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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2229 matches for " productivity "
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The Labor Productivity Slowdown: The True Issue of the Italian Economy  [PDF]
Paola Parravicini, Alessandro Graffi
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2019.91016
Abstract: This paper deals with the issue of the weak growth in Italian labor productivity with particular reference to the period between 2000 and 2016. In analyzing the data relating to labor productivity, the influence of capital productivity and multifactor productivity were also considered. The analysis shows how the weak growth in labor productivity is due to some peculiar structural aspects of the Italian production system. At the end of the paper some comments are offered on possible policy interventions.
Physical Conditions of Cull Sows Associated with On-Farm Production Records  [PDF]
Mark Knauer, Ken Stalder, Tom Baas, Colin Johnson, Locke Karriker
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2012.23023
Abstract: Cull sow physical conditions were associated with on-farm production records. Sows (923) within one integrated U.S. production system were evaluated at two harvest facilities. Physical conditions evaluated at harvest were analyzed by parity, culling code and production measures. Farm culling codes were categorized into poor body condition (BC), old age (G), lameness (L), other (O), poor litter performance (P) and reproductive failure (R). Production measures included lifetime pigs born alive (LPBA), pigs born alive in the last litter (PBALL), pigs per sow per year (PSY) and weaning to culling interval. The L culling code had a greater (P < 0.05) prevalence of cracked hooves when compared to the other five culling codes (30.9% vs. 18.7%). Sows without front cracked hooves tended (P = 0.07) to have greater PSY (0.80) when compared to sows having front cracked hooves. Females without rear digital overgrowth had more (P < 0.05) PBALL (0.54) and tended (P = 0.06) to have increased PSY (0.80) when compared to sows with rear digital overgrowth. Sows without shoulder lesions had greater (P < 0.05) LPBA (2.01) when compared to sows with shoulder lesions. Regression coefficient estimates for percent lung lesion involvement were positive and tended (P < 0.10) to be different from zero for LPBA (0.06) and PSY (0.03). Females with severe teeth wear tended (P ≤ 0.10) to have fewer LPBA (1.36), PBALL (0.45) and had fewer (P < 0.01) PSY (1.10) when compared to sows without severe teeth wear. Sows culled for BC and L had lower (P < 0.01) backfat when compared to sows from the other four culling codes (1.83 and 2.04 cm vs. 2.47 to 2.85 cm, respectively). Multiple cull sow physical conditions evaluated at harvest had associations with on-farm reproductive measures.
The Impacts of Ergonomic Aspects on the Quality  [PDF]
Reza Khani Jazani, Sajad Mousavi
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology (OJSST) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojsst.2014.41003
Abstract: In recent times, the relationship between quality and ergonomics discipline is a challenging topic. Although there are similarities and differences between these two areas, it is not so easy to describe the connection between these two issues. In this study by surveying several articles, different areas of ergonomics are divided into five categories including hardware ergonomics, environmental ergonomics, software ergonomics, work design ergonomics and macro ergonomics, then the impact on the quality of each of these areas will be discussed. Finally, the article concludes that, to reach an acceptable quality considering the ergonomic principles is an integral component of the organization policy.
Biomass and productivity in sal and miscellaneous forests of Satpura plateau (Madhya Pradesh) India  [PDF]
Pramod Kumar Pande, A. K. Patra
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2010.11005
Abstract: The paper deals with the biomass and productivity of sal (SF) and miscellaneous forests (MF) of Satpura plateau (Madhya Pradesh) India. These forest types were divided into four sites namely open miscellaneous (OMF, site-I), closed miscellaneous (CMF, site-II), open sal (OSF, site-III) and closed sal (CSF, site-IV). The degree of disturbance followed the order: III (0.70) < I (0.12) < II (0.054) < IV (0.018) while considering total trees as measure. OSF (III) and CSF (IV) were most and least disturbed sites among the four. The percent allocation of above ground tree biomass followed the order: 85.08 (II) < 85.51 (I) < 81.31 (III) < 78.09 (IV). The higher above ground tree biomass was produced by MF than of SF. Closed canopy forests produced higher above ground tree biomass than of the open forests. OMF produced 9.5% less biomass than of the CMF whereas, OSF has 39.91% less biomass than of the CSF. The contribution of above ground biomass of shrubs (%) are as follows: 8.3 (IV)< 32.72 (I) <33.77 (III) <52.63 (II). The percent contribution of root biomass was higher for closed sites as compared with open and sites. The root: shoot ratio was ranged between 0.169-0.249. NPPtree (kg ha-1yr-1) was highest for site –IV (38094.79), followed by III (33384.29), II (12374.89 and I (9736.52). NPPshrub followed the order: 204 (IV) > 109 (III) > 79.80 (I) > 52.69 (II), while for NPPherb, the order of importance was, 109.50 (IV) > 73.27 (I) > (II), 71.75 (III) > 55.71 (II). NPPtotal was highest for closed forest stands than of the open ones. NPPteak was lower for high-disturbed site than of the less disturbed site. Photosynthetic/ non - photosynthetic ratio follows the order: 0.067 (II) > 0.030 (III) > 0.026 (IV) > 0.018 (I). Open forests showed lower values for this ratio. NEP was higher for SF than of the MF. Further closed forests showed higher values of NEP. OSF showed lower values of NEPsal than of the CSF. Disturbances in open forests not only reduced stand biomass of tree species, dominant species in particular, but also declined the tree productivity. So, gap filling plantation in side the forest is suggested to improve the productivity of open forests.
Productivity Improvement Model without Increasing Operation’s Risk and Fatigue  [PDF]
Adel Al-Shayea, Abdulaziz El-Tamimi, Khalid Al-Saleh, Khalid Al-Yami
Engineering (ENG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2011.311140
Abstract: Productivity improvement of an operation without increasing operation risk and operation fatigue that increase the needed relaxation allowance is an important subject in process design. This research subject stimulates researchers to focus on improving the productivity of the whole production process by changing the technique of performing significant operations in the process. However, two important issues that affect the implementation of any new technique were not considered in the pervious research works. These are the risk magnitude of the new technique on the workplace environment and the fatigue level that affect human's health. In this paper, a model was developed that maximize the productivity of the production process by selecting the best technique to perform significant process operations among proper candidate techniques that improve these operations productivity while minimizing these operations risk and fatigue.
Malaysia’s Food Manufacturing Industries Productivity Determinants  [PDF]
Elsadig Musa Ahmed
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.34057
Abstract: This study attempts to fill the gap in existing research on the drivers of total factor productivity growth (TFPG) in Malaysian food industries by employing a parametric statistical method and applying it to the country’s food-manufactur- ing sector. Based on the model, the factors affecting output growth in Malaysian food industries are individual contributions of capital, labour, and materials, as well as the combined contributions of the quality of these inputs expressed as TFPG. Our results for the food-manufacturing sector depict characteristically low productivity levels. The contribution of TFP growth for 13 out of 27 food industries was negative during the full period of analysis (1971-2000) and the sub-period 1987-2000. Eleven industries were found to have contributed negatively to TFPG over 1971-1979 and 1980- 1986. What explains our findings is the low quality of inputs into these food industries, which are input-driven rather than TFPG-driven.
Building Productivity Models for Small Enhancements  [PDF]
Jean-Marc Desharnais, Gül?ah Y?ld?zo?lu, Alain April, Alain Abran
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2013.63016

