. Identifying associated factors to exclusively breastfeeding is crucial to improve this key public health intervention. The objectives of the study were to investigate rates of exclusive breastfeeding and to identify potential associated factors. Methods: A Community based cross-sectional study design was conducted in three health districts. Cluster sampling was used. For the community based cross-sectional study, a total of 1832 infants was included. Exclusive breastfeeding have been investigated among the 563 under 6 month’s infants. The associations between exclusive breastfeeding and independent variables were tested using the Chi-square test. Crude Odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were used to investigate the factors independently associated with exclusively breastfeeding. Results: Proportion of infant 0 - 5.9 months of age who are fed exclusively with breastmilk was 40.0%. Ear of age for mother was found to be more likely to practice exclusive breastfeeding, COR [95CI%] = 2.11 [1.24 - 3.60] for 15 - 20 years of age and 2.0 [1.22 - 3.26]. Receiving advices, on exclusive breastfeeding was found to be more likely to practice exclusive breastfeeding, COR: 2.07, 95% CI: [1.44 - 2.98]. Mothers who have practice early initiation to breastfeeding were found to be more likely to practice exclusive breastfeeding COR: 1.62, 95% CI: [1.15 - 2.27]. Skilled delivery was found to be more likely to practice exclusive breastfeeding than non-skilled deliveries, COR: 1.66, 95% CI: [1.16 - 2.35]. Low numbers of living children by mother, young children, were found to be more likely to practice exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions: Exclusive breastfeeding continues to be low in rural areas of Burkina Faso. As Exclusive breastfeeding is associated to lower morbidity and mortality risk, improving the skills of health providers to give adequate feeding support to the mothers is critical for promoting exclusively breastfeeding.
Analysis on the Differences of Pre-School Education Development in Western China from the Perspective of Balanced Urban and Rural Areas Development
—Taking Chongqing City as an Example

Yaoyang Han, Youlong Zhang, Xiaoping Yang
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.42016
Abstract: Chongqing city is selected as a sample area. According to the relevant statistical data in 2009-2013, it analyzed the differences of pre-school education balanced development in urban and rural areas western China in three aspects of which were the studying opportunity, resource allocation and development of pre-school children. It is found that there are still existing problems such as the unfair studying opportunity, the unequal resource allocation and the inequity development of pre-school children, and it can be attributed to unbalanced economic development in urban and rural areas, unbalanced distribution of education resources and the lack of supervision system of preschool education quality in rural areas. In order to promote balanced development of pre-school education, and narrow the gap between urban and rural areas, it is suggested that we must strengthen government’s role to integrate the development between urban and rural areas, to increase financial input for preschool education and give priority to remote poor rural areas in western China, to balance the distribution of high-quality teachers, and to accelerate the mechanism and system construction of pre-school education.
Evaluation of sustainable development of rural areas of the redzki district
Hanna Adamska
Journal of Agribusiness and Rural Development , 2009,
Abstract: The article discussed the aspects connected with sustainable development of rural areas. The evaluation of the of the redzki District communes utilizes the selected coefficients in agreement with the social order. In the analysis six fields relating to the level and the quality of life, public health, demography, economic activity, poverty and exclusion were considered. The method of the reduction of the multifunction space was used for the interpretation of results.
Design and Study on Management Tools of Land Data Center for Integration of Urban and Rural Areas  [PDF]
Shiwu XU, Xiuzhen LIU
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2009.11009
Abstract: The rapid development of urbanization requires land management business should change the former single systematic pattern, and advance to integration of functions and data sharing. In order to meets the requirement, this paper presents a new thinking for land management pattern, and management tools of data center for integration of urban and rural areas. The tools were based on MapGIS, which have made the management of multi-subjects, multi-areas, multi-sources and multi-measurement data possible. The techniques of this system are designed accord with national related standard. Experimental result shows that the tools have obvious technical advantage in land resource business integration management.
Study of the Urban and Rural Education’s Fairness in the Field of Public Service  [PDF]
Yang Yang
Chinese Studies (ChnStd) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2014.31002
Abstract: With the rapid economic development and social progress, the increased polarization between urban and rural areas makes the wealth gap become the resistance to block the development of state and society. The basic reason to widen the polarization of the rich and the poor is that the basic public service is not equal in urban and rural areas. And the problem of the rural-urban education’s fairness is the core problem of the basic public service between urban and rural areas. So this paper is aimed at sorting out the current situation of education justice between urban and rural areas, and studying the reasons and the countermeasures of the problem.
The Influence of Guangdong Province Basic Education on Residents’ Consumption Structure
—Based on Grey Correlation Analysis Method

Chenyu Peng
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.311035
Abstract: In order to know the influence of basic education on residents’ consumption structure, this paper uses grey correlation method to analyze the relationship between based education spending and consumer spending in Guangdong. The author discovered the based education spending is not only the important index of basic education services equalization degree, but also associated with the urban and rural residents’ consumption structure. Balancing urban and rural basic education spending can improve the structure of urban and rural residents’ consumption.
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