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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 22976 matches for " risk factors "
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Comparison between the PlusoptiX and IScreen Photoscreeners in Detecting Amblyopic Risk Factors in Children  [PDF]
Jing Grace Wang, Donny W. Suh
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2013.31003

Purpose: To compare the accuracy of plusoptiX A08 photoscreener (PPS) and iScreen 3000 photoscreener (IPS) in objectively screening for amblyopic risk factors in children age 5 months to 13 years old. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 148 children who received photoscreenings via PPS and IPS and a comprehensive pediatric ophthalmic examination in our office. Patients were considered to have amblyogenic risk factors based on the AAPOS referral criteria guidelines. Results: 45 percent of patients undergoing a pediatric ophthalmology examination were found to have amblyopia or amblyogenic risk factors. In this study, PPS demonstrated an overall sensitivity of 75.4%, specificity of 68.0%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 67.1%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 76.1%. However, IPS photoscreener had an overall sensitivity of 66.2%, specificity of 87.6%, PPV of 81.8%, and NPV of 75.5%. Discussion: The accuracy of PPS and IPS was compared in different age groups. The sensitivity and specificity were analyzed according to varied amblyogenic risk factors. The statistic results of this study were compared to those of previous studies, including Vision in Preschoolers (VIP) Study and the Iowa PhotoScreening Program. Conclusion: PPS and IPS proved to be useful tools in the objective vision screening in children. PPS was found to have a higher sensitivity, and IPS showed a higher specificity and PPV in detecting amblyopic risk factors. In conclusion, one device may be more beneficial over the other, depending on the patient population and office settings.

Risk Factors in the Transmission of Tuberculosis in Nairobi: A Descriptive Epidemiological Study  [PDF]
Perpetual Wangui Ndungu, Gunturu Revathi, Samuel Kariuki, Zipporah Ng’ang’a
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2013.32025

Background: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease with an estimated 1.45 million deaths every year. Many patients get infected as a result of ignorance of the risk factors that contribute to disease transmission. Methodology: A descriptive epidemiological study was conducted on 258 patients presenting with pulmonary tuberculosis. Patients’ sputa were collected for laboratory analysis and patients were required to respond to a structured questionnaire on risk factors for transmission. Data among stratified groups were compared using bivariate analysis. Statistical significance was considered at p < 0.05. Results: There were significantly more males than females associated with pulmonary tuberculosis infection (χ2 = 0.963; df = 1; p < 0.05). Monthly income was significant in disease transmission with 222 (86.0%) of the patients earning less than 100$ and 90 (34.9%) earning less than 50$ per month (p < 0.05, 95% CI). One hundred and seventy three patients (67.1%) were unemployed or running small businesses. Only 85 (32.9%) were in formal employment. Results showed 166 (64.3%) patients were living in single rooms with 110 (42.6%) living with more than two people with a maximum of 10 people in a single room. Only 73 (28.3%) were living alone in a single room and only 7 families (2.7%) were living in houses with five or more rooms. Alcohol consumers and smokers were 102 (39.5%) and 93 (36%) respectively. Half of the patients (137 (53.3%)) had not completed secondary education with only 16 (6.2%) having completed tertiary education. Recurrent cases were 54 (21%) while those exposed to the disease either at home or working place were 75 (29.2%). Out of 171 patients who agreed to test for HIV, 46 (26.9%) were positive. Marital status had no effect on incidence of disease. Conclusion: Emphasis should be given to creating awareness of the risk factors associated with transmission of

The importance of diet in osteoporosis  [PDF]
Nicolás Mendoza, Jesús Presa, Antonio Martínez-Amat, Fidel Hita
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2013.32012

The knowledge of risk factors associated with the development of osteoporosis (OP) is vital in the prevention strategy of this disease and its physical and economic consequences. The epidemiological characteristics of our population of postmenopausal women exhibit a pattern similar to that described in other studies, showing a proportional relationship between the magnitude of the risk factor and the severity of osteopenia/osteoporosis. Moreover, we observed protective effects for several dietary factors, such as the consumption of fruits, vegetables, and cereals; the moderate consumption of fish, alcohol, and dairy products; and the low intake of red meat, on spinal bone mineral density (BMD). Only the intake of grains and vegetables exerted protective effects on hip BMD.

