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Nutritional Aspects of Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Clusters Afflicted with SOUR Shrivel Is Related to Functionality of Its Vascular Tissues  [PDF]
Bhaskar Bondada
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.71020
Abstract: Mineral nutrition is essential to growth and development of various plant organs including fruits; consequently deficiency of any element leads to a myriad of physiological disorders, which in fruits are manifested as ripening anomalies. In this study, nutritional composition in tandem with vascular structure of healthy grape clusters and clusters afflicted with SOUR shrivel, a ripening disorder has been examined to unravel its mechanistic basis. The healthy berries without any affliction accumulated the highest amounts of all nutrients, which paralleled with functional xylem and phloem tissues in their cluster framework. Among the macro nutrients, K occurred as the dominant element followed by P, Ca, Mg and S whereas B was the predominant micro nutrient followed by Fe, Cu, and Zn. Although, the SOUR shrivel berries and the healthy appearing berries of afflicted clusters followed similar accumulation patterns, their amounts were significantly lower than the perfectly healthy berries without any SOUR shrivel. The low nutrient levels of SOUR shrivel berries corresponded to necrosis of phloem tissues and a red discoloration of xylem tissues in their cluster framework indicating that a lack of functional vascular tissues provoked the induction of SOUR shrivel by reducing influx of xylem and phloem mobile nutrients into the afflicted berries. Hence, periodic nutritional checks starting before veraison may aid in curbing the incidence of SOUR shriveling.
Misoprostol: An Effective Agent for Cervical Ripening and Labor Induction: A 2-Year Review in a Tertiary Center  [PDF]
Zainab Datti Ahmed, Ibrahim Garba, Taiwo Nafi’ah, Ibrahim Adamu Yakasai
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2015.55040
Abstract:

Background: Misoprostol a PGE1?analogue has increasingly been used for cervical ripening in preparation for induction of labour with variable outcome for both mother and baby. Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of Misoprostol in cervical ripening and labour outcome in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano. Study Design: A study of all patients who had cervical ripening for induction of labour using Misoprostol at AKTH Kano, Nigeria, between 1st Jan 2012-31st Dec 2013. Socio-demographic data of these patients including number of doses inserted before ripening is achieved, duration, course and outcome of labour were documented. Result: Four hundred and two women were admitted for cervical ripening. 365 women met the inclusion criteria out of the 358 folders retrieved, giving a retrieval rate of 98%. Despite this six folders did not contain enough information for the study and were excluded leaving us with a sample size of 352. They had a successful cervical ripening with an average of 2 insertions. Spontaneous onset of labour without further intervention was observed in 266 women (75.5%). However, 86 women (24.5%) were induced with oxytocin following cervical ripening. The mean duration of labour among those that had spontaneous onset of labour following Misoprostol insertion was 9.8 hours. 96% of the patients had vaginal delivery while 4% had Caesarean section. Conclusion: Misoprostol was associated with favorable outcome following cervical ripening with a low caesarean section rate.

