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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8182 matches for " resource conservation "
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A Field Study in the Status and Threats of Cultivation in Kimana and Ilchalai Swamps in Amboseli Dispersal Area, Kenya  [PDF]
Moses Makonjio Okello, John M. Kioko
Natural Resources (NR) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2011.24026
Abstract: The scarcity of water and dependence of local communities on wetlands for resources and services is a common occurrence in dry rangelands such as Amboseli in Kenya. There are only a few swamps outside Amboseli National Park available to the Maasai, livestock and wildlife. Such swamps may disappear in the near future because of conversion to cultivation. This study established the current size and threats to Kimana and Ilchalai near Amboseli National Park. Swamps were regularly used by over 15 large mammal species among them elephants, buffalo, wildebeest, zebra, gazelles and hippopoatums. However, only 15.7% of Kimana Swamp and 36.1% of Ilchalai Swamp remained unconverted to cultivation, with the rest of the remaining swamp area converted to agriculture. Cultivation was mainly done by non–Maasai land leasers, and for mainly commercial purposes. Swamps were converted because of adequate and free water, cheap lease fee, and their fertile soils. Although concerned with swamp conversion, most cultivators were ready to expand cultivation in other swamps. These findings demonstrate how unsustainable resource use and swamp conversion can seriously threaten critical resources for local livelihoods and wildlife conservation.
On Farm Conservation of Crop Genetic Resource: Declining De Facto Diversity and Optimal Funding Strategy  [PDF]
Diwakar Poudel
Natural Resources (NR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2015.63018
Abstract: Crop genetic resources (CGRs) are crucial natural resource which ensure food or livelihood security of billions of people today as well as ensure future agricultural innovations. However, the CGR diversity remaining in in situ, particularly in subsistence farming is becoming extinct due to change in economic and technological development over time. An optimal funding strategy is required for conservation of these CGRs. In this paper, I have discussed an economic perspective on why and how the De Facto crop genetic resources (CGRs) diversity declines with changing economic and environmental context. The model maximizes the net revenue from the farmers land allocation strategy to different CGRs under economic and technical constraints with linear demand and cost functions. Furthermore, the model suggests how to minimize the cost of on farm conservation of these crop genetic resources in situ (or ex situ) without forfeiting farmer’s well-being in a changing perspective of economics and technology. The theoretical model developed in this study is employed to demonstrate the applicability for on farm conservation of rice genetic diversity in Nepal. The study suggests an optimal fund allocation strategy that minimizes the cost of conservation by (i) identifying particular CGRs (rice landraces) that are prone to extinct from the community and (ii) categorizing the farmers in the community having minimum cost of conservation for those particular landraces. As the model maximizes the farmers’ revenues, it could ensure better livelihood of individuals in the community while minimizing the cost of in situ conservation of biodiversity on farm.
Social Impacts of Protected Areas on Gender in West Kilimanjaro, Tanzania  [PDF]
Sayuni B. Mariki
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.43028
Abstract: In most cases, the establishment of protected areas (PAs) goes hand-in-hand with an increase in conservation costs to communities living adjacent to these PAs. This paper draws insights from gender theories in particular feminist political ecology approach to unravel the impact of PAs on men and women around the Kilimanjaro National Park (NP) and the Enduimet Wildlife Management Area (WMA) in Tanzania. Specifically, it investigates how the creation and expansion of two PAs in Tanzania have impacted men and women in different ways. A combination of in-depth interviews, focus-group discussions, and key informant interviews was used to collect data from local people who live adjacent to these PAs. The findings reveal that the PAs impact both men and women, but the most significant impact is felt by women due to inequality in the gendered division of labour and resources at the household level. Poor men and women together with most women in female-headed households, suffer more from strong restrictions on access to PA-based resources than other people as they have limited alternatives. The benefits of PAs in compensating for resource restrictions were found to be modest and do not meet the needs of predominantly poor men and women. The majority of local people collect resources from PAs illegally to meet their livelihood needs, despite restrictions on resource access. This study concludes that, instead of PAs paying attention to people’s relevant livelihood needs and improving their wellbeing, they have unfortunately worsened their situation.
Valuing Exhaustible Resource Ownership: General Equilibrium Assets-Markets versus Partial Equilibrium  [PDF]
Johnson Kakeu
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.85059
Abstract: This paper uses a general equilibrium assets-markets approach with arbitrageurs for valuing mineral resource deposit ownership. The results are contrasted with those delivered by a partial equilibrium approach. We show that in a general equilibrium assets-markets approach, arbitrageurs’ valuation of resource deposit rights commands a discount factor that adjusts not only for the time depreciation but also for changes in the resource stock size over time. A general equilibrium assets-markets approach with arbitrageurs leads to a more conservative management of exhaustible natural resources than a partial equilibrium approach does.