Risk Factors for Hemoptysis in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients from Southern China: A Retrospective Study  [PDF]
Shouyong Tan, Danxiong Sun, Tiantuo Zhang, Yanqiong Li, Yuanyuan Cao, Moses M. Njire, Changwei Wang, Tianyu Zhang
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2014.24022
Abstract: Clinical characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) patients from southern China with pulmonary tuberculosis hemoptysis (PTH) were analyzed retrospectively in order to improve the diagnosis of TB, reduce mortality and prevent the transmission of TB. A total of 1227 cases of pulmonary TB patients hospitalized in the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University and Guangzhou Chest Hospital from January to December of 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. 1) The male/female ratio of the 1227 tuberculosis cases was 2.15:1. There were 403 cases (32.8%) of PTH with a male/ female ratio of 3.03:1. 2) The ratio of patients with PTH to those with TB was designated as Rh. The Rh in the male group (36.2%, 303 cases) was higher than that in the female group (25.6%, 100 cases, risk ratio (RR) = 1.41, P ≤ 0.001). 3) The Rh in the elderly group (≥60 years old, 20.3%, 56 cases) was lower than that in the younger patients group (20 - 39 years old, 45.4%, 189 cases, RR = 2.51, P ≤ 0.001). 4) The Rh in initial treatment group (29.6%, 296 cases) was lower than that in the retreatment group (46.9%, 107 cases, RR = 1.58, P ≤ 0.001). 5) The Rh in sputum-positive TB patients (44.5%, 297 cases) was significantly higher than that in the smear-negative TB patients (18.9%, 106 cases, RR = 2.35, P ≤ 0.001). 6) The Rh of patients with lung lesions range < 3 lung fields (31.7%, 105 cases) was not significantly different with that of patients with lung lesions range ≥ 3 lung fields (33.3%, 298 cases, RR = 1.05, P = 0.96 > 0.05). 7) The Rh of patients with cavities (51.8%, 309 cases) was higher than that of patients without cavities (14.9%, 94 cases, RR = 3.48, P ≤ 0.001). Male, young, retreated, sputum-positive TB patients and those with cavitary TB were more predisposed to PTH in southern China. TB patients with such characteristics should be sensitized and accorded good care.
A Cross-Sectional Survey on Non-Communicable Diseases and Risk Factors in the Senegalese Army  [PDF]
Abdoul Aziz Ndiaye, Alioune Badara Tall, Boubacar Gueye, Ibrahima Soce Fall, Sidy Mouhamed Seck, Amady Barro Mbodj, Ndeye Fatou Ngom-Gueye, Awa Gaye, Anta Tal-Dia
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.814151
Abstract: Background: The non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become a public health priority. The objectives of this study were to measure the prevalence and to assess the risk factors of NCDs among the Senegalese military population to initiate an intervention program. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014. Two-level stratification was used to sample participants. Data were collected following the protocol recommended by the World Health Organization. Data were managed using Epi-Info 6 software and analyzed using R software. Results: A total of 1224 participants were recruited, of whom 96.9% were men. Their ages ranged from 25 to 60 years with a mean of 39.7 ± 9.2 years. Of participants, 17.2% were active smokers. Average duration of active smoking was 19.9 ± 9 years. The prevalence of current alcohol consumption was 11.5%, with an average of 4 ± 2.7 glasses a day. 97.17% of participants consumed fewer than 5 servings of fruits and vegetables a day. 18.63% had insufficient physical activity. The overall prevalence of high blood pressure was 26.9%. The proportion of those who were overweight was 27.2%; 3.3% were obese. 3.0% of participants had diabetes and 44.1% had hypercholesterolemia. After adjusting for waist circumference, the risk of high cholesterol was 2.42 in the 35 - 44 age group and 2.86 in the 45 - 60 age group in comparison with the 25 - 34 age group. 32% were classified as having stage 2 chronic kidney. Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate the importance of risk factors for NCDs in the Senegalese military population. Intervention based on prevention and health promotion is needed.
Hepatoblastoma in Developing Countries; Eight Years of Single Centre Experience  [PDF]
Sayed Abdelahamid, Reham Abdelaziz Khedr, Madeeha El Wakeel, Alaa Younes, Gehad Ahmed, Naglaa Elkinaai, Marwa Tantawy, Hanafy Ahmed Hafez
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2018.910065
Abstract: Background and objectives: Although hepatoblastoma (HB) is a rare childhood tumor and constitutes only 0.9% of all pediatric cancers, there was an obvious improvement in risk stratification and prognosis over the last two decades. This study aimed to assess the outcome of HB patients treated in our center and to investigate the impact of different prognostic factors on the survival of these patients. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective study included newly diagnosed patients with HB presented to the Children Cancer Hospital Egypt (CCHE 57357), from July 2007 to June 2015. Patient’s data were analyzed for the clinical characteristics and survival outcome of the included patients. Results: One hundred twenty-four children were included during the study period with a median age of 14 months. The tumor was found occupying the entire liver in 25 patients
Assessment of Business Risk and Control Risk in the Libyan Context  [PDF]
Esamaddin Khorwatt
Open Journal of Accounting (OJAcct) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojacct.2015.41001
