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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 38034 matches for " root system. "
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The Role of Nitrogen Fertilizers in Sugarcane Root Biomass under Field Conditions  [PDF]
Rafael Otto, Henrique Coutinho Junqueira Franco, Carlos Eduardo Faroni, André Cesar Vitti, Emídio Cantidio Almeida de Oliveira, Renata Alcarde Sermarini, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze Trivelin
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.514164
Abstract: Sugarcane is used worldwide for sugar, ethanol and energy production. In Brazil, the shift from burned to unburned harvest systems resulted in increases in nitrogen fertilization rates, which can impact root architecture and biomass. The expectation is also an increase in sugarcane biomass. The study hypothesized that high N rates applied to sugarcane fields increases root growth and N stored in roots, promoting higher biomass and N accumulated in shoots. Two experiments were set up in Southeastern Brazil, on a Typic Kandiudox (TK) and Rhodic Eutrudox (RE). Four treatments were studied 1) N application in the plant-cane (0 and 120 kg·ha-1 N) and 2) N application in the ratoon (0 and 150 kg·ha-1 N). The shoot biomass and the root density (by the core method up to 0.6 m) were evaluated over the first ratoon crop cycle, and the N content in those compartments was also examined. There was no carry over effect on N applied at planting in root and shoot biomass in the ratoon crop cycle. At the RE site, the ratoon N fertilization increased root density in the superficial soil layer (0 - 0.2 m) and close to the plants (<0.3 m). The effect of N addition on root biomass, and biomass and N accumulated in shoot was limited in both sites. Increasing N rates in unburned sugarcane fields do not consistently increases root and shoot biomass under Brazilian field conditions.

Correlation between Anatomy and Root Canal Topography of First Maxillary Premolar on Kosovar Population  [PDF]
Ferit Ko?ani, Blerim Kamberi, Edmond Dragusha, Tringa Kelmendi, Zana Sejfija
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2014.47046
Abstract: Aim: In this in vitro study the variation of root anatomy and canal system of the first human maxillary premolar was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and twenty one maxillary first premolars (#221 teeth) were examined. All of the teeth were identified using the accepted criteria of Woelfel as maxillary first premolars. Selected teeth are analyzed using operating microscope (OP) and computed dental radiography (CDR). Results: There was a higher incidence of two-roots form 70.14% (n = 155), 21.72% (n = 48) had one root, and 8.14% (n = 18) had three roots. In the two-root category, 16.29% (n = 36) had bifurcation on apical third, 21.72% (n = 48) had bifurcation on middle third, and 32.13% (n = 71) had bifurcation on cervical third. The examination of root canal systems of the teeth was based on Vertucci’s classification type of canal: 64.58% (#31) of the cases had type IV (2-2-2), 25.00% (#12) type II (2-2-1), 8.33% (#4) type I (1-1-1), and 2.09% (#1) type III (1-2-1). Conclusion: This study showed a high incidence of two-rooted maxillary first premolars collected from different regions in Kosovo. Internal root canal system morphology reflects the external root anatomy. Furthermore, there is correlation between the shape of the outer surface of the root and the shape of the root canal. The cases with one root of the maxillary first premolar with a deep depression on the mesial side contain a double root canal system more often than a single canal.
Radiographic study of the root canal system of mandibular incisors in Palestinian population  [PDF]
Raed Mukhaimer, Maher Jarbawi
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2013.38075

Aim: The aim of this study was to survey the root canal morphology of mandibular incisor teeth in a Palestinian population using radiographic approach. Materials and Methods: Five hundred and twenty two extracted mandibular incisor teeth were randomly collected from Palestinian population. The teeth were radiographed from a mesiodistal direction and examined for the presence of a second canal and for the type of canal configuration. Results: All teeth had single root. Three hundred and sixty nine teeth (70.7%) had one canal (type I Vertucci classification). The rest (29.3%) had a second canal (type II and III). Conclusion: Mandibular central and lateral teeth were mostly found to have one root and Type I canal system.

