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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1699 matches for " purification "
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Identification of Anthocyanins Isolated from Black Bean Canning Wastewater by Macroporous Resin Using Optimized Conditions  [PDF]
Xiaoxi Wang, Conly Hansen, Karin Allen
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.48A021

Anthocyanins from black bean canning wastewater were isolated and purified on a laboratory scale by column chromatography, and then identified by high performance liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Dynamic adsorption and desorption were performed in glass columns packed with Sepabead Sp700 to optimize the purification process. Different temperatures during adsorption and desorption (25and 35) did not significantly affect the adsorption and desorption ratio. The adsorption ratio was significantly reduced when the flow rate increased from 1.5 mL/min to 2.5 mL/min. However, desorption ratio was not affected by flow rate (from 1.5 mL/min to 0.3 mL/min). Ethanol concentration (from 30% to 60%) was not a significant factor for desorption ratio. Four kinds of anthocyanins were identified in black bean canning wastewater. The major anthocyanins were delphinidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3glucoside and maldvidin 3-glucoside, with a small amount of petunidin 3, 5-diglucoside also present.

The Sociology of Knowledge, Citizenship and the Purification of Politics  [PDF]
Jed Donoghue, Bob White
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2013.31003

We reinterpret citizenship using Mannheim’s classical sociology of knowledge and through a more recent variant on them in Latour’s argument that “we have never been modern” (Latour, 1991). On that basis, we understand citizenship as a recursive effect of disputes over belonging and membership (Isin, 2002), where those disputes entail the three forms of political rationality or “thought styles” which Mannheim and Latour variously suggested: the linearly individual rationality of liberalism; dialectically collective socialism; and culturally collective conservatism. Marshall defines citizenship as a “status bestowed on those who are full members of a community” (Marshall, 1973). He presents an image of evolutionary progress, from civil to political rights and finally to the social form, in Britain. We argue that Marshall was entangled in evolutionary and teleological images of citizenship. We reinterpret citizenship using Mannheim’s classical sociology of knowledge. We suggest that sociologies of knowledge allow a re-reading of “citizenship” that can accommodate conceptual difficulties. Mannheim called into question the “progress” implied or stated in theories of “stages”. He stressed instead the continuing interaction between different ways of knowing social reality, or between what he called “thought styles”. We apply Mannheim to “citizenship” in order to lift two “purifications”, so that humanity is both natural and political.

Rapid and Facile Purification of Apolipoprotein A-I from Human Plasma Using Thermoresponsive Nanoparticles  [PDF]
Tommy Cedervall, Martin Lundqvist, Erik Hellstrand, Sara Linse, Iseult Lynch, Kenneth A. Dawson, Tord Bergg?rd
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2011.23033
Abstract: Nanoparticles can be used to purify proteins from plasma. We report here the purification of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) with high specificity from human plasma using copolymeric nanoparticles. We present an optimized protocol using 50:50 NiPAM:BAM copolymer nanoparticles with thermo-responsive properties as an affinity resin. Repeated pelleting and washing of nanoparticle-captured apoA-I is achieved through temperature cycling. The protein is then eluted using urea followed by an ion exchange step for protein concentration and depletion of nanoparticles.
Column Chromatography: A Facile and Inexpensive Procedure to Purify the Red Dopant DCJ Applied for OLEDs  [PDF]
Khadijeh Ghanbari, Hassan Aghajani, Maryam Golbabaee, Elham Naemi Khah, Seyed Hassan Nabavi, Ata Koohian
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry (AMPC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ampc.2011.13015
Abstract: DCJ, one of the DCM derivatives, has been used as a laser dye and a red emitter or a red dopant for OLED devices in recent decade. 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(julolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJ) containing julolidine group has been synthesized for use as a red fluorescent dye molecule in organic light-emitting di- odes (OLEDs). In this paper, we reported a facile, simple and inexpensive procedure of purification of DCJ without necessity of HPLC analysis. The maximum absorption, emission, quantum efficiency are increasing in DCJ with the electron-donating of julolidine group.
Application of response surface methodology to the modeling of cellulase purification by solvent extraction  [PDF]
Jagdish Singh, Anamika Sharma
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2012.34058
Abstract: Central composite design (CCD)sp. JS14 in a solvent extraction was established with Response surface methodology (RSM). Solvent concentration, pH, temperature and retention time were selected as process variables to evaluate the purification impact factor in solvent precipitation, including the purification fold and % recovery. An experimental space with 13 purification fold and 23 recovery percentage recovery is achieved through the optimized condition based on the model. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 32.5 KDa. Optimum activity of purified enzyme was at pH and temperature 6.5℃ and 40℃ respectively. Enzyme showed maximum activity with carboxymethyl cellulose as substrate with compare to rice husk, wheat straw and sucrose. The purified cellulase activity was inhibited by Na+, Cl- Mg2+ Tween 80 and EDTA.
Use of Continuous Venovenous Hemodiafiltration with a High Cutoff Membrane in a Patient with Severe Acute Pancreatitis  [PDF]
Cosimo Chelazzi, Dario Giugni, Claudia Giannoni, Gianluca Villa, Angelo Raffaele De Gaudio
Open Journal of Nephrology (OJNeph) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojneph.2012.24013
Abstract: In patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) early and persistent elevated circulating levels of interleukins (IL)-1, 2 and 6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α are linked to severity of disease and early multiple organ failure (MOF), while persistently elevated serum IL-10 is linked to immune paralysis and infectious complications. Although experimental and clinical evidence exists that continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration with high cutoff membranes (HCO-CVVHDF) efficiently removes inflammatory mediators from blood of patients with severe sepsis or septic shock, data are lacking on the subset of patients with SAP, particularly in cases with uninfected necrosis. We treated with HCO-CVVHDF a 59-year-old man admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) with SAP inducing early-onset cardiovascular, respiratory and renal dysfunctions associated with high circulating levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and without overt clinical or laboratory signs of infection. During the treatment, cardiovascular, respiratory and renal functions rapidly normalized and circulating levels of IL-6 and TNF-α consistently decreased. The patient was discharged from ICU on day 20.
Cloning, Expression, and Immunogenicity Analysis of the CpsE Protein from Group B Streptococcus Isolated from Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus)  [PDF]
Xi Fu, Kaiyu Wang, Jinlu Huang, Jun Wang, Hai Lian, Yang He, Lanmin Li, Kaiyu Wang
Engineering (ENG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2012.410B044