ARMAZENAMENTO DE PêSSEGOS (Prunus persica L.), CULTIVAR CHIRIPá, EM ATMOSFERA CONTROLADA
Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor;Silva, Jorge Adolfo;Parussolo, Aguinaldo;Lucchetta, Luciano;Zanuzo, Márcio Roggia;Girardi, César Luis;Cantillano, Ruffino Fernando Flores;
Ciência Rural , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782002000100008
Abstract: the woolly breakdown is one of the major disorders during cold storage of "chiripá" peaches. in the present work the effects of controlled atmosphere (ca) on peaches storability were studied, particularly in the control of woolliness. the peaches were harvested with 50n of pulp firmness (pf), 7cmo .l-1of total titratable acidity (tta), 13,8obrix of total soluble solids (tss) and green-white ground color. peaches were stored in two systems: 1) refrigerated air storage (ra) at 0oc± 0,5oc and 90± 5% of relative humidity (ru) or 2) controlled atmosphere (ca) at 0oc± 0,5oc, 95± 2% of ru, 1,5kpa of o2 and 5kpa de co2. at the installation of the experiment, 30 days after and 45 days after, samples were collected to evaluate pf, tta, tss, woolly breakdown, browning and for organoleptic analysis. these evaluations were done 24 and 72 hours after sampling. the results showed that ca is capable of reducing efficiently the woolliness and maintaining fruit quality for 45 days of storage. in ra this period was less than 30 days with significative losses in the quality.
CERVICAL RIPENING
Kausar Parveen
The Professional Medical Journal , 1998,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of PGE2 pessary in the cervical ripening and to study its effect onother parameters of labour and delivery. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Maternity Unit II NishtarHospital Multan. SUBJECT: A randomized double blind trail of PGE2 pessary was carried out in patientsadmitted for induction of labour. MEASUREMENT AND RESULT: We looked at the change in Bishopscoring, induction delivery interval, mode of delivery and fetal outcome. Fifty percent of the patients whoreceived prostin E2 pessary went into labour before planned amniotomy while only five percent of thepatients receiving placebo did so. No significant difference was found in mode of delivery and incidenceof fetal distress between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The shortened induction delivery intervalfollowing pre treatment with PGE2 (3 mg) pessary.
MADS Box Transcript Amount is Affected by Ethylene during Abscission  [PDF]
Valeriano Dal Cin, Angelo Ramina
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2011.23035
Abstract: Thinning of young fruit is an important agronomical practice to ensure the maximum economic production. This practice is based on the control of the natural self thinning process occurring during fruit development. At the early stages of fruit development (fruitlet), the vegetative part of the tree is competing with the reproductive part of the tree and within the fruit clusters the different fruitlets are competing with each other. As a result the least fit organ abscises, Ethylene and auxin play a central role in this event but the role of ethylene is not thoroughly understood because in other systems abscission occurs partly with ethylene independent processes. We have followed the early development of fruitlets and studied the transcription patterns of MADS-box and ethylene related transcripts. Furthermore, we verified that ethylene has an effect on the expression of some ethylene related and MADS BOX genes. We propose that the ethylene burst during abscission induction is similar to a stage 2 ethylene system and it is related to fruitlet growth by affecting transcript amount of MADS-BOXes which modulate seed development and cortex growth.
Comparison of the Efficacy of Foley Catheter Balloon with Dinoprostone Gel for Cervical Ripening at Term  [PDF]
Krishna Dahiya, Kanika Malik, Archit Dahiya, Smiti Nanda
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.36095
Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of extra-amniotic Foley catheter with intra cervical Dinoprostone gel for preinduction cervical ripening. Study Design: A randomized, prospective study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, PGIMS Rohtak on 100 pregnant women admitted for induction of labor. Fifty patients were randomized to receive Dinoprostone gel and 50 patients to receive intracervical, extra-amniotic Foley catheter. Results: The two groups were comparable with respect to maternal age, parity, gestational age, indication for induction, and initial Bishop scores. Both groups had a significant change in Bishop score (4.18 ± 1.81 and 4.6 ± 1.48 respectively, p < 0.001); however, there was no significant difference between the groups. Mean duration of induction to delivery was 18.51 ± 8.52 in Foley catheter group and 18.21 ± 11.13 in prostaglandin group, the difference being statistically insignificant. Among 50 cases of prostaglandin only single dose was sufficient for 23 (46%) cases to induce labor. But in 27 (54%) cases 2nd dose of prostaglandin were required. The expenditure of intervention showed that Rs. 325 were required for induction by prostaglandin as compared to Rs. 60/- for Induction by Foley’s catheter and the difference was highly significant statistically There was no difference between the groups in mode of delivery, infant weight, apgar score and intrapartum complications. Conclusion: In conclusion, although both Foley catheter and dinoprostone gel appear to be effective agents for cervical ripening. Foley catheter causes less fetal distress, cheap and safety profile of Foley catheter is such that it can be used on an out patient basis, but not dinoprostone gel. These results make Foley catheter comparable or even superior to dinoprostone gel for cervical ripening specially in developing countries.
Expression and localization of prostaglandin receptors and stromal factors in human cervix—Variations in pregnant and non-pregnant states  [PDF]
Chellakkan S. Blesson, Nathalie Roos, Olof Stephansson, Britt Masironi, Susann Reinert, Ylva Vladic Stjernholm, Gunvor Ekman-Ordeberg, Lena Sahlin
Open Journal of Molecular and Integrative Physiology (OJMIP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmip.2013.34020
Abstract:

Prostaglandins (PGs) mediate cervical ripening leading to parturition. PGs are used successfully to induce cervical ripening. However, the cell type specific expression of PG receptor subtypes and various stromal factors important for cervical ripening in human cervix is not known. Our objective was to investigate the expression and localization of PG receptors EP1-4 and FP and localization of stromal factors CTGF (connective tissue growth factor), furin, calgranulin  B, ALOX12 (arachidonate 12-lipooxy-genase) and ALOX15 in human cervical tissue from pregnant and non-pregnant women. Cervical biopsies were obtained from non-pregnant (NP), term pregnant (TP) and post-partum (PP) women. The mRNA expression was determined with real-time PCR, protein expression and localization with immunohistochemistry. Our results show that the EP2 mRNA level was higher in the PP group as compared to TP, whereas the EP4 mRNA level was lower in the TP group as compared to NP. Concomitantly stromal EP2 and epithelial EP3 immunoreactivity was higher in the TP as compared to the NP group, while the EP4 immunostaining in glands was lower in the TP as compared to the PP group. Immunostaining of endothelial CTGF, smooth muscle furin and ALOX12, were all lower in the TP group as compared to NP, for CTGF also the PP group was lower than NP. Endothelial calgranulin B

immunoreactivity was higher in the PP group than the NP group. PG receptors and stromal factors exhibit differential expression in the cervix from women in non-pregnant and pregnant states, implying their involvement in the process of cervical ripening.

