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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 40482 matches for " public health "
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Brazil’s Unified Health System (SUS) and Its Treatment for Transgender People  [PDF]
Juliana Perucchi, Brune Coelho Brand?o, Cláudio Magno Gomes Berto, Fernanda Deotti Rodrigues, Junior Augusto da Silva
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.59121

This present article was constructed from an empirical work of intervention-research in a support group for transgender people which worked at the Clínica de Psicologia Aplicada (CPA) [Applied Psychology Clinic] of the Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), in Minas Gerais, Brazil. It aimed at analyzing psychosocial aspects of the interventions that such people made to their bodies, investigating process of health and sickness involved in these contexts. The analysis of the participants’ reports of the support group identified itself with a deep relation between the construction of the bodies and subjectivities of travesty and transgender people belonging to the lower classes and the utilization of the Brazilian public health system, called Unified Health System (SUS). As results, it found that in Brazil, the travesty and transgender population is neglected when accessing the public health services, which causes many damages and, in some cases, irretrievable consequences to the health of these people. The treatment model in the public health system in Brazil concerning the travesty and transgender population is reductionist and precarious, considering health only under the biological view and disregarding the complexity of this phenomenon. This way, SUS neglects the psychic losses that transgender brings related to their bodies, something which contradicts the broad health concept defined by the World Health Organization (WHO).

Geovisualization: A Newer GIS Technology for Implementation Research in Health  [PDF]
Sandul Yasobant, Kranti Suresh Vora, Carl Hughes, Ashish Upadhyay, Dileep V. Mavalankar
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2015.71002
Abstract: Use of GIS in public health is currently limited to tracking immunizations, disease surveillance, and establishing new service areas. The potential of GIS to improve planning, implementation and monitoring of programs and to inform policymaking processes for universal access to healthcare is grossly underutilized. Major reasons for restricted use are paid access to GIS software and difficult interpretation for non-GIS professionals. WebGIS technologies present an opportunity for non-GIS public health professionals to present complex data and findings in simpler manner. Conventional GIS methods and Geovisualization are compared and contrasted in this paper using data from the MATIND project in the Gujarat state of India. In-depth literature review on GIS techniques used in health implementation research was conducted. In this paper, MATIND data have been used for comparing conventional GIS methods with a newer web based GIS tool-Geovisualization. GIS software is more useful for analytical purposes; whereas web based geovisualization techniques are much better for visualization and easy interpretation of results by non GIS public health researchers. As the images are easy to interpret, interactive/dynamic and not much technical expertise is required to perform basic analysis, the tool is useful for policy makers and planners. Geovisualization provides a user-friendly tool for presenting large scale community based survey data. Increased use of this tool will help to present implementation research in a creative way to the program planners and policy makers. For program managers, it is a useful tool to monitor implementation and impact of a program to improve health of population.
Bacterial Profile of Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) in Benin: A Retrospective Study from 2003 to 2012 at Menontin’s Hospital  [PDF]
Honoré Sourou Bankolé, Victorien Dougnon, Christian Johnson, Gildas Hounmanou, Modupeola Alokolaro, Lamine Baba-Moussa
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2016.62008
Abstract: Urinary tract infections remain the most common bacterial infection in human population. They are also one of the most frequently occurring nosocomial infections, representing about 40% of all nosocomial bacterial infections world widely and associated with important medical and financial implications. This retrospective study aimed to establish the bacterial profile of UTIs in Benin. Therefore, reported data were collected from 2003 to 2012 at Menontin’s Hospital in Cotonou and subjected to analyses. At the end of the study, fourteen different bacteria species were found to be associated with UTI cases in Benin. Escherichia coli was the most prevalent followed by Staphylococcus aureus. Results of the current study are helpful to the health care community of Benin in establishing the appropriate antibiotherapy for UTI patients’ treatment with respect organisms into circulation.
Environmental health in public health community practice: An integrative review of the literature  [PDF]
Marta Regina Cezar-Vaz, Clarice Alves Bonow, Cynthia Fontella Sant’ Anna, Laurelize Pereira Rocha, Marlise Capa Verde de Almeida, Mara Regina Santos da Silva
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.59194

It is understood that the performance of Public Health Nursing is indispensable for the development of sustainable health communities, with regard to sub-standard living conditions in environments that include physical, chemical and biological factors influencing these conditions. This work is in an integrative review which aims to characterize how Environmental Health appears in scientific Public Health Nursing production, for the development of community health. Out of 442 articles, 30 met the search criteria. The publications covered contamination and exposure to environmental risks; strengthening of community groups for environmental health and workforce development of public health nursing for community practice in environmental health. The results summarized in the present study support the growing trend of interest in Environmental Health as knowledge which is essential to Public Health Nursing practice in the community.

Expanding public health professionals’ roles in promoting and supporting breastfeeding as optimal infant feeding: A pilot study with online tutorial implications  [PDF]
Amna Umer, Roger A. Edwards
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.32025

Background: Their knowledge of preventive health, coupled with their dynamic roles in the community, puts public health professionals in a key position to expand their roles in the health promotion and support of breastfeeding as optimal infant feeding. This online tutorial was created to increase public health professionals’ knowledge about breastfeeding and to assess their attitudes in supporting healthy behaviors related to infant feeding as a health promotion strategy. Method: The study utilized an online breastfeeding tutorial based on the US Breast-feeding Committee recommendations for minimum breastfeeding knowledge for health professionals. Pre- and post-tutorial questionnaires assessed breastfeeding knowledge, and an attitudinal survey evaluated attitudes of public health professionals after the tutorial. Exposing public health students to this information can facilitate the early shaping of their attitudes and understanding about the importance of breastfeeding. Results: Fifty-two Northeastern University MPH students and alumni (62% response rate) completed the study. There was an overall gain in participants’ fundamental knowledge regarding breastfeeding as assessed by pre- (77%) to post-tutorial (97%) correct responses (p = 0.00001). The post-tutorial attitudinal survey showed that 92% of participants were comfortable in answering questions about breastfeeding as part of their professional responsibilities. Conclusion: This pilot study highlights the important role that a short online tutorial can play in expanding public health professionals’ knowledge about breastfeeding. Greater use of online methods can enhance awareness of critical health behaviors, such as breastfeeding, that have not received adequate attention in public health curricula. This pilot study provides the foundation for a larger study. Integration of breastfeeding into public health professionals’ core training could support broader social change.

