Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99


Any time

2019 ( 4 )

2018 ( 73 )

2017 ( 48 )

2016 ( 80 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7473 matches for " prospective studies "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /7473
Display every page Item
Early determinants of smoking in adolescence: a prospective birth cohort study
Menezes, Ana M. B.;Hallal, Pedro C.;Horta, Bernardo L.;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2007000200011
Abstract: in a prospective birth cohort study in brazil, the prevalence and early risk factors for smoking in adolescence were investigated. all 1982 hospital-born children in pelotas, rio grande do sul, brazil, were enrolled in a birth cohort study (n = 5,914; boys: 3,037; girls: 2,877). all male participants were searched in 2000 when enrolling in the national army, and 78.8% were traced. in 2001, a systematic sample of 473 girls was interviewed, representing a follow-up rate of 69.1%. among males, 48.6% (95%ci: 46.6-50.7) had ever tried smoking and 15.8% (95%ci: 14.3-17.3) were daily smokers. among females, 53.1% (95%ci: 48.6-57.6) had ever tried smoking and 15.4% (95%ci: 12.1-18.7) were daily smokers. boys born to single mothers and those with fathers with low schooling were more likely to smoke in adolescence. girls from low-income families, with mothers who smoked during pregnancy, and fathers with alcohol-related problems were more likely to smoke. although the smoking prevalence was similar in boys and girls, risk factors for smoking were different between the sexes. social environment appears to be the strongest predictor of tobacco use in adolescence.
Validity of maternal report on birth weight 11 years after delivery: the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil
Araújo, Cora L. P.;Dutra, Carmem L. C.;Hallal, Pedro C.;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2007001000017
Abstract: birth weight has short and long-term effects on health. some studies have used retrospective data on birth weight, reported by the subject or by the parents. this paper compares data on birth weight measured by the research team in 1993 with birth weight reported by the mother in 2004-2005, using data from the 1993 pelotas birth cohort study, rio grande do sul state, brazil. we also evaluate the role of misclassification when exploring the effect of birth weight on a given outcome. mean difference between the two variables was 20g (sd = 288.3). agreement for detecting low birth weight was 95.2% in the sample as a whole (kappa = 0.73), but was lower among low-schooling mothers. mothers of children weighing less than 3,500g at birth tended to overestimate the child's birth weight. inversely, mothers of heavier children tended to underestimate the values. one out of four mothers reported a difference of at least 200g in birth weight as compared to that measured in 1993. use of reported birth weight diluted the magnitude of the association with body mass index at 11 years in comparison with measured birth weight. reported birth weight should be used with great caution, if at all.
Limites e possibilidades da identifica??o de risco de autismo no primeiro ano de vida
Garcia, Mariana Luisa;Lampreia, Carolina;
Psicologia: Reflex?o e Crítica , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-79722011000200011
Abstract: identifying signs of autism in the first year of life is justified by early intervention and better prognostic. this article aims at discussing methodological limits and possibilities of identifying risk of autism at 0-12 months. methodology from 24 retrospective and prospective early signs studies and their outcomes were analyzed. limits of identifying risk of autism in the 1st year of life lies in observing discrete behavioral categories, and possibilities seem to lie in analyzing interactional and affective categories.
Respuesta del complejo mentolabial a los procedimientos de retroposición mandibular y mentonoplastias de altura
Díaz Fernández,José Manuel; Velázquez Blez,Rodolfo; Melián Cárdenas,Domingo; Bonne Comerón,Roberto A;
Revista Cubana de Estomatolog?-a , 2004,
Abstract: a prospective and longitudinal study of 24 patients treated with mandibular retroposition and upper reposition of the chin by the techniques of modified branch sagital osteotomy and oblique osteotomy of the chin with pedicle of soft tissue in its anterior portion, from 1990 to 1997, was conducted. the posterior movement of the inferior incisor was associated with the anteroposterior movement of the lower lip and the soft pogonion in a ratio of 1:0.76 and 1:091 mm. the osteal pogonion was associated with the posterior movement of its soft homologue in a ratio of 1:086 mm. point b accompanied its osteal counterpart in a proportion of 1:0.88 mm. likewise, the vertical reduction of the chin decreased the length of the lower lip in 0.68 mm per every millimiter of reduction of the first;| whereas the soft pogonion upperly displaced 0.96 mm per each millimeter of reduction of the chin height. other prognostic values were established for the mentolabial component that are important for cephalometric planning.