Production of Low Fat Cheddar Cheese Made Using Exopolysaccharide-Producing Cultures and Selected Ripening Cultures  [PDF]
Morsi El Soda
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2014.414110
Abstract: Low fat cheeses often suffer from undesirable texture and flavor. The objective of this study is to improve the yield, texture, flavor and quality of low fat Cheddar cheese during ripening using exopolysaccharide-producing lactobacilli and ripening cultures. The article represents one of the first attempts to tackle both texture and flavor at the same time. The study reveals the effect of aging on the texture and flavor of low fat Cheddar cheese over a ripening period of six months. The cheese manufactured with a modified protocol using EPS-producing cultures and ripening cultures showed higher values for moisture content (45%) and yield (9.4%) when compared to cheese manufactured with the conventional procedure and without the addition of EPS-producing cultures and ripening cultures (37.7%) and (4.9%) respectively. The obtained results indicated a 70% decrease in the fat content of the cheese. Texture profile analysis (TPA) indicated that the hardness, the cohesiveness, the springiness, the gumminess and the chewiness of the cheeses made using the EPS-producing cultures decreased with aging. The texture of the ripened low fat cheese made using EPS-producing cultures was described as chewy, springy, cohesive and smooth. The use of the ripening cultures resulted in the elimination of the bitter flavor defect which is a common problem in low fat Cheddar.
Use of Nitric Oxide Donor Isosorbide Mononitrate for Cervical Ripening at 41 Weeks’ Gestation  [PDF]
Mohamed Elmahdy, Hesham Galal, Amany El Marsafawi, Nahla Amin
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2016.68060
Abstract: Background: The ideal agent for cervical ripening would induce adequate cervical ripening with minimal adverse effects to the mother and the fetus; the most favorable method for cervical ripening is not fully agreed till now; however, vaginal administration of isosorbide mononitrate (IMN) is considered a low-risk method of labor induction for post term. Our study was designed to assess the effect of IMN on cervical ripening and labor induction among 41 weeks pregnant women. Objectives: To assess the efficacy of the nitric oxide donor isosorbide mononitrate on cervical ripening at 41 weeks gestation. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 100 pregnant women recruited from the outpatient clinic fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Cases were divided into 2 groups. In first group 40 mg isosorbide mononitrate (IMN) tablet was applied vaginally in posterior fornix, and in second group placebo was applied vaginally in posterior fornix. Following up the cervical status after 24 hours of administration, the patient were asked about new symptoms especially headache, palpitation, dizziness or abdominal pain and the mode of delivery was assessed. Results: There was a significant improvement in the bishop score in the first group rather than the placebo group. No significant difference between the two groups was as regards the mode of delivery. Conclusion: IMN may be used for cervical preparation only before induction of labor in post term cases.
Low-Dose Misoprostol versus Vaginal-Insert Dinoprostone for At-Term Labor Induction: A Prospective Cohort Study  [PDF]
Laura Emilia Mu?oz Saá, María Dolores Martín Ríos, María Rosario Noguero Meseguer
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2017.78083
Abstract:
Introduction: Given the pharmacological change taking place in Spanish delivery rooms, we designed this study to compare the effectiveness and safety of misoprostol (25 mcg/4h) to 10 mg dinoprostone in its slow-releasing vaginalinsert form to induce at-term labor. Methods: In a prospective cohort study (2013-2015), 401 at-term pregnant women referred for induction (Bishop score ≤ 6), who gave birth at the Rey Juan Carlos Hospital in Móstoles (Madrid, Spain), of whom 241 participants were induced with misoprostol and 160 with dinoprostone. Patients were recruited by non-probabilistic sampling of consecutive cases as the inductions in the Obstetrics Block during the study period were indicated. Results: The cesarean section rate was 14% for the misoprostol group and 19% for the dinoprostone group [RR = 1.38 (95%CI: 0.89 - 2.13), p = 0.145]. No differences were found in the vaginal birth rate in <24 h from starting induction [44% vs. 53%, RR = 1.08 (0.90 - 1.29), p = 0.401], nor in the vaginal birth rate in <12 h, requiring oxytocin or meconium fluid, or for maternal-neonatal complications deriving from the method employed. The percentage of cesarean sections due to failed induction was lower in the misoprostol group (15% vs. 39%, p = 0.028). The time between induction and giving birth was shorter for the dinoprostone group (20 h vs. 23.4 h, p = 0.018). Conclusion: Inducing delivery by low-dose misoprostol offers similar effectiveness and safety to induction by dinoprostone in its slow-releasing vaginal-insert form. However, our sample is limited, and few studies are available on the subject. Further analyses to draw solid conclusions are required.
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