Software is in constant evolution and many approaches have been suggested to study software maintenance productivity. This research reports on a process to design and implement a productivity model of legacy software based on the measurement of small functional enhancements using the COSMIC ISO 19761 international standard. Two motivations influence this research: 1) understanding the productivity of the software maintenance process to help manage the cost of maintenance; 2) understanding the cost drivers that affect the software maintenance productivity. This research reports on an empirical study of a productivity measurement program implemented in a large banking legacy system.

Peculiarities of CO2 exchange in soybean genotypes contrasting in grain yield  [PDF]
Jalal A. Aliyev
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2012.23039
Abstract: The peculiarities of leaf carbon dioxide gas exchange in soybean genotypes grown in field over a large area and contrasting in duration of vegetation, photosynthetic traits and productivity were studied. Varietal differences in the daily and ontogenetic changes in photosynthesis and photorespiration were identified. It was established that the period of the high activity of photosynthetic apparatus in high productive soybean genotypes lasts for a longer time. The photosynthetic rate and the rate of CO2 release in light due to photorespiration are higher in high productive genotypes. A value of photorespiration in contrasting soybean genotypes constitutes about 28% - 35% of photosynthetic rate. The ratio of gross photosynthesis to photorespiration in genotypes with different productivity is constant enough during ontogenesis, indicating a direct positive correlation between gross photosynthesis and photorespiration. Therefore, contrary to conception arisen during many years on the waste-fulness of photorespiration, taking into account the versatile investigations on different aspects of photo-respiration, it was proved that photorespiration is one of the evolutionarily developed vital metabolic processes in plants and the attempts to reduce this process with the purpose of increasing the crop productivity are inconsistent.
Convergence-Divergence of Technological Efficiency and Productivity across World Regions Paper Title  [PDF]
Edward Nissan, Farhang Niroomand
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.35089
Abstract: This article examines inequalities between and within 57 countries, categorized by income levels, for efficiency in pro-duction and output per worker for 1965 and 1990. Regression analysis was also employed as a basis of convergence from which countries were evaluated for their potential to actual performance in efficiency and output over a span of 25 years. The findings indicate that gaps between the groups of countries widened as compared to gaps within the groups. Convergence was found to increase between the groups of countries as their income levels rose.
Design and Performance Analysis of an Innovative Single Basin Solar NanoStill  [PDF]
Moses Koilraj Gnanadason, Palanisamy Senthil Kumar, Vincent H. Wilson, Gajendiran Hariharan, Navaneethakrishnan Shenbaga Vinayagamoorthi
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2013.41012

The provision of fresh water is becoming an increasingly important issue in many areas of the world. Clean water is a basic human necessity, and without water life will be impossible. The rapid international developments, the industrial growth, agriculture and population explosion all over the world have resulted in a large escalation of demand for fresh water. The solar still is the most economical way to accomplish this objective. The sun’s energy heats water to the point of evaporation. When water evaporates, water vapour rises leaving the impurities like salts, heavy metals and condensate on the underside of the glass cover. Solar distillation has low yield, but safe and pure supplies of water in remote areas. The attempts are made to increase the productivity of solar still by using nanofluids and also by black paint coat- ing inside the still basin. Heat transfer enhancement in solar still is one of the key issues of energy saving and compact designs. The essential initiative is to seek the solid particles having thermal conductivity of several hundred times higher than those of conventional fluids. Recently, as an innovative material, nanosized particles have been used in sus- pension in conventional solar still water. The fluids with nanosized solid particles suspended in them are called “nanofluids”. The suspended metallic or nonmetallic nanoparticles change the transport properties, heat transfer characteristics and evaporative properties of the base fluid, The aim of this paper is to analyze and compare the enhanced performance of a single basin solar still using nanofluids with the conventional water. They greatly improve the rate of evaporation and hence the increase in efficiency.

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