Abstract: In order to perform risk assessment, current auditing standards emphasize the importance of auditors gaining a broader understanding of an organization, as well as its environment. From this perspective, Schultz Jr. (2010) stated that auditing standards direct auditors to consider business risk and other risk factors when they evaluated the overall risk of material misstatement during the planning stage of an audit [1]. This paper reviews the developments in relevant professional and academic literature in terms of client’s business risk assessment. The model of the current study incorporates some 28 factors viewed as potential influence on client’s business risk and control risk assessment. Attention is also directed to the degree of risk associated with the factors. Predictions of Libyan auditors’ behaviour are drawn from the model and the reviewed literature.
Mapping Psychosocial Risk and Protective Factors in Suicidal Older Persons—A Systematic Review  [PDF]
Anne Lise Holm, Elisabeth Severinsson
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.53030
Abstract: Social disconnectedness in combination with depression, somatic disease, stigma, social exclusion and functional impairment has been described as a major risk factor for suicide in old age. However, protective factors have not been focused on in the same way. The aim was to identify psychosocial risk and protective factors in suicidal older persons. A systematic review was performed in Academic Search Premier (34), Ovid Medline (0), PsycInfo (0), PubMed (66), CINAHL (3) and ProQuest (1078) for the period May - September, 2014. Results: Twelve studies were included in the final analysis. Psychosocial risk factors were categorized under four themes: Being a burden to others increases depression and hopelessness, the struggle due to poor social integration, the strain of physical illness and old age and Negative aspects of religious activity. A total of four protective factors emerged: a sense of belonging, maintaining social dignity, satisfaction with relationships and feeling useful and positive aspects of religious activity. In conclusion, the context of a suicidal older person in a home healthcare service may create a “vulnerable psychosocial state” in which she/he is confronted by stressful psychosocial life events including physical illness and social network changes. The fact that protective factors are solely related to social factors needs to be taken into account in future prevention studies.
Prevalence of Truancy and Its Associated Factors among School-Going Malaysian Adolescents: Data from Global School-Based Health Survey 2012  [PDF]
Norzawati Yoep, Leni Tupang, Ahmad Nadzri Jai, Lim Kuang Kuay, Faizah Paiwai, Noor Safiza Mohd Nor
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.78106
Abstract: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of truancy and its associated factors among school going Malaysian adolescents. The Malaysia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) was conducted from February to April 2012 involving 28,933 students aged 12 - 17 years old. A two-stage cluster sampling was used to select the schools and students with an overall response rate of 88.6%. The data were obtained using the GSHS questionnaire. The prevalence of truancy was 30.8% and significantly higher among male than female (32.9% vs 28.7%). The factors associated with truancy were current smoker (aOR: 2.23; 95% CI: 2.03 - 2.46), current drug user (aOR: 2.23; 95% CI: 1.52 - 3.29), current alcohol use (aOR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.24 - 1.56), having been bullied (aOR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.22 - 1.42) and not currently live with both parents (aOR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.16 - 1.35). High truancy among school going adolescents warrants a new effective strategy to control truancy in Malaysia.
Stillbirth at a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital  [PDF]
Owoicho Daniel Okochi, Anthony Dennis Isah, Teddy Eyaofun Agida, Nathaniel Adewole
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2018.88079
Abstract: Background: Despite improvements in antenatal and intrapartum care, stillbirth still remains an important, largely understudied and pregnant problem in obstetrics. Most of the stillbirths occur in the developing world and the majority of stillbirths are preventable. Objective: To determine the stillbirth rate, the identifiable risk factors and sociodemographic factors associated with stillbirths. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective review of all deliveries conducted at UATH over a five-year period spanning from the January 2012 to December 2016. In this study, stillbirths were considered as foetal death at or after 28 weeks of gestation or a birth weight of 1000 g or more. The folders of cases that met the definition of stillbirth within the study period were retrieved and analyzed for sociodemographic factors, type of stillbirth, fetomaternal determinants of stillbirths and presumptive/identifiable risk factors for the stillbirth. Results: There were a total of 5714 deliveries within the period under review, of which 288 resulted in stillbirths giving an institutional stillbirth rate of 50.4/1000 deliveries. Out of the 288 stillbirths, 136 (47.2%) were fresh stillbirths while 152 (52.8%) were macerated. Macerated stillbirth (152, 52.8%) was slightly predominant, with obstructed labour 94 (32.6%) being responsible for most of the stillbirths. Most of the stillbirths were preterm (183,
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