An Empirical Analysis of Resource Productivity of Wheat in Eastern Tarai Region of Nepal
Ram B. Bhujel,Ram N. Jha,Bindeshwar Yadav
Nepal Agriculture Research Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.3126/narj.v9i0.11647
Abstract: Different types of resource conservation technology (RCT) in wheat cultivation have been recently introduced and use of seed cum fertilizer zero till drill machine is one of them which was used in eastern terai region in wheat season of 2006/2007. A survey was carried out to study the productivity of wheat and compare the production between traditional and RCT method of cultivation. Altogether 31 farmers were interviewed with semi-structured questionnaires. Model used to estimate the productivity for both the methods was significant (p < 0.01) which explained 96 and 97 per cent variation due to independent variables under study in wheat production of traditional and RCT method, respectively. Farmers used 160 kg seed/ha in traditional method while in RCT method it was 122 kg/ha. Similarly, they applied 148 and 137 kg nutrients as a total of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash in traditional and RCT method, respectively. Average production of wheat grain in traditional and RCT method was 2456 and 2714 kg/ha giving average gross margin of Rs 16750.00 and Rs 23301.00/ha, respectively. This revealed 10 per cent reduction in total costs and 29 per cent increase in return by RCT method. Nepal Agric. Res. J. Vol. 9, 2009, pp. 99-108 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/narj.v9i0.11647
Genetic Diversity Management of Moroccan Captive-Bred Houbaras  [PDF]
Amal Korrida, Brahim Benameur, Karim Filali, Sami Jamil Jadallah
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2018.82004
Abstract: With regards to an ex-situ conservation plan and program of Moroccan houbara bustards, the genetic diversity of a captive breeding stock of (Chamydotis undulata undulata) was studied and assessed using metapopulational approaches. The present study aims thus, the description and comparison of various strategies implemented in the species conservation that would conduct to: 1) a better quantification of the gain and loss of genetic diversity of the houbara herd made up of wild and captive populations, and consequently, to 2) a pertinent tracing of conservation and management priorities of the Moroccan avian subspecies.
Design of A Sustainable Building: A Conceptual Framework for Implementing Sustainability in the Building Sector
Peter O. Akadiri,Ezekiel A. Chinyio,Paul O. Olomolaiye
Buildings , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/buildings2020126
Abstract: This paper presents a conceptual framework aimed at implementing sustainability principles in the building industry. The proposed framework based on the sustainable triple bottom line principle, includes resource conservation, cost efficiency and design for human adaptation. Following a thorough literature review, each principle involving strategies and methods to be applied during the life cycle of building projects is explained and a few case studies are presented for clarity on the methods. The framework will allow design teams to have an appropriate balance between economic, social and environmental issues, changing the way construction practitioners think about the information they use when assessing building projects, thereby facilitating the sustainability of building industry.
Distribui??o da diversidade isoenzimática e morfológica da mandioca na agricultura autóctone de Ubatuba
Sambatti, Julianno Bergoch Monteiro;Martins, Paulo Sodero;Ando, Akihiko;
Scientia Agricola , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-90162000000100013
Abstract: phenotypic diversity of four isozymes systems and twelve morphological traits of cassava (manihot esculenta crantz) were quantified using the shannon-weaver diversity index for four cassava gardens of two traditional farmers of ubatuba,sp, brazil. the total diversity was partitioned within and among gardens, showing that most of the diversity is concentrated within gardens. interviews were carried out in order to verify if farmers recognize the existance of cassava plants originated from seeds and seed banks with the surveyed farmers in order to identify, in the present case, mechanisms of genetic diversity amplification.
Reflexiones acerca de los ecosistemas agrícolas y la necesidad de su conservación Reflections on agricultural ecosystems and the need to preserve them
Hilda Machado,Maybe Campos
Pastos y Forrajes , 2008,
Abstract: La conservación de los ecosistemas agrícolas o agroecosistemas reviste una gran importancia para la seguridad alimentaria del planeta, por cuanto ellos contienen los elementos necesarios (suelo, agua y biodiversidad) que son consustanciales a la producción agropecuaria. Aunque la agricultura es una forma necesaria en el uso de las tierras que se encuentra en oposición a los ecosistemas, debido a que las decisiones sobre las prácticas de manejo y uso del suelo influyen en los procesos ecológicos y en las interacciones suelo-agua-plantas, estas decisiones deben tener en cuenta que la calidad de vida de las personas y su bienestar dependen en última instancia del bienestar del ecosistema. Este artículo hace un llamado a la reflexión sobre la responsabilidad que tienen los decisores en cuanto al uso de la tierra para garantizar la seguridad alimentaria de forma sostenible.
Book Review Perspectives: John Polimeni, Kozo Mayumi, Mario Giampietro, & Blake Alcott, The Jevons Paradox and the Myth of Resource Efficiency Improvements
Diana Bauer,Kathryn Papp
Sustainability : Science, Practice and Policy , 2009,
Abstract:
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