Active surveillance of adverse drug reactions in children in five Italian paediatric wards  [PDF]
Mariapina Gallo, Antonio Clavenna, Maurizio Bonati, Paolo Siani, Antonio Irpino, Francesco Rossi, Annalisa Capuano
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2012.22019
Abstract: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important clinical problem and contribute significantly to mortality and morbidity. Scant data on the safety of drug use in children are usually available at the time of marketing authorization, due to the limited number of trials performed in the paediatric population. Few studies monitored the incidence of ADRs in Italian hospitalized children, that cannot be compared for methodological reasons. A 6-month prospective observational study was, therefore, conducted on the paediatric wards of five hospitals in the Campania Region, Italy. Data were collected on all patients admitted to the wards during the study period through a structured questionnaire administered to the mothers and through a hospital chart review. Of the 752 patients enrolled, 86.2% were exposed to one or more drugs during hospitalization. The therapeutic class most prescribed was systemic antibacterial agents (47%). Six ADRs occurred during hospitalization (incidence 0.9%; 95% CI 0.2% - 1.7%). In addition, one child was admitted to a hospital for an ADR. Five out of seven ADRs occurred in girls. The skin was the most affected organ. The medications implicated were amoxicillin, acyclovir, ibuprofen, ceftriaxone, paracetamol, and ranitidine. According to the Naranjo probability criteria, six ADRs were probably, and one possibly, related to the suspected drug. In conclusion, this study reveals that ADRs may be under-reported in children hospitalized in the Campania Region. Consequently, healthcare personnel should be alert to the possibility of ADRs. More accurate reporting of ADRs in children would result in safer use of drugs in such patients.
Infancy and childhood growth and physical activity in adolescence: prospective birth cohort study from Brazil
Pedro C Hallal, Samuel C Dumith, Ulf Ekelund, Felipe F Reichert, Ana M B Menezes, Cesar G Victora, Jonathan CK Wells
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-9-82
Abstract: This is a prospective birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil, including 457 adolescents (mean age: 13.3?years) with weight and length/height data at birth, one, three and six months, one and four years of age. PA was measured using a GT1M Actigraph accelerometer, and expressed as (a) minutes per day spent on sedentary, light, moderate, vigorous and very-vigorous activities; (b) total counts per day.61.3% of the adolescents accumulated 60+ minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA per day. Weight and length/height trajectories in infancy and childhood were similar between those classified as active or inactive at 13.3?years. However, those classified as inactive were heavier and taller at all ages; differences were statistically significant only in terms of length at three, six and 12?months.Weight gain in infancy and childhood did not predict variability in adolescent PA, but those active in adolescence showed somewhat smaller average gains in length in infancy. These findings suggest that PA may partially be sensitive to early hormonal programming, or that genetic factors may affect both early growth and later metabolism or predisposition for PA.
Estudo randomizado do tratamento cirúrgico da síndrome do túnel do carpo
Nascimento, Thiago Francisco do;D'Elia, Luiz Fernando Barbiere;Gon?alves, Lucas Oliveira;Dobashi, Eiffel Tsuyoshi;
Acta Ortopédica Brasileira , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-78522007000400009
Abstract: this paper aims to evaluate, by means of a randomized prospective clinical study, two distinct groups divided according to the surgical methodology applied. the first group (group a) was treated by endoscopic operation and the second (group b) one by open access. we evaluated 55 patients (57 wrists), 32 (56.0%) females and 25 (44,0%) males. the sample was composed by 36 (65.5%) caucasian, 17 (30.9%) black and 2 (3.63%) asian patients. the mean age was 34.75 years (minimum of 24 y.o. and maximum of 76 y.o.). group a was composed by 30 (52.63%) wrists and group b by 27 (47.36%). all the patients were pre- and postoperatively evaluated at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 12 weeks after surgery and the following parameters were considered: thenar muscle trophism, pain (analogical scale), sensibility with semmes-weinstein monofilament, grip strength and finger pinch (with jamar dynamometer). we did not find significant statistical differences regarding side, dominancy, hypotrophy, pain and strength. the non-parametric mann-whitney's test (p = 0.0178) showed that the group of patients submitted to endoscopic operation were able to resume professional the activities. our study did not evidence, at the end of statistical analysis, statistically significant differences comparing the both methods of surgical treatment.
