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Anthocyanins from black bean canning wastewater were isolated and purified on a laboratory scale by column chromatography, and then identified by high performance liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Dynamic adsorption and desorption were performed in glass columns packed with Sepabead Sp700 to optimize the purification process. Different temperatures during adsorption and desorption (25℃and 35℃) did not significantly affect the adsorption and desorption ratio. The adsorption ratio was significantly reduced when the flow rate increased from 1.5 mL/min to 2.5 mL/min. However, desorption ratio was not affected by flow rate (from 1.5 mL/min to 0.3 mL/min). Ethanol concentration (from 30% to 60%) was not a significant factor for desorption ratio. Four kinds of anthocyanins were identified in black bean canning wastewater. The major anthocyanins were delphinidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3glucoside and maldvidin 3-glucoside, with a small amount of petunidin 3, 5-diglucoside also present.
We reinterpret citizenship using Mannheim’s classical sociology of knowledge and through a more recent variant on them in Latour’s argument that “we have never been modern” (Latour, 1991). On that basis, we understand citizenship as a recursive effect of disputes over belonging and membership (Isin, 2002), where those disputes entail the three forms of political rationality or “thought styles” which Mannheim and Latour variously suggested: the linearly individual rationality of liberalism; dialectically collective socialism; and culturally collective conservatism. Marshall defines citizenship as a “status bestowed on those who are full members of a community” (Marshall, 1973). He presents an image of evolutionary progress, from civil to political rights and finally to the social form, in Britain. We argue that Marshall was entangled in evolutionary and teleological images of citizenship. We reinterpret citizenship using Mannheim’s classical sociology of knowledge. We suggest that sociologies of knowledge allow a re-reading of “citizenship” that can accommodate conceptual difficulties. Mannheim called into question the “progress” implied or stated in theories of “stages”. He stressed instead the continuing interaction between different ways of knowing social reality, or between what he called “thought styles”. We apply Mannheim to “citizenship” in order to lift two “purifications”, so that humanity is both natural and political.
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a
major cause of serious bacterial infection in numerous animal species. The
production of capsular polysaccharide(CPs) is vital to GBS to evade host
immunity. One of the genes that required for production of CPs, cpsE, has been
determined to be well conserved in capsule gene cluster (cps).This study cloned
the cpsE gene from Tilapia of GBS clinical isolate (serotype Ia) and expressed
this gene with aid of pET-32a(+) in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) competent cells
to obtain high levels of the recombinant protein for further study about CpsE
in fish and examination of its immunogenicity. The optimization of induction
conditions (IPTG concentration, temperature and time) in E.coli was accomplished
and let us to perform the recombinant protein induction at 37℃ for 3h,with 0.2mM IPTG in Luria Bertani (LB) medium.
At the optimal conditions, recombinant protein was expressed in an insoluble
form (inclusion bodies) and accounted for approximately 23% of the total
protein. Purification by affinity chromatography yielded about 480mg fusion
protein per liter culture.