Enraizamento in vitro de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira (Musa sp.) em diferentes meios de cultivo
Camolesi, Mara Rubia;Martins, Adriana Novais;Souza, Lara Daniela de;Saconi, Cibelle Garcia;
Ciência e Agrotecnologia , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-70542010000600013
Abstract: the objective of this study was to evaluate the process of in vitro rooting of micropropagated seedlings of 'nanic?o jangada' (aaa), 'nanic?o grande naine' (aaa) and 'ma??' (aab) banana cultivars (musa sp.) using semi-solid and liquid media. plantlets originated from micropropagated meristems removed from seedlings collected in banana trade in the médio paranapanema region, state of s?o paulo were used. two treatments were tested: liquid medium without the addition of jelling agent and a semi-solid medium with 7 g l-1 agar. the statistical design was completely randomized, each treatment was set for 30 flasks containing 6 seedlings per flask. after 30 days, the seedlings were removed from flask, and the following parameters were assessed: length of the longest root, the total number of roots, the total number of leaves and plant height. fifty seedlings were evaluated per treatment. the results demonstrate that the 3 cultivars evaluated showed better root development in semi-solid medium, however, the number of roots was higher in liquid medium, mostly for 'ma??' cultivar. the total number of leaves per seedling was higher, generally in semi-solid medium, while plant height was higher in liquid medium. the 'ma??' cultivar presented the largest differences between the semi-solid and liquid media in all parameters evaluated.
Distribui??o do sistema radicular da goiabeira 'Rica' produzida a partir de estaquia herbácea
Fracaro, Antonio Augusto;Pereira, Fernando Mendes;
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-29452004000100049
Abstract: the knowledge of the distribution of the plant root system, mainly of permanent plants, is not well studied in function to several factors, amongst them, the inherent difficulty to collect samples. the present research objectified to know the root system through the excavation method, using water jet, it was removed the soil volume of 10 m3 (5x5x0.4m), subdivided in 0.1 m3 (0.5x0.5x0.4m) showing the root system of the 'rica' guava. it was verified a vigorous radical system without the characteristics of the main root and with homogeneous distribution, great number of primary root, provided by the adjusted formation of seedling, through herbaceous cuttings.
Distribui??o do sistema radicular do milho em terra roxa estruturada latossólica: I. Compara??o de metodologias
Fante Jr, L.;Reichardt, K.;Jorge, L.A.C.;Crestana, S.;
Scientia Agricola , 1994, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-90161994000300024
Abstract: root distribution and soil-root interface were evaluated for a maize crop grown on an alfisol (kanduidalfic eutrudox soil). soil auger, volumetric cylinder and image processing methods were used, the last one being a new auxiliary method for the study of these systems. samples for analysis were collected in a 100 x 100 cm grid, on a plane perpendicular to crop lines, with 20 x 20 cm sub samples, totalizing 25 areas of 400 cm2. results indicate a greater root concentration in the upper 0-20 cm, representing about 70% of dry root matter for a root presence of about 40%. the image processing method indicated to be a powerful method for the detailed study of roots systems.
Efeito da fertiliza??o fosfatada na produ??o de raízes, liteira e nodula??o de Mimosa caesalpiniifolia benth
Caldas, Glauco Gouvêa;Santos, Mércia Virginia Ferreira dos;Ferreira, Rinaldo Luiz Caraciolo;Lira Junior, Mario de Andrade;Lira, Mario de Andrade;Saraiva, Felipe Martins;
Revista árvore , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-67622009000200005
Abstract: this work aimed to evaluate the effect of phosphorus fertilization on nodulation, litter deposition and root system development of m. caesalpiniifolia benth, before and after pruning, at the itambé experimental station of pernambuco agronomical institute - ipa in pernambuco, brazil. treatments were levels of phosphorus fertilization (0, 100 and 200 kg.ha-1 of p2o5) arranged in a randomized block design with six replicates in block i and seven in block ii, with the criterion for block formation being uniformization cut date. samplings were taken before and after pruning of the aerial part root length and root, nodule and litter dry matter had similar results before and after pruning. nodule numbers before pruning were 2, 15 and 6 for 0, 100 and 200 kg.ha-1 of p2o5, respectively, and 1, 6 and 7 after pruning. average root lengths ranged from 552 to 734 cm before and from 389 to 455 cm after pruning. the number of nodules presented variation only from august to november 2005, with values from 2 to 15 and from 1 to 7 nodules, before and after pruning, respectively.
Morpho-anatomical features of the root structure of Hemerocallis L. species at the states of Kryvorizhzhya region
Tetyana F. Chipilyak
Modern Phytomorphology , 2012,
Abstract: It was discovered that the structural organization of the root system and anatomical structure of storage roots of daylilies are specific.
Root Characters of Maize as Influenced by Drip Fertigation Levels  [PDF]
Anitta Fanish Sundara Raj, Purushothaman Muthukrishnan, Pachamuthu Ayyadurai
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.42045
Abstract: The efficient use of water by modern irrigation systems is becoming increasingly important in arid and semi-arid regions with limited water resources. Field experiments were conducted during 2008-2010 to study the effect of drip fertigation with water soluble fertilizer on root growth of maize under maize based intercropping system. The experiment was laid out in strip plot design with three replications. The treatment consists of nine fertigation levels in main plots and four inter crops in sub plots. Root spread and root dry mass were increased under drip fertigation practices while rooting depth was more under surface irrigation. Drip fertigation with water soluble fertilizer improved the root system by inducing new secondary roots which are succulent and actively involved in physiological responses. Drip fertigation has pronounced effect on the root architecture especially in the production of highly fibrous root system.
Pairing problem of generators in Kac-Moody algebras
Caihui Lu
Chinese Science Bulletin , 1998, DOI: 10.1007/BF02883462
Abstract: The following result is proved: in any Kac-Moody algebrag (A), (i) given any non-central elementh in the Cartan subalgebra h, or (ii) given any real root vectorx β, β∈Δre. There exists y ∈g(A) such that the subalgebra generated byy and h or y and xβ contains the derived algebrag′ (A) ofg(A).
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