Libera??o do canal do carpo por mini-incis?o transversa
Alves, Marcelo de Pinho Teixeira;
Acta Ortopédica Brasileira , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-78522011000600008
Abstract: objective: to compare two incisions used for the surgical treatment of cts: the classic longitudinal incision, over the transverse carpal ligament (tcl), and the mini-incision, at the wrist crease and near the proximal border of the tcl. methods: 47 patients from the hand surgery outpatient clinic of the clínwica traumato - ortopédica madureira are evaluated. group 1 consisted of 24 patients (28 hands) treated by the classic incision. group 2 consisted of 23 patients (28 hands), treated by the transverse mini-incision technique. both groups were compared in relation to discomfort of the scar, presence or absence of "pillar" pain, and time elapsed before returning to daily activities or unrestricted work. results: there was prevalence of females (87.5% in group 1; 91.3% in group 2) and of electromyographic bilateral syndrome in both groups (75% patients of group 1; 86% patients of group 2). scar discomfort and "pillar" pain were more frequent in group 1, but there was no difference in the time elapsed before returning to work or daily activities between the groups. conclusion: the mini-incision technique is a less invasive alternative, and enables complete release of the carpal tunnel, with less morbidity than classic longitudinal incision. level of evidence ii, therapeutic.
A five year follow-up study of 11 patients with bipolar disorder
Novis, Fernanda;Cheniaux, Elie;Landeira-Fernandez, Jesus;Versiani, Marcio;
Jornal Brasileiro de Psiquiatria , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0047-20852010000300008
Abstract: objective: to study the long-term follow-up of patients with bipolar disorder (bpd). method: eleven outpatients with bpd type i were followed up naturalistically for five years at a university teaching hospital. the clinical global impression scale (bpd version) was used to evaluate the occurrence of affective episodes, and the strauss-carpenter outcome scale was used to evaluate social and occupational functioning. results: the majority of patients were symptomatic most of the time, with predominantly depressive episodes. overall, patients remained euthymic a mean of 47.7% of the time. despite a low rate of hospitalization, social and occupational functioning was poor in the majority of patients. a poor disease course with respect to work-related functioning was associated with fewer months of euthymia with a longer duration of depressive episodes. the total number of months of euthymia negatively correlated with the patient's age and disease duration. conclusion: despite the small sample size, the present findings appear to corroborate previous studies on the evolution of bpd. most of the patients had a poor disease course, with long symptomatic periods, particularly depressive episodes, and significantly impaired social and occupational functioning.
Infec??es e reinfec??es por Rotavirus A: genotipagem e implica??es vacinais
Costa, Paulo S. S.;Cardoso, Divina D. P.;Grisi, Sandra J. F. E.;Silva, Paula A.;Fiaccadori, Fabíola;Souza, Menira B. L. D.;Santos, Rodrigo A. T.;
Jornal de Pediatria , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0021-75572004000200008
Abstract: objective: to identify rotavirus a and the most prevalent g and p genotypes in children with acute diarrhea, and to the describe the occurrence of rotavirus infection and reinfection. methods: group a rotavirus specimens were obtained from fecal samples from children with acute diarrhea in goiania, state of goiás, brazil from july 2000 to october 2002. rotavirus a positive children and a control group (children of the same age and sex, without diarrhea and with no evidence of rotavirus in the first fecal samples) were followed prospectively during one year. all rotavirus a positive samples were genotyped using rt-pcr/nested-pcr. results: a total of 77 group a rotavirus strains (37.2%) were identified in the diarrheic samples of 207 children. the following g genotypes were identified: g1 (62.3%), g9 (34.4%) and g4 (3.3%). with regard to p genotyping, 59% were characterized as p[8], 7.7% as p[6], 23.1% as p[6]+p[8], 7.7% as p[4]+p[8] and 2.6% as p[4]+p[8]. the following associations were observed: g1p[8] (77.8%), g9p[8] (11.1%), g4p[8] (5.6%) and g1p[6] (5.6%). no reinfection was observed in the 40 rotavirus a (+) children. however, but two of 40 children who were initially negative for this agent developed rotavirus infection during the same period. conclusions: the predominant g and p genotypes observed were similar to those found in new vaccines. no reinfection occurred during one-year of follow-up for any of the genotypes identified.
Page 1 /7473
Display every page Item

Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.