Magnitude and associated factors of health professionals’ attrition from public health sectors in Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Kiros Atnafu, Gebeyaw Tiruneh, Tadese Ejigu
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.511258

Background: Attrition of health professionals from public health sectors is found to be a barrier to effectiveness of health systems and to provide essential health service to population. In Ethiopia, the public health system is the major provider of health care service to the people. In particular, the poor segment of community uses public hospital, health centers and clinic, since the private health facilities are inaccessible and unaffordable to them. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude and factors associated with health professionals’ attrition from public health sectors in Bahir Dar city. Methods: A Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in September-October 2012. All inclusive sampling techniques of five years document reviews were used to select 727 health professional documents. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected using structured questionnaires and indepth-interview guides respectively, by trained data collectors. Descriptive statistics (frequencies, proportion and chi square test) were used to describe the study population in relation to relevant variables. To identify independent predictors of attrition, only variables that were statistically significant during bivariate analysis were entered into multiple logistic regression models to control the effects of confounders. Pvalues <0.05 were considered as statically significant. Result: The attrition rates of health professionals from public health sectors in Bahir Dar city were found to be 39.6%. Age, sex, marital status, educational status, workplace, current salary, professional category and work experience were the main factors associated with health professionals’ attrition from public health sec

Health Promotion in Ecuador: A Solution for a Failing System  [PDF]
Dana Rasch, Krista Bywater
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.610115
Abstract: In 2008, the newly written Ecuadorian Constitution guaranteed access to healthcare for all citizens. Consequently, a vast amount of resources have been directed toward rebuilding the public healthcare system, which was in shambles due to the effects of neoliberalism. Although national healthcare studies show positive outcomes, community-based research studies from an impoverished rural barrio in southern Ecuador indicate that the public healthcare system has been unable to address a health epidemic. Based on several years of fieldwork, we argue that the failure originates from the continued functioning of the biomedical model of healthcare as the dominant health discourse in Ecuador. The ensuing result has been the construction of health system governed by an “administrative state” that enforces health policies from the top-down and delivers “episodic” emergency-style care. Accordingly, we maintain that the Ministry of Health (MOH) should create a nationwide community-based health promoter program guided by the principles of health promotion.
Epidemiology of Childhood Mental Illness: A Review of U.S. Surveillance Data and the Literature  [PDF]
David S. Younger
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2017.71005
Abstract: Background: Childhood mental illness is a major factor of overall lifespan of children continuing into adulthood. Population based surveys and public health surveillance provide the much needed evidence to understand mental health promotion, prevention, and treatment of mental illness in children in the United States. Objective: To review available current national survey data regarding mental illness in children over the past decade and to review the global implications of childhood mental illness. Results: Altogether, 13% - 20% of children experienced a mental health disorder from 1994 to 2011. The prevalence of depression among children of 3 - 17 years old was 3% and the prevalence of lifetime and past year major depressive episode were 12.8% and 8.1% respectively among adolescents of 12 - 17 years old, with a prevalence of depression in the preceding 2 weeks of 6.7%. 7.1% of children of 12 - 17 years old ever had a diagnosis of depression, 3.5% had current depression and 5.1% had a diagnosis of depression in the past year. Overall, 28.5% of high school students of 14 - 18 years old reported feeling so sad or hopeless every day for two weeks or more in a row that they stopped doing usual activities, higher among girls (35.9%) than boys (21.5%), and greater in Hispanic students (32.6%) than white non-Hispanic (27.2%) or black non-Hispanic students (24.7%). The overall rate of suicide in children in 2010 was 4.5 per 100,000. Conclusions: Mental illness presents serious departures from the expected cognitive, social, and emotional development in children, and an important area for prevention in the U.S. and globally. Mental illness will be managed effectively when there is adequate access to treatment services to reduce its associated morbidity and mortality.
Escherichia coli in seafood: A brief overview  [PDF]
Renata Albuquerque Costa
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.43A060

Considering the importance of researching the bacteriological quality of seafood, the following study aimed to make a brief overview on the occurrence of Escherichia coli in marine fish and shellfish, and to discuss the sanitary importance that the isolation of this enterobacteria represents to public health.

Vaccination: Epidemiological Review  [PDF]
David S. Younger
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2017.71006
Abstract: The induction of host protective immunity is an important factor in the immunization against potentially fatal disease and emerging illnesses in the U.S. and global populations especially among immunologically susceptible na?ve hosts. Vaccination programs need to be evaluated as regards their health and economic population benefit among indigenous at risk populations taking into account emerging pathologies defined by the sudden appearance of a pathogen in nature or in a region of the world. Global collaboration is a necessary aspect of vaccine-preventable diseases since even a small number of wild-type cases of eradicated diseases in one region of the world present opportunities for their re-emergence in geographically remote areas. This study is a step in the direction of understanding the epidemiologic aspects of vaccination.
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