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of serious bacterial infection in numerous animal species. The production of capsular polysaccharide(CPs) is vital to GBS to evade host immunity. One of the genes that required for production of CPs, cpsE, has been determined to be well conserved in capsule gene cluster (cps).This study cloned the cpsE gene from Tilapia of GBS clinical isolate (serotype Ia) and expressed this gene with aid of pET-32a(+) in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) competent cells to obtain high levels of the recombinant protein for further study about CpsE in fish and examination of its immunogenicity. The optimization of induction conditions (IPTG concentration, temperature and time) in E.coli was accomplished and let us to perform the recombinant protein induction at 37 for 3h,with 0.2mM IPTG in Luria Bertani (LB) medium. At the optimal conditions, recombinant protein was expressed in an insoluble form (inclusion bodies) and accounted for approximately 23% of the total protein. Purification by affinity chromatography yielded about 480mg fusion protein per liter culture.

Water Phytoremediation by Sedimentation Using Moringa oleifera Seed Powder to Remove Water Turbidity in Malaysia  [PDF]
Sures Narayasamy, Halimi Mohd Saud
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2014.32009
Abstract: The study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of a natural coagulant that is Moringa oleifera seeds in removing turbid from Malaysian water. Three water samples were used in this study subjected to purification studies using Moringa oleifera seeds that were collected during two different seasons that are dry season (February-March) and rainy season (October-November). The treated water samples were tested for turbidity level, pH level and color index. The result shows that Moringa oleifera seed collected during drought season has the ability to remove turbidity up to 88.0% and has better color index compared seeds collected during rainy season. The ability of Moringa oleifera seeds protein to act as a magnet assists in attracting the flocks and turbid in the water. Although not as effective as conventional chemicals, Moringa oleifera shows remarkable ability to remove turbid and encourages the use of natural coagulant in water treatment plants as it is cheap and environmental friendly.


Inteins—A Focus on the Biotechnological Applications of Splicing-Promoting Proteins  [PDF]
Manfredi Miraula, Charmaine Enculescu, Gerhard Schenk, Nata?a Miti?
American Journal of Molecular Biology (AJMB) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajmb.2015.52005
Abstract: The main aim of this mini-review is to illustrate strategies and industrial applications based on inteins (INTErnal proteINS), which belong to a class of autocatalytic enzymes that are able to perform a catalytic reaction on a single substrate. However, since practical applications of inteins are strongly guided by a detailed understanding of their biological mechanisms and functions, the first part of this review will thus briefly discuss the physiological roles of inteins, describing what is currently known about their mechanisms of action. In the second part, specific biotechnological applications of inteins will be outlined (i.e. their use for (i) the purification of recombinant proteins, (ii) the cyclization of proteins and (iii) the production of seleno-proteins), paying attention to both potential strengths and weaknesses of this technology.
Hydrometallurgical Purification of Some Clay Deposits for High Temperature Applications  [PDF]
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2012.115032
Abstract: The characterization of five different Nigerian clay deposits has been carried out by employing three different characterization techniques (X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Fluorescence and Scanning Electron Microscopy/EDX). The clays obtained from the various deposits were carefully prepared for the analyses and the results obtained were compared to confirm the consistency and reliability of the different methods employed. The results revealed the various desirable (SiO2 and Al2O3) and deleterious (Fe3O4, K2O, MgO, MnO and Na2O) elements and compounds contained in the clay samples in the various proportions and the appropriate purification technique required for preparing the clays for high temperature applications. Consequent upon the identification of the deleterious impurities, oxalic acid at different concentrations was used to leach the impurities out of the various clays. However, three out of the five deposits were chosen for purification because they possess the least quantities of the most deleterious (Fe2O3) of the impurities.
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